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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a devastating morbidity associated with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. We report a comprehensive analysis of stroke subtypes in the ENDURANCE destination therapy (DT) and ENDURANCE Supplemental (DT2) trials. METHODS: Patients in the combined HeartWare LVAD (HVAD) cohorts of the DT and DT2 trials were included. Neurologic events included ischemic stroke (ischemic cerebrovascular accident [ICVA]), hemorrhagic stroke (hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident [HCVA]), and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Peri-operative strokes were defined as occurring within 2 weeks of the implant. RESULTS: A total of 604 patients received an HVAD in the DT (n = 296) and DT2 (n = 308) trials. Over 2 years, 178 (29.5%) had at least 1 cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Forty-four (7.3%) had HCVAs, 116 (19.2%) had ICVAs, and 44 (7.3%) had TIAs. Thirty (5.0%) had peri-operative stroke. In multivariable analysis, sub-therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) values were independently associated with peri-operative stroke. Supra- and/or sub-therapeutic INR values, peripheral vascular disease, and presence of left ventricular thrombus were independently associated with ICVA. No aspirin and supra- and/or sub-therapeutic INR values were independently associated with TIA. No aspirin, supra- and/or sub-therapeutic INR values, and prior stroke and/or TIA were associated with HCVA. In further analysis, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher in the ICVA (86.8mm Hg, p = 0.002 4) and TIA (88.8mm Hg, p<0.0001) groups, but not in HCVA, than in the No-CVA group (81.4mm Hg). Time in therapeutic range for INR was 65.3% for the No-CVA group, 62.9% (p = 0.59) for HCVA, 65.1% (p = 0.97) for ICVA, and 63.2% (p = 0.62) for TIA. CONCLUSIONS: Supra- and sub-therapeutic INR values at the time of CVA were associated with all stroke subtypes >14 days post-implant. MAP was higher among those with ICVA and TIA but not with HCVA compared to without CVA. Our study demonstrates the challenges of anti-thrombotic therapy and blood pressure management in LVAD population.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894626

RESUMO

Derivatives of 4-aminomethyl-l-phenylalanine with aromatic oligoamide foldamers as sidechain appendages were successfully charged on tRNA by means of flexizymes. Their subsequent incorporation both at the C-terminus of, and within, peptide sequences by the ribosome, was demonstrated. These results expand the registry of chemical structures tolerated by the ribosome to sidechains significantly larger and more structurally defined than previously demonstrated.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with end stage heart failure are increasingly being bridged to heart transplant (BTT) with mechanical circulatory support (MCS), however the association between a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) BTT strategy and post-transplant renal outcomes is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of LVAD BTT with the development of post-transplant renal failure using a large national registry. METHODS: We queried the 2009-2018 United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry for all adults undergoing first-time heart or heart-kidney transplantation and stratified patients by use of pre-transplant durable LVAD. The primary outcome of interest was post-transplant renal failure, which was evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 18,307 patients met inclusion criteria including 7,887 (43%) and 10,420 (57%) that were and were not bridged to transplant with an LVAD, respectively. BTT patients had slightly better baseline renal function (eGFR 68.7 vs 65.8 mL/min, p<0.001) and were less likely to receive a heart-kidney transplant (2.7% vs 4.8%, p<0.001). On multivariable logistic regression, LVAD BTT strategy was not independently associated with post-transplant renal failure (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.86-1.49). Similarly, LVAD BTT among patients with preoperative renal dysfunction was not associated with post-transplant renal failure (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 0.91-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: BTT with an LVAD does not appear to be associated with worse renal outcomes regardless of baseline renal function. Furthermore, an LVAD BTT strategy in patients with chronic kidney disease may enable clinicians to identify candidates suitable for isolated heart transplantation without increasing their risk for post-transplant renal failure.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 141-150, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the durability of tricuspid valve repair (TVr) performed concurrently with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and its association with the development of late right heart failure (RHF). BACKGROUND: Surgical management of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) at the time of LVAD implantation is performed in an attempt to reduce the occurrence of postoperative RHF. Limited data exist regarding the durability of TVr in patients with LVAD as well as its impact on development of late RHF. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of consecutive adult patients who underwent durable LVAD implantation and concurrent TVr at the authors' institution between 2009 and 2017. Late RHF was defined as readmission for HF requiring inotropic or diuretic therapy. TVr failure was defined as moderate or severe TR at any follow-up echocardiographic examination after LVAD implantation. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients underwent LVAD and concurrent TVr during the study. Of the total, 59 patients (37.8%) had a failed TVr. The mean duration of echocardiographic follow-up was 23 ± 22 months. Of the 146 patients who were discharged after the index hospitalization, 53 patients (36.3%) developed late RHF. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that TVr failure was an independent predictor of late RHF development (hazard ratio: 2.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.38 to 4.96; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Failure of TVr in this cohort occurred at a significant rate. Failure of TVr is an independent risk factor for development of late RHF. Future studies should investigate strategies to reduce recurrence of significant TR.

11.
Nat Chem ; 11(7): 644-652, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182821

RESUMO

A promising approach in cancer therapy is to find ligands that directly bind ubiquitin (Ub) chains. However, finding molecules capable of tightly and specifically binding Ub chains is challenging given the range of Ub polymer lengths and linkages and their subtle structural differences. Here, we use total chemical synthesis of proteins to generate highly homogeneous Ub chains for screening against trillion-member macrocyclic peptide libraries (RaPID system). De novo cyclic peptides were found that can bind tightly and specifically to K48-linked Ub chains, confirmed by NMR studies. These cyclic peptides protected K48-linked Ub chains from deubiquitinating enzymes and prevented proteasomal degradation of Ub-tagged proteins. The cyclic peptides could enter cells, inhibit growth and induce programmed cell death, opening new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. This highly synthetic approach, with both protein target generation and cyclic peptide discovery performed in vitro, will make other elaborate post-translationally modified targets accessible for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Lisina/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Ubiquitinas/síntese química , Ubiquitinas/química
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e192375, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050773

RESUMO

Importance: Use of palliative care (PC) for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) has increased recently. However, it is unknown if patients are receiving earlier referrals to PC. Objective: To assess characteristics and trends of patients with CVD referred to PC. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study in which analysis of data from the multicenter Quality Data Collection Tool for Palliative Care registry from January 2, 2015, through December 29, 2017, included patients with CVD 18 years or older referred to initial PC consultation who had a documented palliative performance score (PPS) . Exposures: Patients with CVD who presented for an initial PC visit. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was PPS. Secondary outcomes included symptoms and end-of-life documentation. Results: Among 1801 patients (mean [SD] age, 77.7 [13.7] years) from 16 sites in the analysis, 875 (48.6%) were women and 1339 (74.3%) were white. A low PPS score (0%-30%), consistent with bedbound status, was recorded for 521 patients (28.9%), with no change through time. The most common moderate to severe symptoms were poor well-being, tiredness, anorexia, and dyspnea. Year of encounter was associated with improved symptoms of pain (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50) and with constipation (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.69). No change through time was noted in other symptoms or end-of-life documentation. Although the proportion of referrals from general medicine increased from 43.2% (167 of 387) in 2015 to 52.9% (410 of 775) in 2017, the proportion of referrals from cardiologists decreased from 16.5% (64 of 387) in 2015 to 10.5% (81 of 775) in 2017. The proportion of patients referred to PC who were black decreased from 11.9% (46 of 387) in 2015 to 6.3% (49 of 775) in 2017. While 69.5% of all patients with CVD (1252 of 1801) had a primary diagnosis of heart failure, the proportion of non-heart failure CVD diagnoses, such as coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease, increased from 25.6% (99 of 387) in 2015 to 30.1% (233 of 775) in 2017. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with CVD demonstrated significant symptom burden, and there was no evidence in the registry of change in the PPSs of patients with CVD referred to PC through time. Cardiologists provided comparatively fewer referrals to PC for patients with CVD, and this proportion decreased through time. The proportion of racial and ethnic minorities referred to PC was small and decreased through time. These findings reinforce the need for cardiologists to be more engaged with PC and consider referring appropriate patients with CVD sooner.

13.
Health Psychol ; 38(6): 502-508, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the modifying effects of social support on depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients receiving coping skills training (CST). METHOD: We considered the modifying effects of social support in the Coping Effectively with Heart Failure clinical trial, which randomized 179 heart failure (HF) patients to either 4 months of CST or usual care enhanced by HF education (HFE). CST involved training in specific coping techniques, whereas HFE involved education about HF self-management. Social support was assessed by the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) Social Support Inventory, QoL was assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), and depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). RESULTS: Linear regression models revealed a significant Intervention Group × Baseline Social Support interaction for change in KCCQ total scores (p = .006) and BDI-II scores (p < .001). Participants with low social support assigned to the CST intervention showed large improvements in KCCQ scores (M = 11.2, 95% CI [5.7, 16.8]), whereas low-social-support patients assigned to the HFE controls showed no significant change (M = -0.8, 95% CI [-7.2, 5.6]). Similarly, BDI-II scores in participants with low social support in the CST group showed large reductions (M = -8.7, 95% CI [-11.3, -6.1]) compared with low-social-support HFE participants (M = -3.0, 95% CI [-6.0, -0.1]). CONCLUSIONS: HF patients with low social support benefit substantially from telephone-based CST interventions. Targeting HF patients with low social support for behavioral interventions could prove to be a cost-effective strategy for improving QoL and reducing depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
16.
ASAIO J ; 65(5): 436-441, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688695

RESUMO

Current risk stratification models to predict outcomes after a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are limited in scope. We assessed the performance of Bayesian models to stratify post-LVAD mortality across various International Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS or IM) Profiles, device types, and implant strategies. We performed a retrospective analysis of 10,206 LVAD patients recorded in the IM registry from 2012 to 2016. Using derived Bayesian algorithms from 8,222 patients (derivation cohort), we applied the risk-prediction algorithms to the remaining 2,055 patients (validation cohort). Risk of mortality was assessed at 1, 3, and 12 months post implant according to disease severity (IM profiles), device type (axial versus centrifugal) and strategy (bridge to transplantation or destination therapy). Fifteen percentage (n = 308) were categorized as IM profile 1, 36% (n = 752) as profile 2, 33% (n = 672) as profile 3, and 15% (n = 311) as profile 4-7 in the validation cohort. The Bayesian algorithms showed good discrimination for both short-term (1 and 3 months) and long-term (1 year) mortality for patients with severe HF (Profiles 1-3), with the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) between 0.63 and 0.74. The algorithms performed reasonably well in both axial and centrifugal devices (AUC, 0.68-0.74), as well as bridge to transplantation or destination therapy indication (AUC, 0.66-0.73). The performance of the Bayesian models at 1 year was superior to the existing risk models. Bayesian algorithms allow for risk stratification after LVAD implantation across different IM profiles, device types, and implant strategies.

18.
Am J Transplant ; 19(7): 2067-2076, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659754

RESUMO

The prelisting variables essential for creating an accurate heart transplant allocation score based on survival are unknown. To identify these we studied mortality of adults on the active heart transplant waiting list in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database from January 1, 2004 to August 31, 2015. There were 33 069 candidates awaiting heart transplantation: 7681 UNOS Status 1A, 13 027 Status 1B, and 12 361 Status 2. During a median waitlist follow-up of 4.3 months, 5514 candidates died. Variables of importance for waitlist mortality were identified by machine learning using Random Survival Forests. Strong correlates predicting survival were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum albumin, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular assist device, mechanical ventilation, peak oxygen capacity, hemodynamics, inotrope support, and type of heart disease with less predictive variables including antiarrhythmic agents, history of stroke, vascular disease, prior malignancy, and prior tobacco use. Complex interactions were identified such as an additive risk in mortality based on renal function and serum albumin, and sex-differences in mortality when eGFR >40 mL/min/1.73 m. Most predictive variables for waitlist mortality are in the current tiered allocation system except for eGFR and serum albumin which have an additive risk and complex interactions.

20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(5): 1348-1355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) is a common finding immediately after cardiac transplantation. However, there is a scarcity of data regarding its implication if left untreated on long-term outcomes and the role of early surgical repair. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Duke University Medical Center transplant database from January 2000 to June 2012 and identified 542 patients who underwent orthotropic heart transplantation. Patients were excluded if they underwent surgical repair for TR during the transplant or if the transplant was part of a multiorgan transplant or redo heart transplantation. TR was assessed intraoperatively after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Independent variables were grade of TR and changes in TR grade during follow-up. TR grades were classified as insignificant (none or mild) versus significant (moderate or severe). Survival and need for posttransplant valve repair during follow-up were assessed. RESULTS: Significant TR was detected in 114 patients (21%) after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, with no significant difference in preoperative recipient pulmonary vascular resistance. Significant TR was associated with increased maximum postoperative plasma creatinine (median [interquartile range], 2.2 [1.5 to 3.2] mg/dL vs 1.8 [1.4 to 2.6] mg/dL, p = 0.008), prolonged postoperative stay (median [interquartile range], 12 [9 to 21] days vs 10 [8 to 14] days; p < 0.001), and decreased adjusted survival. Significant TR regressed to insignificant in 91% of recipients by 1 year after transplant. Six recipients (1%) who had significant TR after cardiopulmonary bypass underwent delayed tricuspid valve repair for significant TR during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Significant TR is a common finding immediately after transplant and is associated with early morbidity and reduced adjusted survival. Most significant TR resolves by 1 year after transplant. Optimal algorithms for follow-up and treatment of significant TR after heart transplantation need to be defined.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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