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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biodynamic dairy production is based on a land-related animal production without the additional input of N-fertilizers. The concentrate level per cow is low. This affects the yield level of animals and product quality outcomes. METHODS: We examined the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of European biodynamic farms in relation to the ecological region of production and the farm's climate conditions. Climate data were derived from existing maps describing ecological vegetation zones within Europe. Additionally, biodynamic shop milk was compared to conventional shop milk, based on a regional comparison. RESULTS: The largest differences in the FA composition were between biodynamic summer and winter milk. We found increased proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA-n3), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the summer milk. A principal component analysis expressed the structure that was present in the biodynamic farm milk samples, based on clusters of a single FA within four components. The components could be correlated with the season of production, the amount of precipitation, the elevation of the farm above sea level, and the length of the grazing season. Biodynamic shop milk in the summer had a lower n6/n3 PUFA ratio compared to the conventional shop milk in all regions of production. Mean values were 1.37 and 1.89, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The differentiation of biodynamic milk FA composition is consistent with the existing knowledge about the effects of fresh grass, fodder, and ratio composition on the milk's FA composition. Based on the n6/n3 PUFA ratio, the average biodynamic dairy cow had a high intake (>82%) of fresh grass and conserved roughage (hay and grass silage), especially in the summer.

2.
Food Nutr Res ; 59: 29348, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26617388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An adequate supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) promotes foetal health and development, whereas generally, trans fatty acids (tFA) are considered to negatively interfere with LC PUFA metabolism. Nevertheless, to date, limited data concerning separate trans C18:1, such as t9 and t11, are available for maternal and foetal blood. Therefore, in this study the portions of individual trans C18:1, LC n-6, and n-3 PUFA in lipids of maternal and foetal plasma and erythrocyte membranes of German mother and child pairs (n=40) were analysed. RESULTS: Portions of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as LC precursors were lower (~0.4-fold); whereas the metabolites arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3) were significantly higher (~2-fold) in foetal than in maternal plasma and erythrocytes. The main tFA in maternal and foetal blood were elaidic acid (C18:1t9; t9) and vaccenic acid (C18:1t11; t11). Portions of t9, t10, t11, and t12 in foetal blood lipids were lower (~0.5-fold) compared with maternal blood. In foetal lipids, t9 was higher than t11. The t9 correlated negatively with eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and AA in maternal and foetal lipids; whereas t11 correlated negatively only with foetal total LC n-6 (plasma and erythrocytes) and n-3 PUFA (erythrocytes). No correlation between maternal tFA and foetal PUFA was observed. CONCLUSIONS: 'Biomagnification' of LC n-6 and n-3 PUFA AA and DHA in foetal blood was confirmed, whereas single trans isomers were lower compared with maternal blood. Nevertheless, tFA intake, especially from industrial sources, should be as low as possible.

3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 407(12): 3303-11, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25757824

RESUMO

Fungi of the genus Mortierella can accumulate large amounts of unusual lipids depending on species, strain, and growth conditions. Fast and easy determination of key parameters of lipid quality for these samples is required. In this contribution, we apply Raman microspectroscopy to determine the degree of unsaturation for fungal lipids directly inside intact hyphae without elaborate sample handling. Six Mortierella species were grown under varying conditions, and Raman spectra of single lipid vesicles were acquired. From the spectra, we calculate a peak intensity ratio I(1270 cm(-1))/I(1445 cm(-1)) from the signals of =CH and -CH2/-CH3 groups, respectively. This ratio is linked to the iodine value (IV) using spectra of reference compounds with known IV. IVs of fungal samples are compared to gas chromatography results. Values from both methods are in good accordance. Lipid composition is found to vary between the investigated species, with Mortierella alpina having the most unsaturated lipid (IV up to 280) and Mortierella exigua the least unsaturated (IV as low as 70). We find Raman microspectroscopy a suitable tool to determine the IV reliably, fast, and easily inside intact hyphae without extensive sample handling or treatment. The method can also be transferred to other microscopic samples.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Mortierella/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Hifas/química , Iodo/química , Lipídeos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(3): 529-39, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24898881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensification of organic dairy production leads to the question of whether the implementation of intensive feeding incorporating maize silage and concentrates is altering milk quality. Therefore the fatty acid (FA) and antioxidant (AO) profiles of milk on 24 farms divided into four system groups in three replications (n = 71) during the outdoor period were analyzed. In this system comparison, a differentiation of the system groups and the effects of the main system factors 'intensification level' (high-input versus low-input) and 'origin' (organic versus conventional) were evaluated in a multivariate statistical approach. RESULTS: Consistent differentiation of milk from the system groups due to feeding-related impacts was possible in general and on the basis of 15 markers. The prediction of the main system factors was based on four or five markers. The prediction of 'intensification level' was based mainly on CLA c9,t11 and C18:1 t11, whereas that of 'origin' was based on n-3 PUFA. CONCLUSION: It was possible to demonstrate consistent differences in the FA and AO profiles of organic and standard conventional milk samples. Highest concentrations of nutritionally beneficial compounds were found in the low-input organic system. Adapted grass-based feeding strategies including pasture offer the potential to produce a distinguishable organic milk product quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antioxidantes/análise , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Leite/química , Poaceae , Animais , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Humanos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Análise Multivariada , Silagem , Zea mays
5.
PLoS One ; 9(12): e115610, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25549244

RESUMO

SCOPE: Established epithelial cell lines equipped with pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 are common tools for immune response studies on invading pathogens, e.g. the obligate intracellular species of Chlamydia. Moreover, such models are widely used to elucidate fatty acid-mediated immune effects. In several transformed cell lines, however, unusual loss of metabolic functions was described. The cell lines A549 and HeLa are poorly characterized in this respect. Therefore, we comparatively assessed the metabolic capacity of A549 and HeLa prior to proposed application as in vitro model for fatty acid effects on chlamydial infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We incubated both cell lines either with substrates (C18:2n-6 or C18:3n-3) or products (C18:3n-6, C18:4n-3) of fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), and analysed the fatty acid profiles after 24 h and 72 h by gas chromatography. Based on these data, we suspected that the complete discontinuation of normal biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in HeLa was due to loss of FADS2 function. Consequently, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation was less inducible by TLR2 stimulation in HeLa, likely as a result of not only insufficient supply of precursors but also weak cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) response. In accordance, Chlamydia infection rates were consistently lower in HeLa than in A549. Sequence analysis revealed no alteration within the FADS2 gene in HeLa. The FADS2 expression level, however, was significantly lower and, in contrast to A549, not regulated by C18:2n-6. A549 exhibited regular fatty acid metabolism and enzyme functionality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that HeLa cells considerably differ from A549 at several stages of fatty acid metabolism. The poor metabolic potential of HeLa, mainly concerning FADS2 upstream of COX-2 function, calls into question whether these cells represent a good model to unveil fatty acid or downstream eicosanoid effects in the course of intracellular bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/metabolismo , Chlamydia/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Infecções por Chlamydia/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Dinoprostona/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1821(10): 1316-22, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22750019

RESUMO

The ruminant trans fatty acid vaccenic acid (tVA) favorably alters markers of inflammation. However, it is not yet clear whether these effects are attributed to its endogenous partial conversion to c9,t11-CLA, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. We compared the cytokine reducing potential of tVA to c9,t11-CLA in human T-helper (Th) cells as a main source of cytokine production during inflammation. Secondly, we assessed whether a bioconversion of tVA to c9,t11-CLA via stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) encoded activity takes place in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in order to relate the outcomes of intracellular cytokine measurement to the degree of conversion. TVA reduced the percentage of both IL-2 and TNF-α expressing Th cells significantly, but to a lesser extent compared to c9,t11-CLA, as determined by flow cytometry after alloreactive stimulation of PBMC. Pre-treatment with the selective PPARγ antagonist T0070907 largely re-established the IL-2 and TNF-α positive Th cell population in both tVA and c9,t11-CLA treated cultures. Interestingly, while the portion of tVA dose-dependently increased within the cellular lipid fraction, the initially marginal amount of c9,t11-CLA remained unaltered. However, SCD mRNA although abundantly expressed in PBMC was not regulated by tVA. Conclusively, these results suggest that the cytokine reducing effect of tVA in human T cells is independent of c9,t11-CLA, since no bioconversion occurred. Moreover, the data provide evidence that tVA mechanistically acts in a manner similar to c9,t11-CLA.


Assuntos
Citocinas/biossíntese , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Ácidos Oleicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , PPAR gama/fisiologia , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
7.
Eur J Lipid Sci Technol ; 113(10): 1281-1292, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22164125

RESUMO

To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. The mean TFA values were below 2.0% of FAME, however, bakery products contained 4.5% and butter fat 3.2%, respectively. In addition, the distribution of individual trans C18:1 differed. In samples containing ruminant fat (butter and various confectioneries), vaccenic acid (t11-C18:1, t11) predominated, while in foods containing industrially hydrogenated fats, elaidic acid (trans-9, t9-) and t10-C18:1 were the major trans isomers.. This was reflected by a low t9/t11 index of 0.3 and 0.5 in butter and ruminant fat containing confectioneries, respectively, whilst the highest index was observed in shortenings and deep-fried potato products at 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. In conclusion, the TFA content of foods available on the German market is generally declining, but substantial variations are present. The t9/t11 index could be used as an indicator to determine ruminant fat.Practical applications: A number of studies provide evidence that a high TFA intake, particularly of industrial origin, adversely affects human health. The TFA content of foods could be reduced due to the introduction of several mandatory regulations and modifications regarding the hydrogenation process of oils. The most abundant dietary TFA are the isomers of trans C18:1. Unfortunately, the differentiation of these isomers is not yet very common, though the trans C18:1 profile differs depending on its origin (bacterial hydrogenation in the rumen or industrial hydrogenation). To date, data for TFA content including the trans C18:1 profile of different food categories are limited. The present study confirmed that the TFA contents in German foods are declining. However, TFA are still elevated, especially in bakery products and confectioneries, which are produced using mainly industrial but also ruminant fats. Therefore, the t9/t11 index imparts important information on the source of TFA in processed foods.

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