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1.
Eur Urol ; 78(4): 494-497, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532514

RESUMO

A BRCA2 prostate cancer cluster region (PCCR) was recently proposed (c.7914 to 3') wherein pathogenic variants (PVs) are associated with higher prostate cancer (PCa) risk than PVs elsewhere in the BRCA2 gene. Using a prospective cohort study of 447 male BRCA2 PV carriers recruited in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2016, we estimated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) compared with population incidences and assessed variation in risk by PV location. Carriers of PVs in the PCCR had a PCa SIR of 8.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.46-15.6) and were at a higher risk of PCa than carriers of other BRCA2 PVs (SIR = 3.31, 95% CI 1.97-5.57; hazard ratio = 2.34, 95% CI 1.09-5.03). PCCR PV carriers had an estimated cumulative PCa risk of 44% (95% CI 23-72%) by the age of 75 yr and 78% (95% CI 54-94%) by the age of 85 yr. Our results corroborate the existence of a PCCR in BRCA2 in a prospective cohort. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we investigated whether the risk of prostate cancer for men with a harmful mutation in the BRCA2 gene differs based on where in the gene the mutation is located. We found that men with mutations in one region of BRCA2 had a higher risk of prostate cancer than men with mutations elsewhere in the gene.

2.
Eur Urol ; 77(1): 24-35, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a wide range of risk estimates have been reported that are based on retrospective studies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative and absolute PCa risks associated with BRCA1/2 mutations and to assess risk modification by age, family history, and mutation location. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective cohort study of male BRCA1 (n = 376) and BRCA2 carriers (n = 447) identified in clinical genetics centres in the UK and Ireland (median follow-up 5.9 and 5.3 yr, respectively). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Standardised incidence/mortality ratios (SIRs/SMRs) relative to population incidences or mortality rates, absolute risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cohort and survival analysis methods. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixteen BRCA1 and 26 BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up. BRCA2 carriers had an SIR of 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.99-6.61) and absolute PCa risk of 27% (95% CI 17-41%) and 60% (95% CI 43-78%) by ages 75 and 85 yr, respectively. For BRCA1 carriers, the overall SIR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.43-3.88); the corresponding SIR at age <65 yr was 3.57 (95% CI 1.68-7.58). However, the BRCA1 SIR varied between 0.74 and 2.83 in sensitivity analyses to assess potential screening effects. PCa risk for BRCA2 carriers increased with family history (HR per affected relative 1.68, 95% CI 0.99-2.85). BRCA2 mutations in the region bounded by positions c.2831 and c.6401 were associated with an SIR of 2.46 (95% CI 1.07-5.64) compared to population incidences, corresponding to lower PCa risk (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96) than for mutations outside the region. BRCA2 carriers had a stronger association with Gleason score ≥7 (SIR 5.07, 95% CI 3.20-8.02) than Gleason score ≤6 PCa (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.24-7.44), and a higher risk of death from PCa (SMR 3.85, 95% CI 1.44-10.3). Limitations include potential screening effects for these known mutation carriers; however, the BRCA2 results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The results substantiate PCa risk patterns indicated by retrospective analyses for BRCA2 carriers, including further evidence of association with aggressive PCa, and give some support for a weaker association in BRCA1 carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we followed unaffected men known to carry mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to investigate whether they are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population. We found that carriers of BRCA2 mutations have a high risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly more aggressive prostate cancer, and that this risk varies by family history of prostate cancer and the location of the mutation within the gene.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(4): 209-219, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) predisposes to breast cancer (BC), but no genotype-phenotype correlations have been described. METHODS: Constitutional NF1 mutations in 78 patients with NF1 with BC (NF1-BC) were compared with the NF1 Leiden Open Variation Database (n=3432). RESULTS: No cases were observed with whole or partial gene deletions (HR 0.10; 95% CI 0.006 to 1.63; p=0.014, Fisher's exact test). There were no gross relationships with mutation position. Forty-five (64.3%; HR 6.4-83) of the 70 different mutations were more frequent than expected (p<0.05), while 52 (74.3%; HR 5.3-83) were significant when adjusted for multiple comparisons (adjusted p≤0.125; Benjamini-Hochberg). Higher proportions of both nonsense and missense mutations were also observed (adjusted p=0.254; Benjamini-Hochberg). Ten of the 11 missense cases with known age of BC occurred at <50 years (p=0.041). Eighteen cases had BRCA1/2 testing, revealing one BRCA2 mutation. DISCUSSION: These data strongly support the hypothesis that certain constitutional mutation types, and indeed certain specific variants in NF1 confer different risks of BC. The lack of large deletions and excess of nonsenses and missenses is consistent with gain of function mutations conferring risk of BC, and also that neurofibromin may function as a dimer. The observation that somatic NF1 amplification can occur independently of ERBB2 amplification in sporadic BC supports this concept. A prospective clinical-molecular study of NF1-BC needs to be established to confirm and build on these findings, but regardless of NF1 mutation status patients with NF1-BC warrant testing of other BC-predisposing genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes da Neurofibromatose 1 , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Deleção de Sequência
5.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 8(6): 507-520, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588381

RESUMO

Purpose of review: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a severe, progressive genetic disease that affects between 1 in 3,000 and 8,000 individuals globally. No evidence-based guideline exists to inform the care of these patients, and most do not have access to multidisciplinary care centers staffed by experienced professionals, creating a clinical care deficit. Recent findings: The Myotonic Dystrophy Foundation (MDF) recruited 66 international clinicians experienced in DM1 patient care to develop consensus-based care recommendations. MDF created a 2-step methodology for the project using elements of the Single Text Procedure and the Nominal Group Technique. The process generated a 4-page Quick Reference Guide and a comprehensive, 55-page document that provides clinical care recommendations for 19 discrete body systems and/or care considerations. Summary: The resulting recommendations are intended to help standardize and elevate care for this patient population and reduce variability in clinical trial and study environments.

6.
Genet Med ; 20(12): 1575-1582, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives are proven noncarriers of a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation that is carried by their relatives. The risk of developing breast cancer (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in these women is uncertain. The study aimed to estimate risks of invasive BC and EOC in a large cohort of BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives. METHODS: We used cohort analysis to estimate incidences, cumulative risks, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). RESULTS: A total of 1,895 unaffected women were eligible for inclusion in the BC risk analysis and 1,736 in the EOC risk analysis. There were 23 incident invasive BCs and 2 EOCs. The cumulative risk of invasive BC was 9.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9-15%) by age 85 years and the corresponding risk of EOC was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-2.6%). The SIR for invasive BC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.62-1.40) in the overall cohort, 0.85 (95% CI 0.48-1.50) in noncarriers from BRCA1 families, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.57-1.87) in noncarriers from BRCA2 families. The SIR for EOC was 0.79 (95% CI 0.20-3.17) in the overall cohort. CONCLUSION: Our results did not provide evidence for elevated risks of invasive BC or EOC in BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(3): 659-69, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25256356

RESUMO

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD: MIM#158900) is a common myopathy with marked but largely unexplained clinical inter- and intra-familial variability. It is caused by contractions of the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4 to 1-10 units (FSHD1), or by mutations in the D4Z4-binding chromatin modifier SMCHD1 (FSHD2). Both situations lead to a partial opening of the D4Z4 chromatin structure and transcription of D4Z4-encoded polyadenylated DUX4 mRNA in muscle. We measured D4Z4 CpG methylation in control, FSHD1 and FSHD2 individuals and found a significant correlation with the D4Z4 repeat array size. After correction for repeat array size, we show that the variability in clinical severity in FSHD1 and FSHD2 individuals is dependent on individual differences in susceptibility to D4Z4 hypomethylation. In FSHD1, for individuals with D4Z4 repeat arrays of 1-6 units, the clinical severity mainly depends on the size of the D4Z4 repeat. However, in individuals with arrays of 7-10 units, the clinical severity also depends on other factors that regulate D4Z4 methylation because affected individuals, but not non-penetrant mutation carriers, have a greater reduction of D4Z4 CpG methylation than can be expected based on the size of the pathogenic D4Z4 repeat array. In FSHD2, this epigenetic susceptibility depends on the nature of the SMCHD1 mutation in combination with D4Z4 repeat array size with dominant negative mutations being more deleterious than haploinsufficiency mutations. Our study thus identifies an epigenetic basis for the striking variability in onset and disease progression that is considered a clinical hallmark of FSHD.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Repetições de Microssatélites , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/classificação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(1): 67-71, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24755953

RESUMO

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1 (FSHD1) is caused by a contraction in the number of D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4, resulting in relaxation of D4Z4 chromatin causing inappropriate expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. Clinical severity is inversely related to the number of repeats. In contrast, FSHD2 patients also have inappropriate expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle, but due to constitutional mutations in SMCHD1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1), which cause global hypomethylation and hence general relaxation of chromatin. Thirty patients originally referred for FSHD testing were screened for SMCHD1 mutations. Twenty-nine had >11 D4Z4 repeats. SMCHD1 c.1040+1G>A, a pathogenic splice-site variant, was identified in a FSHD1 family with a borderline number of D4Z4 repeats (10) and a variable phenotype (in which a LMNA1 sequence variant was previously described), and SMCHD1 c.2606 G>T, a putative missense variant (p.Gly869Val) with strong in vitro indications of pathogenicity, was identified in a family with an unusual muscular dystrophy with some FSHD-like features. The two families described here emphasise the genetic complexity of muscular dystrophies. As SMCHD1 has a wider role in global genomic methylation, the possibility exists that it could be involved in other complex undiagnosed muscle disorders. Thus far, only 15 constitutional mutations have been identified in SMCHD1, and these two sequence variants add to the molecular and phenotypic spectrum associated with FSHD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Variação Genética , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/química , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Facies , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Patient Educ Couns ; 97(2): 200-10, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25064250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether the coping in deliberation (CODE) framework can be adapted to a specific preference-sensitive medical decision: risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify issues important to women during deliberations about RRSO. Three focus groups with patients (most were pre-menopausal and untested for genetic mutations) and 11 interviews with health professionals were conducted to determine which issues mattered in the UK context. Data were used to adapt the generic CODE framework. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 49 relevant studies, which highlighted various issues and coping options important during deliberations, including mutation status, risks of surgery, family obligations, physician recommendation, peer support and reliable information sources. Consultations with UK stakeholders confirmed most of these factors as pertinent influences on deliberations. Questions in the generic framework were adapted to reflect the issues and coping options identified. CONCLUSIONS: The generic CODE framework was readily adapted to a specific preference-sensitive medical decision, showing that deliberations and coping are linked during deliberations about RRSO. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Adapted versions of the CODE framework may be used to develop tailored decision support methods and materials in order to improve patient-centred care.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovariectomia/psicologia , Ovariectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Psicológicos , Preferência do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(6): 1018-24, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24642354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length has been linked to risk of common diseases, including cancer, and has previously been proposed as a biomarker for cancer risk. Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations predispose to breast, ovarian, and other cancer types. METHODS: We investigated telomere length in BRCA mutation carriers and their non-carrier relatives and further examined whether telomere length is a modifier of cancer risk in mutation carriers. We measured mean telomere length in DNA extracted from whole blood using high-throughput quantitative PCR. Participants were from the EMBRACE study in United Kingdom and Eire (n = 4,822) and comprised BRCA1 (n = 1,628) and BRCA2 (n = 1,506) mutation carriers and their non-carrier relatives (n = 1,688). RESULTS: We find no significant evidence that mean telomere length is associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. However, we find mutation carriers to have longer mean telomere length than their non-carrier relatives (all carriers vs. non-carriers, Ptrend = 0.0018), particularly in families with BRCA2 mutations (BRCA2 mutation carriers vs. all non-carriers, Ptrend = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings lend little support to the hypothesis that short mean telomere length predisposes to cancer. Conversely, our main and unexpected finding is that BRCA mutation carriers (regardless of cancer status) have longer telomeres than their non-mutation carrier, non-cancer-affected relatives. The longer telomere length in BRCA2 mutation carriers is consistent with its role in DNA damage response. Overall, it seems that increased telomere length may be a consequence of these mutations, but is not itself directly related to the increased cancer risk in carriers. IMPACT: The finding that mutation carriers have longer mean telomere lengths than their non-carrier relatives is unexpected but biologically plausible and could open up new lines of research into the functions of the BRCA proteins. To our knowledge, this is the largest study of telomere length in BRCA mutation carriers and their relatives. The null cancer-risk association supports recent large prospective studies of breast and ovarian cancer and indicates that mean telomere length would not be a useful biomarker in these cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1018-24. ©2014 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Telômero/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Mutação
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 105(11): 812-22, 2013 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23628597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of cancer risk are critical for guiding management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. The aims of this study were to derive penetrance estimates for breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and contralateral breast cancer in a prospective series of mutation carriers and to assess how these risks are modified by common breast cancer susceptibility alleles. METHODS: Prospective cancer risks were estimated using a cohort of 978 BRCA1 and 909 BRCA2 carriers from the United Kingdom. Nine hundred eighty-eight women had no breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis at baseline, 1509 women were unaffected by ovarian cancer, and 651 had been diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer. Cumulative risks were obtained using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Associations between cancer risk and covariables of interest were evaluated using Cox regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The average cumulative risks by age 70 years for BRCA1 carriers were estimated to be 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44% to 75%) for breast cancer, 59% (95% CI = 43% to 76%) for ovarian cancer, and 83% (95% CI = 69% to 94%) for contralateral breast cancer. For BRCA2 carriers, the corresponding risks were 55% (95% CI = 41% to 70%) for breast cancer, 16.5% (95% CI = 7.5% to 34%) for ovarian cancer, and 62% (95% CI = 44% to 79.5%) for contralateral breast cancer. BRCA2 carriers in the highest tertile of risk, defined by the joint genotype distribution of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with breast cancer risk, were at statistically significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer than those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.2 to 14.5; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Prospective risk estimates confirm that BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers are at high risk of developing breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Our results confirm findings from retrospective studies that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles in combination are predictive of breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Salpingectomia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Nature ; 493(7432): 406-10, 2013 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23242139

RESUMO

Improved sequencing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for investigating the role of rare genetic variation in common disease. However, there are considerable challenges with respect to study design, data analysis and replication. Using pooled next-generation sequencing of 507 genes implicated in the repair of DNA in 1,150 samples, an analytical strategy focused on protein-truncating variants (PTVs) and a large-scale sequencing case-control replication experiment in 13,642 individuals, here we show that rare PTVs in the p53-inducible protein phosphatase PPM1D are associated with predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. PPM1D PTV mutations were present in 25 out of 7,781 cases versus 1 out of 5,861 controls (P = 1.12 × 10(-5)), including 18 mutations in 6,912 individuals with breast cancer (P = 2.42 × 10(-4)) and 12 mutations in 1,121 individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 3.10 × 10(-9)). Notably, all of the identified PPM1D PTVs were mosaic in lymphocyte DNA and clustered within a 370-base-pair region in the final exon of the gene, carboxy-terminal to the phosphatase catalytic domain. Functional studies demonstrate that the mutations result in enhanced suppression of p53 in response to ionizing radiation exposure, suggesting that the mutant alleles encode hyperactive PPM1D isoforms. Thus, although the mutations cause premature protein truncation, they do not result in the simple loss-of-function effect typically associated with this class of variant, but instead probably have a gain-of-function effect. Our results have implications for the detection and management of breast and ovarian cancer risk. More generally, these data provide new insights into the role of rare and of mosaic genetic variants in common conditions, and the use of sequencing in their identification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Alelos , Análise por Conglomerados , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2C , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 127(3): 556-63, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22943881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ovarian cancer screening for women at increased genetic risk in the UK involves 4-monthly CA125 tests and annual ultrasound, with further tests prompted by an abnormal result. The study evaluated the longer-term psychological and behavioural effects of frequent ovarian screening. METHODS: Women completed T1 questionnaires before their first routine 4-monthly CA125 test, and T2 follow-up questionnaires one week after their result. Women with abnormal results completed a further questionnaire one week after return to routine screening (T3 primary end-point). T4 questionnaires were sent at nine months. Measures included cancer distress, general anxiety/depression, reassurance, and withdrawal from screening. RESULTS: A total 1999 (62%) of 3224 women completed T1 questionnaires. T2 questionnaires were completed by 1384/1609 participants (86%): 1217 (89%) with normal results and 167/242 (69%) with abnormal results. T3 questionnaires were completed by 141/163 (87%) women, with 912/1173 (78%) completing T4 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance indicated that, compared to women with normal results, women with abnormal results reported moderate cancer distress (F = 27.47, p ≤ .001, η(2) = 0.02) one week after their abnormal result and were significantly more likely to withdraw from screening (OR = 4.38, p ≤ .001). These effects were not apparent at T3 or T4. The effect of screening result on general anxiety/depression or overall reassurance was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Women participating in frequent ovarian screening who are recalled for an abnormal result may experience transient cancer-specific distress, which may prompt reconsideration of risk management options. Health professionals and policy makers may be reassured that frequent familial ovarian screening does not cause sustained psychological harm.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Clin Invest ; 122(2): 538-44, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22232211

RESUMO

Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative conditions. They are characterized by progressive spastic paralysis of the legs as a result of selective, length-dependent degeneration of the axons of the corticospinal tract. Mutations in 3 genes encoding proteins that work together to shape the ER into sheets and tubules - receptor accessory protein 1 (REEP1), atlastin-1 (ATL1), and spastin (SPAST) - have been found to underlie many cases of HSP in Northern Europe and North America. Applying Sanger and exome sequencing, we have now identified 3 mutations in reticulon 2 (RTN2), which encodes a member of the reticulon family of prototypic ER-shaping proteins, in families with spastic paraplegia 12 (SPG12). These autosomal dominant mutations included a complete deletion of RTN2 and a frameshift mutation predicted to produce a highly truncated protein. Wild-type reticulon 2, but not the truncated protein potentially encoded by the frameshift allele, localized to the ER. RTN2 interacted with spastin, and this interaction required a hydrophobic region in spastin that is involved in ER localization and that is predicted to form a curvature-inducing/sensing hairpin loop domain. Our results directly implicate a reticulon protein in axonopathy, show that this protein participates in a network of interactions among HSP proteins involved in ER shaping, and further support the hypothesis that abnormal ER morphogenesis is a pathogenic mechanism in HSP.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/patologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/fisiopatologia , Espastina
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 21(4): 958-62, 2012 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22072393

RESUMO

There have been few definitive examples of gene-gene interactions in humans. Through mutational analyses in 7325 individuals, we report four interactions (defined as departures from a multiplicative model) between mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes ATM and CHEK2 with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (case-only interaction between ATM and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 5.9 × 10(-4); ATM and BRCA1, P= 0.01; ATM and BRCA2, P= 0.02; CHEK2 and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 2.1 × 10(-4); CHEK2 and BRCA1, P= 0.01; CHEK2 and BRCA2, P= 0.01). The interactions are such that the resultant risk of breast cancer is lower than the multiplicative product of the constituent risks, and plausibly reflect the functional relationships of the encoded proteins in DNA repair. These findings have important implications for models of disease predisposition and clinical translation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2 , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Reino Unido
16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 124(1): 158-63, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21999920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prospective psychological evaluation study of familial ovarian cancer screening (PsyFOCS) is underway in partnership with the UK Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UK FOCSS Phase 2). One of the aims of PsyFOCS is to examine factors associated with withdrawal from the UK FOCSS prior to the onset of 4-monthly screening. METHOD: 1999 of 3224 women completed a baseline questionnaire. 110 (5.5%) women withdrew from screening prior to their first routine Phase 2 screen, of which 73 (66.4% of withdrawals) had withdrawn because they had undergone removal of their ovaries and fallopian tubes (withdrawn group). The comparison group consisted of 1868 women who remained on screening. The baseline questionnaire included measures of cancer-specific distress, anxiety, depression and illness perceptions. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis indicated that having had prior annual (Phase 1) screening (OR=13.34, p<.01), past experience of further tests (OR=2.37, p<.01) and greater cancer-specific distress (OR=1.38, p<.01) were associated with withdrawal for surgery. Belief in ageing as a cause of ovarian cancer was also associated with withdrawal (OR=1.32, p=.05). CONCLUSION: These cross-sectional data suggest that withdrawal from familial ovarian cancer screening may be influenced by both clinical and psychological factors. These may reflect women's experience of the drawbacks of screening and increased concern about ovarian cancer risk, as well as having opportunities to consider surgery as an alternative risk management strategy whilst using screening as an interim measure.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 21(1): 134-47, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22144499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. METHODS: We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancers. RESULTS: There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (P-trend = 1.2 × 10(-5)), but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2, carriers (P-trend = 6.8 × 10(-6)). The proportion of triple-negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histologic grade than ER-positive tumors (grade 3 vs. grade 1; P = 1.2 × 10(-13) for BRCA1 and P = 0.001 for BRCA2). ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were independently associated with mutation carrier status [ER-positive odds ratio (OR) for BRCA2 = 9.4, 95% CI: 7.0-12.6 and PR-positive OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.3, under joint analysis]. Lobular tumors were more likely to be BRCA2-related (OR for BRCA2 = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.4-4.4; P = 4.4 × 10(-14)), and medullary tumors BRCA1-related (OR for BRCA2 = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18-0.35; P = 2.3 × 10(-15)). ER-status of the first breast cancer was predictive of ER-status of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (P = 0.0004 for BRCA1; P = 0.002 for BRCA2). There were no significant differences in ovarian cancer morphology between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (serous: 67%; mucinous: 1%; endometrioid: 12%; clear-cell: 2%). CONCLUSIONS/IMPACT: Pathologic characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors may be useful for improving risk-prediction algorithms and informing clinical strategies for screening and prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores
18.
Nat Genet ; 43(9): 879-882, 2011 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21822267

RESUMO

Recently, RAD51C mutations were identified in families with breast and ovarian cancer. This observation prompted us to investigate the role of RAD51D in cancer susceptibility. We identified eight inactivating RAD51D mutations in unrelated individuals from 911 breast-ovarian cancer families compared with one inactivating mutation identified in 1,060 controls (P = 0.01). The association found here was principally with ovarian cancer, with three mutations identified in the 59 pedigrees with three or more individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 0.0005). The relative risk of ovarian cancer for RAD51D mutation carriers was estimated to be 6.30 (95% CI 2.86-13.85, P = 4.8 × 10(-6)). By contrast, we estimated the relative risk of breast cancer to be 1.32 (95% CI 0.59-2.96, P = 0.50). These data indicate that RAD51D mutation testing may have clinical utility in individuals with ovarian cancer and their families. Moreover, we show that cells deficient in RAD51D are sensitive to treatment with a PARP inhibitor, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for cancers arising in RAD51D mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases
19.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 14(3): 188-94, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15036328

RESUMO

To assess subendocardial (long-axis) and mid-wall (short-axis) left ventricular (LV) function in patients with type 1 myotonic dystrophy (MD1), with no symptoms or clinical signs of heart disease, to investigate if they have subclinical cardiac involvement, 28 subjects (14 with MD1, and 14 age- and sex-matched normals) had conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Myocardial velocities and timings to peak systolic contractions were measured. LV wall thickness, diameters, and ejection fraction were not different between the groups. 4/14 of the MD1 patients (29%) had global diastolic dysfunction. Both long-axis and short-axis systolic and early diastolic myocardial velocities were lower in patients with MD1, whereas time-to-peak myocardial contraction was longer; mean longitudinal systolic velocity was 5.5+/-1.7 cm/s in patients with MD1, compared with 7.8+/-1.3 cm/s in normal subjects (P<0.001) 10/14 of the patients (71%) had reduced longitudinal systolic function. Longitudinal systolic and diastolic velocities were inversely related to the duration of the QRS complex ( r=-0.86 and r=-0.63 respectively, both P<0.01), but they did not correlate with the CTG-repeat size. Patients with MD1 have subclinical cardiac impairment revealed by measurement of myocardial velocities using tissue Doppler echocardiography.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diástole/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sístole/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/fisiologia
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 73(4): 835-48, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12970845

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy (DM), the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults, is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neuromuscular disorder. DM is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, muscular dystrophy, myotonia, and multisystem involvement. Type 1 DM (DM1) is caused by a (CTG)(n) expansion in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK in 19q13.3. Multiple families, predominantly of German descent and with clinically variable presentation that included proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) and type 2 DM (DM2) but without the DM1 mutation, showed linkage to the 3q21 region and were recently shown to segregate a (CCTG)(n) expansion mutation in intron 1 of ZNF9. Here, we present linkage to 3q21 and mutational confirmation in 17 kindreds of European origin with PROMM and proximal myotonic dystrophy, from geographically distinct populations. All patients have the DM2 (CCTG)(n) expansion. To study the evolution of this mutation, we constructed a comprehensive physical map of the DM2 region around ZNF9. High-resolution haplotype analysis of disease chromosomes with five microsatellite and 22 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers around the DM2 mutation identified extensive linkage disequilibrium and a single shared haplotype of at least 132 kb among patients from the different populations. With the exception of the (CCTG)(n) expansion, the available markers indicate that the DM2 haplotype is identical to the most common haplotype in normal individuals. This situation is reminiscent of that seen in DM1. Taken together, these data suggest a single founding mutation in DM2 patients of European origin. We estimate the age of the founding haplotype and of the DM2 (CCTG) expansion mutation to be approximately 200-540 generations.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Efeito Fundador , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Distrofia Miotônica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequência de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Distrofia Miotônica/classificação , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Estados Unidos
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