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1.
Lancet ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines could reduce burden on health-care systems. We aimed to assess the safety of concomitant administration of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 plus an age-appropriate influenza vaccine. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 4 trial, adults in receipt of a single dose of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 were enrolled at 12 UK sites and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive concomitant administration of either an age-appropriate influenza vaccine or placebo alongside their second dose of COVID-19 vaccine. 3 weeks later the group who received placebo received the influenza vaccine, and vice versa. Participants were followed up for 6 weeks. The influenza vaccines were three seasonal, inactivated vaccines (trivalent, MF59C adjuvanted or a cellular or recombinant quadrivalent vaccine). Participants and investigators were masked to the allocation. The primary endpoint was one or more participant-reported solicited systemic reactions in the 7 days after first trial vaccination(s), with a difference of less than 25% considered non-inferior. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Local and unsolicited systemic reactions and humoral responses were also assessed. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN14391248. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and June 26, 2021, 679 participants were recruited to one of six cohorts, as follows: 129 ChAdOx1 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine, 139 BNT162b2 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine, 146 ChAdOx1 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine, 79 BNT162b2 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine, 128 ChAdOx1 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine, and 58 BNT162b2 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine. 340 participants were assigned to concomitant administration of influenza and a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine at day 0 followed by placebo at day 21, and 339 participants were randomly assigned to concomitant administration of placebo and a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine at day 0 followed by influenza vaccine at day 21. Non-inferiority was indicated in four cohorts, as follows: ChAdOx1 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine (risk difference for influenza vaccine minus placebos -1·29%, 95% CI -14·7 to 12·1), BNT162b2 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine (6·17%, -6·27 to 18·6), BNT162b2 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine (-12·9%, -34·2 to 8·37), and ChAdOx1 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine (2·53%, -13·3 to 18·3). In the other two cohorts, the upper limit of the 95% CI exceeded the 0·25 non-inferiority margin (ChAdOx1 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine 10·3%, -5·44 to 26·0; BNT162b2 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine 6·75%, -11·8 to 25·3). Most systemic reactions to vaccination were mild or moderate. Rates of local and unsolicited systemic reactions were similar between the randomly assigned groups. One serious adverse event, hospitalisation with severe headache, was considered related to the trial intervention. Immune responses were not adversely affected. INTERPRETATION: Concomitant vaccination with ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 plus an age-appropriate influenza vaccine raises no safety concerns and preserves antibody responses to both vaccines. Concomitant vaccination with both COVID-19 and influenza vaccines over the next immunisation season should reduce the burden on health-care services for vaccine delivery, allowing for timely vaccine administration and protection from COVID-19 and influenza for those in need. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Policy Research Programme.

2.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 197, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the challenges of estimating the effect of an exposure that is bounded by duration of follow-up on all-cause 28-day mortality, whilst simultaneously addressing missing data and time-varying covariates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: BSI-FOO is a multicentre cohort study with the primary aim of quantifying the effect of modifiable risk factors, including time to initiation of therapy, on all-cause 28-day mortality in patients with bloodstream infection. The primary analysis involved two Cox proportional hazard models, first one for non-modifiable risk factors and second one for modifiable risk factors, with a risk score calculated from the first model included as a covariate in the second model. Modifiable risk factors considered in this study were recorded daily for a maximum of 28 days after infection. Follow-up was split at daily intervals from day 0 to 28 with values of daily collected data updated at each interval (i.e., one row per patient per day). ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES: Estimating the effect of time to initiation of treatment on survival is analytically challenging since only those who survive to time t can wait until time t to start treatment, introducing immortal time bias. Time-varying covariates representing cumulative counts were used for variables bounded by survival time e.g. the cumulative count of days before first receipt of treatment. Multiple imputation using chained equations was used to impute missing data, using conditional imputation to avoid imputing non-applicable data e.g. ward data after discharge. CONCLUSION: Using time-varying covariates represented by cumulative counts within a one row per day per patient framework can reduce the risk of bias in effect estimates. The approach followed uses established methodology and is easily implemented in standard statistical packages.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(3): 365-375, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the innate immune response represents a therapeutic target for organ protection strategies in cardiac surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of trials of interventions targeting the inflammatory response to cardiac surgery reporting treatment effects on both innate immune system cytokines and organ injury was performed. The protocol was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews: CRD42020187239. Searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase were performed. Random-effects meta-analyses were used for the primary analysis. A separate analysis of individual patient data from six studies (n=785) explored sources of heterogeneity for treatment effects on cytokine levels. RESULTS: Searches to May 2020 identified 251 trials evaluating 24 interventions with 20 582 participants for inclusion. Most trials had important limitations. Methodological limitations of the included trials and heterogeneity of the treatment effects on cytokine levels between trials limited interpretation. The primary analysis demonstrated inconsistency in the direction of the treatment effects on innate immunity and organ failure or death between interventions. Analyses restricted to important subgroups or trials with fewer limitations showed similar results. Meta-regression, pooling available data from all trials, demonstrated no association between the direction of the treatment effects on inflammatory cytokines and organ injury or death. The analysis of individual patient data demonstrated heterogeneity in the association between the cytokine response and organ injury after cardiac surgery for people >75 yr old and those with some chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The certainty of the evidence for a causal relationship between innate immune system activation and organ injury after cardiac surgery is low.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Imunidade Inata , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Resuscitation ; 167: 1-9, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126133

RESUMO

AIM: Optimal airway management during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is uncertain. Complications from tracheal intubation (TI) may be avoided with supraglottic airway (SGA) devices. The AIRWAYS-2 cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN08256118) compared the i-gel SGA with TI as the initial advanced airway management (AAM) strategy by paramedics treating adults with non-traumatic OHCA. This paper reports the trial cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis of the i-gel compared with TI was conducted, with a six-month time horizon, from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services. The primary outcome measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), estimated using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression modelling was used to account for clustering by paramedic when combining costs and outcomes. RESULTS: 9296 eligible patients were attended by 1382 trial paramedics and enrolled in the AIRWAYS-2 trial (4410 TI, 4886 i-gel). Mean QALYs to six months were 0.03 in both groups (i-gel minus TI difference -0.0015, 95% CI -0.0059 to 0.0028). Total costs per participant up to six months post-OHCA were £3570 and £3413 in the i-gel and TI groups respectively (mean difference £157, 95% CI -£270 to £583). Based on mean difference point estimates, TI was more effective and less costly than i-gel; however differences were small and there was great uncertainty around these results. CONCLUSION: The small differences between groups in QALYs and costs shows no difference in the cost-effectiveness of the i-gel and TI when used as the initial AAM strategy in adults with non-traumatic OHCA.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Medicina Estatal
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(5): e22533, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barth syndrome is a rare, life-threatening, X-linked recessive genetic disease that predominantly affects young males and is caused by abnormal mitochondrial lipid metabolism. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for Barth syndrome other than interventions to ameliorate acute symptoms, such as heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, neutropenia, and severe muscle fatigue. Previous mechanistic studies have identified the lipid-lowering drug bezafibrate as a promising potential treatment; however, to date, no human trials have been performed in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine whether bezafibrate (and resveratrol in vitro) will increase mitochondrial biogenesis and potentially modify the cellular ratio of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) to tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin (L4-CL), ameliorating the disease phenotype in those living with the disease. METHODS: The CARDIOMAN (Cardiolipin Manipulation) study is a UK single-center, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study investigating the efficacy of bezafibrate in participants with Barth syndrome. Treatment was administered in two 15-week phases with a minimum washout period of 1 month between the phases where no treatment was administered. The primary outcome is peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak). Secondary outcomes include MLCL/L4-CL ratio and CL profile in blood cells, amino acid expression, phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate ratio in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle oxidative function on phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quality of life using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory questionnaire, absolute neutrophil count, cardiac function and rhythm profiles at rest and during exercise, and mitochondrial organization and function assessments. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and during the final week of each treatment phase. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients were scheduled to participate across three consecutive research clinics between March and April 2019. In total, 11 participants were recruited, and the follow-up was completed in January 2020. Data analysis is ongoing, with publication expected in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This trial was approved by the United Kingdom National Research Ethics Service Committee and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. The feasibility of the CARDIOMAN study will help to inform the future conduct of randomized controlled trials in rare disease populations as well as testing the efficacy of bezafibrate as a potential treatment for the disease and advancing the mechanistic understanding of Barth syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 58006579; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN58006579. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/22533.

6.
J Card Surg ; 36(6): 1985-1995, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The success of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) is dependent on long-term graft patency, which is negatively related to early wall thickening. Avoiding high-pressure distension testing for leaks and preserving the surrounding pedicle of fat and adventitia during vein harvesting may reduce wall thickening. METHODS: A single-centre, factorial randomized controlled trial was carried out to compare the impact of testing for leaks under high versus low pressure and harvesting the vein with versus without the pedicle in patients undergoing CABG. The primary outcomes were graft wall thickness, as indicator of medial-intimal hyperplasia, and lumen diameter assessed using intravascular ultrasound after 12 months. RESULTS: Ninety-six eligible participants were recruited. With conventional harvest, low-pressure testing tended to yield a thinner vessel wall compared with high-pressure (mean difference [MD; low minus high] -0.059 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.12, +0.0039, p = .066). With high pressure testing, veins harvested with the pedicle fat tended to have a thinner vessel wall than those harvested conventionally (MD [pedicle minus conventional] -0.057 mm, 95% CI: -0.12, +0.0037, p = .066, test for interaction p = .07). Lumen diameter was similar across groups (harvest comparison p = .81; pressure comparison p = .24). Low-pressure testing was associated with fewer hospital admissions in the 12 months following surgery (p = .0008). Harvesting the vein with the pedicle fat was associated with more complications during the index admission (p = .0041). CONCLUSIONS: Conventional saphenous vein graft preparation with low-pressure distension and harvesting the vein with a surrounding pedicle yielded similar graft wall thickness after 12 months, but low pressure was associated with fewer adverse events.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Veia Safena , Humanos , Veia Safena/diagnóstico por imagem , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos , Ultrassonografia , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
7.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(7): 1900-1908, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686656

RESUMO

AIM: Abdominal surgery sometimes necessitates the creation of a stoma, which can cause future complications including parastomal hernia (PSH), an incisional hernia adjacent to and related to the stoma. PSH affects approximately 40% of patients within 2 years of stoma formation. Complications of PSH reduce a patient's quality of life and can be severe (e.g. bowel obstruction). PSHs are difficult to manage and can recur after surgical repair. Therefore, it is very important to prevent a PSH. Surgeons create stomas in different ways and both patient and surgical factors are believed to influence the development of PSH. The aim of the CIPHER study is to investigate the influence of different surgical techniques on the development of PSH. METHOD: The UK cohort study to investigate the prevention of parastomal hernia (the CIPHER study) aims to recruit 4000 patients undergoing elective or expedited surgery with the intention of forming an ileostomy or colostomy, irrespective of the primary indication for the planned surgery. For each patient, surgeons will describe their methods of trephine formation, mesh reinforcement of the stoma trephine, use of the stoma as a specimen extraction site and wound closure. The primary outcome will be incident PSH during follow-up, defined as symptoms of PSH (custom-designed questionnaire) and anatomical PSH, ascertained by independent reading of usual care CT scans. Secondary outcomes will include surgical site infection, the Comprehensive Complication Index, quality of life (EQ-5D-5L and SF-12), PSH repair and use of NHS resources. RESULTS: Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. All publications relating to the results of CIPHER will use a corporate authorship, 'The CIPHER Study Investigators' with named writing committee members. CONCLUSION: The CIPHER study will be the first to investigate detailed surgical methods of stoma formation in a large, representative cohort of patients with a range of primary indications, both cancer and noncancer.


Assuntos
Hérnia Ventral , Hérnia Incisional , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Estudos de Coortes , Colostomia , Hérnia Ventral/etiologia , Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Humanos , Hérnia Incisional/etiologia , Hérnia Incisional/prevenção & controle , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Qualidade de Vida , Telas Cirúrgicas , Estomas Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444767

RESUMO

Bleeding caused by coagulopathy is common in children undergoing cardiac surgery and causes adverse outcomes. Coagulation testing assists selection of treatments to stop bleeding but has an uncertain role for predicting bleeding. We aimed to evaluate how well prospective coagulation testing predicted excessive bleeding during and after cardiac surgery compared to prediction using clinical characteristics alone. The study was a single-center, prospective cohort study in children having a range of cardiac surgery procedures with coagulation testing at anesthetic induction and immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary outcome was clinical concern about bleeding (CCB), a composite of either administration of prohemostatic treatments in response to bleeding or a high chest drain volume after surgery. In 225 children, CCB occurred in 26 (12%) during surgery and in 68 (30%) after surgery. Multivariable fractional polynomial models using the clinical characteristics of the children alone predicted CCB during surgery (c-statistic 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.53, 0.76) and after surgery (0.74; 0.67, 0.82). Incorporating coagulation test results into these models improved prediction (c-statistics 0.79; 0.70, 0.87, and 0.80; 0.74, 0.87, respectively). However, this increased the overall proportion of children classified correctly as CCB or not CCB during surgery by only 0.9% and after surgery by only 0.4%. Incorporating coagulation test results into predictive models had no effect on prediction of blood transfusion or postoperative complications. Prospective coagulation testing marginally improves prediction of CCB during and after cardiac surgery but the clinical impact of this is small when compared to prediction using clinical characteristics.

9.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 59(2): 349-358, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Controlled reoxygenation on starting cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) rather than hyperoxic CPB may confer clinical advantages during surgery for congenital cyanotic heart disease. METHODS: A single-centre, randomized controlled trial was carried out to compare the effectiveness of controlled reoxygenation (normoxia) versus hyperoxic CPB in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing open-heart surgery (Oxic-2). The co-primary clinical outcomes were duration of inotropic support, intubation time and postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Analysis of the primary outcomes included data from a previous trial (Oxic-1) conducted to the same protocol. RESULTS: Ninety participants were recruited to Oxic-2 and 79 were recruited to the previous Oxic-1 trial. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the co-primary outcomes: inotrope duration geometric mean ratio (normoxia/hyperoxic) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.69-1.37), P-value = 0.87; intubation time hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, 95% CI (0.74-1.42), P-value = 0.87; postoperative ICU stay HR 1.14 95% CI (0.77-1.67), P-value = 0.52, hospital stay HR 0.90, 95% CI (0.65-1.25), P-value = 0.53. Lower oxygen levels were successfully achieved during the operative period in the normoxic group. Serum creatinine levels were lower in the normoxic group at day 2, but not on days 1, 3-5. Childhood developmental outcomes were similar. In the year following surgery, 85 serious adverse events were reported (51 normoxic group and 34 hyperoxic group). CONCLUSIONS: Controlled reoxygenation (normoxic) CPB is safe but with no evidence of a clinical advantage over hyperoxic CPB. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Current Controlled Trials-ISRCTN81773762.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Criança , Cianose , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Oxigênio
10.
Eye (Lond) ; 35(2): 592-600, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367004

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to quantify the diagnostic test-accuracy of three visual function self-monitoring tests for detection of active disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) when compared with usual care. An integrated qualitative study will investigate the acceptability of these home-based testing strategies. METHODS: All consenting participants are provided with an equipment pack containing an iPod touch with two vision test applications installed and a paper journal of reading tests. Participants self-monitor their vision at home each week with all three tests for 12-18 months. Usual care continues over this period. Key eligibility criteria are: age ≥50 years; at least one eye with AMD with ≥6-≤42 months since first AMD treatment; and vision not worse than Snellen 6/60, LogMAR 1.04 or 33 letters. The primary outcome, and reference standard, is diagnosis of active disease during usual care monitoring in the Hospital Eye Service. Secondary outcomes include duration of study participation, ability of participants to do the tests, adherence to weekly testing and acceptability of the tests to participants. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment is in progress at five NHS centres. Challenges in procuring equipment, setting up the devices and transporting devices containing lithium batteries to participating sites delayed the start of recruitment. The study will describe the performance of the tests self-administered at home in detecting active disease compared to usual care monitoring. It will also describe the feasibility of the NHS implementing patient-administered electronic tests or similar applications at home for monitoring health.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acuidade Visual , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico
11.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268345

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A randomised trial to test the hypothesis that human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II matching reduces the risk of allograft rejection in high-risk penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS: All transplants were matched for HLA class I antigens (≤2 mismatches at the A and B loci) and corneas were allocated to patients by cohort minimisation to achieve 0, 1 or 2 HLA class II antigen mismatches. The corneal transplants (n=1133) were followed for 5 years. The primary outcome measure was time to first rejection episode. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis found no influence of HLA class II mismatching on risk of immunological rejection (HR 1.13; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.63; p=0.51). The risk of rejection in recipients older than 60 years was halved compared with recipients ≤40 years (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.73; p=0.0003). Rejection was also more likely where cataract surgery had been performed after PK (HR 3.68; 95% CI 1.95 to 6.93; p<0.0001). In univariate analyses, preoperative factors including chronic glaucoma (p=0.02), vascularisation (p=0.01), inflammation (p=0.03), ocular surface disease (p=0.0007) and regrafts (p<0.001) all increased the risk of rejection. In the Cox model, however, none of these factors was individually significant but rejection was more likely where≥2 preoperative risk factors were present (HR 2.11; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.47; p<0.003). CONCLUSIONS: HLA class II matching, against a background of HLA class I matching, did not reduce the risk of allograft rejection. Younger recipient age, the presence of ≥2 preoperative risk factors and cataract surgery after PK all markedly increased the risk of allograft rejection. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN25094892.

12.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 300, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typically, subgroup analyses in clinical trials are conducted by comparing the intervention effect in each subgroup by means of an interaction test. However, trials are rarely, if ever, adequately powered for interaction tests, so clinically important interactions may go undetected. We discuss the application of Bayesian methods by using expert opinions alongside the trial data. We applied this methodology to the VeRDiCT trial investigating the effect of preoperative volume replacement therapy (VRT) versus no VRT (usual care) in diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Two subgroup effects were of clinical interest, a) preoperative renal failure and b) preoperative type of antidiabetic medication. METHODS: Clinical experts were identified within the VeRDiCT trial centre in the UK. A questionnaire was designed to elicit opinions on the impact of VRT on the primary outcome of time from surgery until medically fit for hospital discharge, in the different subgroups. Prior beliefs of the subgroup effect of VRT were elicited face-to-face using two unconditional and one conditional questions per subgroup analysis. The robustness of results to the 'community of priors' was assessed. The community of priors was built using the expert priors for the mean average treatment effect, the interaction effect or both in a Bayesian Cox proportional hazards model implemented in the STAN software in R. RESULTS: Expert opinions were obtained from 7 clinicians (6 cardiac surgeons and 1 cardiac anaesthetist). Participating experts believed VRT could reduce the length of recovery compared to usual care and the greatest benefit was expected in the subgroups with the more severe comorbidity. The Bayesian posterior estimates were more precise compared to the frequentist maximum likelihood estimate and were shifted toward the overall mean treatment effect. CONCLUSIONS: In the VeRDiCT trial, the Bayesian analysis did not provide evidence of a difference in treatment effect across subgroups. However, this approach increased the precision of the estimated subgroup effects and produced more stable treatment effect point estimates than the frequentist approach. Trial methodologists are encouraged to prospectively consider Bayesian subgroup analyses when low-powered interaction tests are planned. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN02159606 . Registered 29th October 2008.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Teorema de Bayes , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e016495, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305660

RESUMO

Background To assess differences in platelet inhibition during ticagrelor monotherapy (TIC) or dual therapy with ticagrelor and aspirin (TIC+ASP) in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention using a comprehensive panel of functional tests. Methods and Results In a single-center parallel group, open label, randomized controlled trial, 110 participants were randomized to receive either TIC (n=55) or TIC+ASP (n=55) for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the platelet aggregation response with 10 µmol/L thrombin receptor activation peptide-6 (TRAP-6). The secondary outcomes were platelet aggregation responses and binding of surface activation markers with a panel of other activators. The mean percentage aggregation for 10 µmol/L TRAP-6 was similar for the TIC and TIC+ASP groups (mean difference+4.29; 95% CI, -0.87 to +9.46). Aggregation was higher in the TIC group compared with the TIC+ASP group with 1 µg/mL (+6.47; +2.04 to +10.90) and 0.5 µg/mL (+14.00; +7.63 to +20.39) collagen related peptide. Aggregation responses with 5 µmol/L TRAP-6, 5 µmol/L or 2.5 µmol/L thromboxane A2 receptor agonist and surface activation marker binding with 5 µmol/L TRAP-6 or 0.5 µg/mL collagen related peptide were the same between the treatment groups. Conclusions Patients with PCI show similar levels of inhibition of most platelet activation pathways with TIC compared with dual therapy with TIC + ASP. However, the greater aggregation response with collagen related peptide during TIC indicates incomplete inhibition of glycoprotein VI (collagen) receptor-mediated platelet activation. This difference in pharmacodynamic response to anti-platelet medication may contribute to the lower bleeding rates observed with TIC compared with dual antiplatelet therapy in recent clinical trials. Registration Information URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique Identifier ISRCTN84335288.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/farmacologia , Ticagrelor/farmacologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Tromboxano A2 e Prostaglandina H2/agonistas , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
14.
Resuscitation ; 157: 74-82, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010371

RESUMO

AIM: The AIRWAYS-2 cluster randomised controlled trial compared the i-gel supraglottic airway device (SGA) with tracheal intubation (TI) as the first advanced airway management (AAM) strategy used by Emergency Medical Service clinicians (paramedics) treating adult patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). It showed no difference between the two groups in the primary outcome of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 30 days/hospital discharge. This paper reports outcomes to 6 months. METHODS: Paramedics from four ambulance services in England were randomised 1:1 to use an i-gel SGA (759 paramedics) or TI (764 paramedics) as their initial approach to AAM. Adults who had a non-traumatic OHCA and were attended by a participating paramedic were enrolled automatically under a waiver of consent. Survivors were invited to complete questionnaires at three and six months after OHCA. Outcomes were analysed using regression methods. RESULTS: 767/9296 (8.3%) enrolled patients survived to 30 days/hospital discharge and 317/767 survivors (41.3%) consented and were followed-up to six months. No significant differences were found between the two treatment groups in the primary outcome measure (mRS score: 3 months: odds ratio (OR) for good recovery (i-gel/TI, OR) 0.89, 95% CI 0.69-1.14; 6 months OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.71-1.16). EQ-5D-5L scores were also similar between groups and sensitivity analyses did not alter the findings. CONCLUSION: There were no statistically significant differences between the TI and i-gel groups at three and six months. We therefore conclude that the initially reported finding of no significant difference between groups at 30 days/hospital discharge was sustained when the period of follow-up was extended to six months.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Adulto , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Inglaterra , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 545, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection is common in the UK and has significant mortality depending on the pathogen involved, site of infection and other patient factors. Healthcare staffing and ward activity may also impact on outcomes in a range of conditions, however there is little specific National Health Service (NHS) data on the impact for patients with bloodstream infection. Bloodstream Infections - Focus on Outcomes is a multicentre cohort study with the primary aim of identifying modifiable risk factors for 28-day mortality in patients with bloodstream infection due to one of six key pathogens. METHODS: Adults under the care of five NHS Trusts in England and Wales between November 2010 and May 2012 were included. Multivariable Cox regression was used to quantify the association between modifiable risk factors, including staffing levels and timing of appropriate therapy, and 28-day mortality, after adjusting for non-modifiable risk factors such as patient demographics and long-term comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 1676 patients were included in the analysis population. Overall, 348/1676 (20.8%) died within 28 days. Modifiable factors associated with 28-day mortality were ward speciality, ward activity (admissions and discharges), movement within ward speciality, movement from critical care, and time to receipt of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in the first 7 days. For each additional admission or discharge per 10 beds, the hazard increased by 4% (95% CI 1 to 6%) in medical wards and 11% (95% CI 4 to 19%) in critical care. Patients who had moved wards within speciality or who had moved out of a critical care ward had a reduction in hazard of mortality. In the first 7 days, hazard of death increased with increasing time to receipt of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. CONCLUSION: This study underlines the importance of appropriate antimicrobials within the first 7 days, and the potential for ward activity and ward movements to impact on survival in bloodstream infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , País de Gales/epidemiologia
17.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 59(5): 729-738, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the most commonly used method to repair abdominal aortic aneurysms. EVAR can be performed using a variety of anaesthetic techniques, including general anaesthetic (GA), regional anaesthetic (RA), and local anaesthetic (LA), but little is known about the effects that each of these anaesthetic modes have on patient outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of anaesthetic technique on early outcomes after elective EVAR. METHODS: Data from the UK's National Vascular Registry were analysed. All patients undergoing elective standard infrarenal EVAR between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 were included. Patients with a symptomatic aneurysm treated semi-electively were excluded. The primary outcome was in hospital death within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included post-operative complications and length of hospital stay. Time to event outcomes were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for confounders, including British Aneurysm Repair score (a validated aneurysm risk prediction score that is calculated using age, sex, creatinine, cardiac disease, electrocardiogram, previous aortic surgery, white blood cell count, serum sodium, abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter, and American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade) and chronic lung disease. RESULTS: A total of 9783 patients received an elective, standard infrarenal EVAR (GA, n = 7069; RA, n = 2347; and LA, n = 367) across 89 hospitals. RA and/or LA was used in 82 hospitals. There were 64 in hospital deaths within 30 days, 50 (0.9% mortality at 30 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-1.2) in the GA group, 11 (0.6%, 95% CI 0.3-1.1) in the RA group, and three (1.5%, 95% CI 0.5-4.7) in the LA group. The mortality rate differed between groups (p = .03) and was significantly lower in the RA group compared with the GA group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] RA/GA 0.37 [95% CI 0.17-0.81]; LA/GA 0.63 [95% CI 0.15-2.69]). The median length of stay was two days for all modes of anaesthesia, but patients were discharged from hospital more quickly in the RA and LA groups than the GA group (aHR RA/GA 1.10 [95% CI 1.03-1.17]; LA/GA 1.15 [95% CI 1.02-1.29]). Overall, 20.7% of patients experienced one or more complications (GA group, 22.1%; RA group, 16.8%; LA group, 17.7%) and pulmonary complications occurred with similar frequency in the three groups (overall 2.4%, adjusted odds ratio RA/GA 0.93 [95% CI 0.66-1.32]; LA/GA 0.82 [95% CI 0.41-1.63]). CONCLUSION: Thirty day mortality was lower with RA than with GA, but mode of anaesthesia was not associated with increased complications for patients undergoing elective standard infrarenal EVAR.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Anestesia Geral , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Local , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 294-303, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR), fluid accumulates in the subretinal space. CSCR is a common visually disabling condition that develops in individuals up to 60 years of age, and there is no definitive treatment. Previous research suggests the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone, is effective for treating CSCR; however, this drug is not licensed for the treatment of patients with CSCR. We aimed to evaluate whether eplerenone was superior to placebo in terms of improving visual acuity in patients with chronic CSCR. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre placebo-controlled trial was done at 22 hospitals in the UK. Participants were eligible if they were aged 18-60 years and had had treatment-naive CSCR for 4 months or more. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the eplerenone or the placebo group by a trial statistician through a password-protected system online. Allocation was stratified by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and hospital. Patients were given either oral eplerenone (25 mg/day for 1 week, increasing to 50 mg/day for up to 12 months) plus usual care or placebo plus usual care for up to 12 months. All participants, care teams, outcome assessors, pharmacists, and members of the trial management group were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was BCVA, measured as letters read, at 12 months. All outcomes apart from safety were analysed on a modified intention-to-treat basis (participants who withdrew consent without contributing a post-randomisation BCVA measurement were excluded from the primary analysis population and from most secondary analysis populations). The trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN92746680, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2017, and Feb 22, 2018, we enrolled and randomly assigned 114 patients to receive either eplerenone (n=57) or placebo (n=57). Three participants in the placebo group withdrew consent without contributing a post-randomisation BCVA measurement and were excluded from the primary outcome analysis population. All patients from the eplerenone group and 54 patients from the placebo group were included in the primary outcome. Modelled mean BCVA at 12 months was 79·5 letters (SD 4·5) in the placebo group and 80·4 letters (4·6) in the eplerenone group, with an adjusted estimated mean difference of 1·73 letters (95% CI -1·12 to 4·57; p=0·24) at 12 months. Hyperkalaemia occurred in eight (14%) patients in each group. No serious adverse events were reported in the eplerenone group and three unrelated serious adverse events were reported in the placebo group (myocardial infarction [anticipated], diverticulitis [unanticipated], and metabolic surgery [unanticipated]). INTERPRETATION: Eplerenone was not superior to placebo for improving BCVA in people with chronic CSCR after 12 months of treatment. Ophthalmologists who currently prescribe eplerenone for CSCR should discontinue this practice. FUNDING: Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme, and National Institute for Health Research and Social Care.


Assuntos
Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/tratamento farmacológico , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Eplerenona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 30(1): 54-63, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of preoperative volume replacement therapy (VRT) on renal function, health outcome and time to fitness for discharge in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: In 2 parallel randomized controlled trials, diabetic patients were allocated to preoperative VRT (1 ml/kg/h of Hartmann's solution for 12 h) or usual care. Primary outcome was time to fitness for discharge. Secondary outcomes included acute kidney injury, postoperative complications, patient-reported quality of life (QoL), hospital resource use and markers of renal, cardiac and inflammatory injury. RESULTS: In total, 169 patients were randomized (84 VRT, 85 usual care; mean age 64 years; 88% male). Time to fitness for discharge was similar between groups [median 6 days; interquartile range 5.0-9.0 in both groups; hazard ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.38; P = 0.78]. Postoperative acute kidney injury was not statistically different (VRT: 27.7% vs usual care: 18.8%, odds ratio 1.72, 95% CI 0.82-3.59; P = 0.15). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (mean difference -0.92, 95% CI -4.18 to 2.25; P = 0.56), microalbumin/creatinine ratio [geometric mean ratio (GMR) 1.16, 95% CI 0.94-1.42; P = 0.16], N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (GMR 1.08, 95% CI 0.83-1.40; P = 0.57), C-reactive protein (GMR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88-1.13; P = 0.94), troponin T (Trop-T; GMR 1.18, 95% CI 0.78-1.79; P = 0.39) and other secondary health outcomes were similar between groups. QoL improved in both groups at 3 months with no difference observed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of preoperative VRT is not superior to usual care in diabetic patients undergoing CABG. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN02159606.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Hidratação/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738827

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with critical illness are thought to be at risk of adrenal insufficiency. There are no models of dynamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in this group of patients and thus current methods of diagnosis are based on aggregated, static models. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the secretory dynamics of the HPA axis in the critically ill (CI) after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Mathematical modeling of cohorts. SETTING: Cardiac critical care unit. PATIENTS: 20 male patients CI at least 48 hours after cardiac surgery and 19 healthy (H) male volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures of hormone secretory dynamics were generated from serum adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) sampled every hour and total cortisol every 10 min for 24 h. RESULTS: All CI patients had pulsatile ACTH and cortisol profiles. CI patients had similar ACTH secretion (1036.4 [737.6] pg/mL/24 h) compared to the H volunteers (1502.3 [1152.2] pg/mL/24 h; P = .20), but increased cortisol secretion (CI: 14 447.0 [5709.3] vs H: 5915.5 [1686.7)] nmol/L/24 h; P < .0001). This increase in cortisol was due to nonpulsatile (CI: 9253.4 [3348.8] vs H: 960 [589.0] nmol/L/24 h, P < .0001), rather than pulsatile cortisol secretion (CI: 5193.1 [3018.5] vs H: 4955.1 [1753.6] nmol/L/24 h; P = .43). Seven (35%) of the 20 CI patients had cortisol pulse nadirs below the current international guideline threshold for critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, but an overall secretion that would not be considered deficient. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the premise that current tests of HPA axis function are unhelpful in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in the CI. The reduced ACTH and increase in nonpulsatile cortisol secretion imply that the secretion of cortisol is driven by factors outside the HPA axis in critical illness.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Modelos Teóricos , Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/reabilitação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipófise/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Adulto Jovem
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