Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 737641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659168

RESUMO

Species of genus Shewanella are among the most frequently identified psychrotrophic bacteria. Here, we have studied the cellular properties, growth dynamics, and stress conditions of cold-active Shewanella strain #4, which was previously isolated from Baltic Sea ice. The cells are rod-shaped of ~2µm in length and 0.5µm in diameter, and they grow between 0 and 25°C, with an optimum at 15°C. The bacterium grows at a wide range of conditions, including 0.5-5.5% w/v NaCl (optimum 0.5-2% w/v NaCl), pH 5.5-10 (optimum pH 7.0), and up to 1mM hydrogen peroxide. In keeping with its adaptation to cold habitats, some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), are produced at a higher level at low temperature. The genome is 4,456kb in size and has a GC content of 41.12%. Uniquely, strain #4 possesses genes for sialic acid metabolism and utilizes N-acetyl neuraminic acid as a carbon source. Interestingly, it also encodes for cytochrome c3 genes, which are known to facilitate environmental adaptation, including elevated temperatures and exposure to UV radiation. Phylogenetic analysis based on a consensus sequence of the seven 16S rRNA genes indicated that strain #4 belongs to genus Shewanella, closely associated with Shewanella aestuarii with a ~97% similarity, but with a low DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) level of ~21%. However, average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis defines strain #4 as a separate Shewanella species (ANI score=76). Further phylogenetic analysis based on the 92 most conserved genes places Shewanella strain #4 into a distinct phylogenetic clade with other cold-active marine Shewanella species. Considering the phylogenetic, phenotypic, and molecular characterization, we conclude that Shewanella strain #4 is a novel species and name it Shewanella glacialimarina sp. nov. TZS-4T, where glacialimarina means sea ice. Consequently, S. glacialimarina TZS-4T constitutes a promising model for studying transcriptional and translational regulation of cold-active metabolism.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1456, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926810

RESUMO

Many of the largest known viruses belong to the PRD1-adeno structural lineage characterised by conserved pseudo-hexameric capsomers composed of three copies of a single major capsid protein (MCP). Here, by high-resolution cryo-EM analysis, we show that a class of archaeal viruses possess hetero-hexameric MCPs which mimic the PRD1-adeno lineage trimer. These hetero-hexamers are built from heterodimers and utilise a jigsaw-puzzle system of pegs and holes, and underlying minor capsid proteins, to assemble the capsid laterally from the 5-fold vertices. At these vertices proteins engage inwards with the internal membrane vesicle whilst 2-fold symmetric horn-like structures protrude outwards. The horns are assembled from repeated globular domains attached to a central spine, presumably facilitating multimeric attachment to the cell receptor. Such viruses may represent precursors of the main PRD1-adeno lineage, similarly engaging cell-receptors via 5-fold spikes and using minor proteins to define particle size.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/fisiologia , Montagem de Vírus/fisiologia , Vírus de Archaea/química , Vírus de Archaea/ultraestrutura , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 846, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783086

RESUMO

Lipid membrane fusion is an essential function in many biological processes. Detailed mechanisms of membrane fusion and the protein structures involved have been mainly studied in eukaryotic systems, whereas very little is known about membrane fusion in prokaryotes. Haloarchaeal pleomorphic viruses (HRPVs) have a membrane envelope decorated with spikes that are presumed to be responsible for host attachment and membrane fusion. Here we determine atomic structures of the ectodomains of the 57-kDa spike protein VP5 from two related HRPVs revealing a previously unreported V-shaped fold. By Volta phase plate cryo-electron tomography we show that VP5 is monomeric on the viral surface, and we establish the orientation of the molecules with respect to the viral membrane. We also show that the viral membrane fuses with the host cytoplasmic membrane in a process mediated by VP5. This sheds light on protein structures involved in prokaryotic membrane fusion.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/química , Proteínas de Fusão de Membrana/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Halorubrum/virologia , Fusão de Membrana , Proteínas de Fusão de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Fusão de Membrana/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Vírion/química
4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(1)2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367000

RESUMO

While filamentous cyanobacteria play a crucial role in food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycling of many aquatic ecosystems around the globe, the knowledge regarding the phages infecting them is limited. Here, we describe the complete genome of the virulent cyanophage vB_AphaS-CL131 (here, CL 131), a Siphoviridae phage that infects the filamentous diazotrophic bloom-forming cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae in the brackish Baltic Sea. CL 131 features a 112,793-bp double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome encompassing 149 putative open reading frames (ORFs), of which the majority (86%) lack sequence homology to genes with known functions in other bacteriophages or bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CL 131 possibly represents a new evolutionary lineage within the group of cyanophages infecting filamentous cyanobacteria, which form a separate cluster from phages infecting unicellular cyanobacteria. CL 131 encodes a putative type V-U2 CRISPR-Cas system with one spacer (out of 10) targeting a DNA primase pseudogene in a cyanobacterium and a putative type II toxin-antitoxin system, consisting of a GNAT family N-acetyltransferase and a protein of unknown function containing the PRK09726 domain (characteristic of HipB antitoxins). Comparison of CL 131 proteins to reads from Baltic Sea and other available fresh- and brackish-water metagenomes and analysis of CRISPR-Cas arrays in publicly available A. flos-aquae genomes demonstrated that phages similar to CL 131 are present and dynamic in the Baltic Sea and share a common history with their hosts dating back at least several decades. In addition, different CRISPR-Cas systems within individual A. flos-aquae genomes targeted several sequences in the CL 131 genome, including genes related to virion structure and morphogenesis. Altogether, these findings revealed new genomic information for exploring viral diversity and provide a model system for investigation of virus-host interactions in filamentous cyanobacteria.IMPORTANCE The genomic characterization of novel cyanophage vB_AphaS-CL131 and the analysis of its genomic features in the context of other viruses, metagenomic data, and host CRISPR-Cas systems contribute toward a better understanding of aquatic viral diversity and distribution in general and of brackish-water cyanophages infecting filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea in particular. The results of this study revealed previously undescribed features of cyanophage genomes (e.g., self-excising intein-containing putative dCTP deaminase and putative cyanophage-encoded CRISPR-Cas and toxin-antitoxin systems) and can therefore be used to predict potential interactions between bloom-forming cyanobacteria and their cyanophages.


Assuntos
Aphanizomenon/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Siphoviridae/genética , Sequência de Bases , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , DNA Viral/análise , Lituânia , Filogenia , Siphoviridae/classificação
5.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245679

RESUMO

N-glycosylation is a post-translational modification that occurs in all three domains. In Archaea, however, N-linked glycans present a degree of compositional diversity not observed in either Eukarya or Bacteria. As such, it is surprising that nonulosonic acids (NulOs), nine-carbon sugars that include sialic acids, pseudaminic acids, and legionaminic acids, are routinely detected as components of protein-linked glycans in Eukarya and Bacteria but not in Archaea. In the following, we report that the N-linked glycan attached to the S-layer glycoprotein of the haloarchaea Halorubrum sp. PV6 includes an N-formylated legionaminic acid. Analysis of the Halorubrum sp. PV6 genome led to the identification of sequences predicted to comprise the legionaminic acid biosynthesis pathway. The transcription of pathway genes was confirmed, as was the co-transcription of several of these genes. In addition, the activities of LegI, which catalyzes the condensation of 2,4-di-N-acetyl-6-deoxymannose and phosphoenolpyruvate to generate legionaminic acid, and LegF, which catalyzes the addition of cytidine monophosphate (CMP) to legionaminic acid, both heterologously expressed in Haloferax volcanii, were demonstrated. Further genome analysis predicts that the genes encoding enzymes of the legionaminic acid biosynthetic pathway are clustered together with sequences seemingly encoding components of the N-glycosylation pathway in this organism. In defining the first example of a legionaminic acid biosynthesis pathway in Archaea, the findings reported here expand our insight into archaeal N-glycosylation, an almost universal post-translational modification in this domain of life.

6.
J Gen Virol ; 98(12): 2916-2917, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125455

RESUMO

Members of the family Pleolipoviridae (termed pleolipoviruses) are pseudo-spherical and pleomorphic archaeal viruses. The enveloped virion is a simple membrane vesicle, which encloses different types of DNA genomes of approximately 7-16 kbp (or kilonucleotides). Typically, virions contain a single type of transmembrane (spike) protein at the envelope and a single type of membrane protein, which is embedded in the envelope and located in the internal side of the membrane. All viruses infect extremely halophilic archaea in the class Halobacteria (phylum Euryarchaeota). Pleolipoviruses have a narrow host range and a persistent, non-lytic life cycle. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pleolipoviridae which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pleolipoviridae.


Assuntos
Vírus/classificação , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
7.
Arch Virol ; 161(1): 249-56, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26459284

RESUMO

Viruses infecting archaea show a variety of virion morphotypes, and they are currently classified into more than ten viral families or corresponding groups. A pleomorphic virus morphotype is very common among haloarchaeal viruses, and to date, several such viruses have been isolated. Here, we propose the classification of eight such viruses and formation of a new family, Pleolipoviridae (from the Greek pleo for more or many and lipos for lipid), containing three genera, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammapleolipovirus. The proposal is currently under review by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae infect halophilic archaea and are nonlytic. They share structural and genomic features and differ from any other classified virus. The virion of pleolipoviruses is composed of a pleomorphic membrane vesicle enclosing the genome. All pleolipoviruses have two major structural protein species, internal membrane and spike proteins. Although the genomes of the pleolipoviruses are single- or double-stranded, linear or circular DNA molecules, they share the same genome organization and gene synteny and show significant similarity at the amino acid level. The canonical features common to all members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae show that they are closely related and thus form a new viral family.


Assuntos
Archaea/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus de Archaea/classificação , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Sequência de Bases , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
8.
Adv Virus Res ; 92: 1-61, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25701885

RESUMO

Lipid-containing bacteriophages were discovered late and considered to be rare. After further phage isolations and the establishment of the domain Archaea, several new prokaryotic viruses with lipids were observed. Consequently, the presence of lipids in prokaryotic viruses is reasonably common. The wealth of information about how prokaryotic viruses use their lipids comes from a few well-studied model viruses (PM2, PRD1, and ϕ6). These bacteriophages derive their lipid membranes selectively from the host during the virion assembly process which, in the case of PM2 and PRD1, culminates in the formation of protein capsid with an inner membrane, and for ϕ6 an outer envelope. Several inner membrane-containing viruses have been described for archaea, and their lipid acquisition models are reminiscent to those of PM2 and PRD1. Unselective acquisition of lipids has been observed for bacterial mycoplasmaviruses and archaeal pleolipoviruses, which resemble each other by size, morphology, and life style. In addition to these shared morphotypes of bacterial and archaeal viruses, archaea are infected by viruses with unique morphotypes, such as lemon-shaped, helical, and globular ones. It appears that structurally related viruses may or may not have a lipid component in the virion, suggesting that the significance of viral lipids might be to provide viruses extended means to interact with the host cell.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/química , Bacteriófagos/química , Lipídeos/química , Vírus de Archaea/classificação , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Vírus de Archaea/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo
9.
Environ Microbiol ; 17(10): 3628-41, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25156651

RESUMO

Heterotrophic bacteria are the major prokaryotic component of the Baltic Sea ice microbiome, and it is postulated that phages are among their major parasites. In this study, we sequenced the complete genomes of six earlier reported phage isolates from the Baltic Sea ice infecting Shewanella sp. and Flavobacterium sp. hosts as well as characterized the phage-host interactions. Based on the genome sequences, the six phages were classified into five new genera. Only two phages, 1/4 and 1/40, both infecting Shewanella sp. strains, showed significant nucleotide sequence similarity to each other and could be grouped into the same genus. These two phages are also related to Vibrio-specific phages sharing approximately 25% of the predicted gene products. Nevertheless, cross-titrations showed that the cold-active phages studied are host specific: none of the seven additionally tested, closely related Shewanella strains served as hosts for the phages. Adsorption experiments of two Shewanella phages, 1/4 and 3/49, conducted at 4 °C and at 15 °C revealed relatively fast adsorption rates that are, for example, comparable with those of phages infective in mesophilic conditions. Despite the small number of Shewanella phages characterized here, we could already find different types of phage-host interactions including a putative abortive infection.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/classificação , Flavobacterium/virologia , Camada de Gelo/virologia , Shewanella/virologia , Vibrio/virologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Processos Heterotróficos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oceanos e Mares , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Front Microbiol ; 5: 84, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24659986

RESUMO

Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities.

11.
Extremophiles ; 18(1): 121-30, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24297705

RESUMO

In search for sea ice bacteria and their phages from the Baltic Sea ice, two ice samples were collected from land-fast ice in a south-west Finland coastal site in February and March 2011. Bacteria were isolated from the melted sea ice samples and phages were screened from the same samples for 43 purified isolates. Plaque-producing phages were found for 15 bacterial isolates at 3 °C. Ten phage isolates were successfully plaque purified and eight of them were chosen for particle purification to analyze their morphology and structural proteins. Phage 1/32 infecting an isolate affiliated to phylum Bacteroidetes (Flavobacterium sp.) is a siphovirus and six phages infecting isolates affiliated to γ-Proteobacteria (Shewanella sp.) hosts were myoviruses. Cross titrations between the hosts showed that all studied phages are host specific. Phage solutions, host growth and phage infection were tested in different temperatures revealing phage temperature tolerance up to 45 °C, whereas phage infection was in most of the cases retarded above 15 °C. This study is the first to report isolation and cultivation of ice bacteria and cold-active phages from the Baltic Sea ice.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Flavobacterium/virologia , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Shewanella/virologia , Temperatura Baixa , Finlândia , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Shewanella/isolamento & purificação
12.
RNA Biol ; 10(5): 803-16, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23470522

RESUMO

The complete genome sequences of archaeal tailed viruses are currently highly underrepresented in sequence databases. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 10 new tailed viruses infecting different haloarchaeal hosts. Among these, only two viral genomes are closely related to each other and to previously described haloviruses HF1 and HF2. The approximately 760 kb of new genomic sequences in total shows no matches to CRISPR/Cas spacer sequences in haloarchaeal host genomes. Despite their high divergence, we were able to identify virion structural and assembly genes as well as genes coding for DNA and RNA metabolic functions. Interestingly, we identified many genes and genomic features that are shared with tailed bacteriophages, consistent with the hypothesis that haloarchaeal and bacterial tailed viruses share common ancestry, and that a viral lineage containing archaeal viruses, bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses predates the division of the three major domains of non-viral life. However, as in tailed viruses in general and in haloarchaeal tailed viruses in particular, there are still a considerable number of predicted genes of unknown function.


Assuntos
Archaea/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Genoma Viral , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Archaea/genética , Vírus de Archaea/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Archaea ; 2012: 384919, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23049284

RESUMO

Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/química , Lipídeos/análise , Lipoproteínas/química , Lipídeos de Membrana/análise , Membranas/química , Proteínas Virais/química
14.
J Bacteriol ; 194(18): 4810-22, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22753062

RESUMO

When analyzing the secretome of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, we identified hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) as one of the secreted proteins. Hcp is assumed to be an extracellular component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS). Two copies of hcp genes are present in the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 genome, hcp1 (PSPTO_2539) and hcp2 (PSPTO_5435). We studied the expression patterns of the hcp genes and tested the fitness of hcp knockout mutants in host plant colonization and in intermicrobial competition. We found that the hcp2 gene is expressed most actively at the stationary growth phase and that the Hcp2 protein is secreted via the T6SS and appears in the culture medium as covalently linked dimers. Expression of hcp2 is not induced in planta and does not contribute to virulence in or colonization of tomato or Arabidopsis plants. Instead, hcp2 is required for survival in competition with enterobacteria and yeasts, and its function is associated with the suppression of the growth of these competitors. This is the first report on bacterial T6SS-associated genes functioning in competition with yeast. Our results suggest that the T6SS of P. syringae may play an important role in bacterial fitness, allowing this plant pathogen to survive under conditions where it has to compete with other microorganisms for resources.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Meios de Cultura/química , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Multimerização Proteica , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 40(12): 5523-34, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22396526

RESUMO

Archaeal viruses have been the subject of recent interest due to the diversity discovered in their virion architectures. Recently, a new group of haloarchaeal pleomorphic viruses has been discovered. It is distinctive in terms of the virion morphology and different genome types (ssDNA/dsDNA) harboured by rather closely related representatives. To date there are seven isolated viruses belonging to this group. Most of these share a cluster of five conserved genes, two of which encode major structural proteins. Putative proviruses and proviral remnants containing homologues of the conserved gene cluster were also identified suggesting a long-standing relationship of these viruses with their hosts. Comparative genomic analysis revealed three different ways of the genome organization, which possibly reflect different replication strategies employed by these viruses. The dsDNA genomes of two of these viruses were shown to contain single-strand interruptions. Further studies on one of the genomes suggested that the interruptions are located along the genome in a sequence-specific manner and exhibit polarity in distribution.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus de Archaea/classificação , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , DNA Viral/química , Genes Virais , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nucleosídeos/química , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Proteínas Virais/genética
16.
Mol Microbiol ; 84(3): 578-93, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22435790

RESUMO

VP4, the major structural protein of the haloarchaeal pleomorphic virus, HRPV-1, is glycosylated. To define the glycan structure attached to this protein, oligosaccharides released by ß-elimination were analysed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Such analyses showed that the major VP4-derived glycan is a pentasaccharide comprising glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, sulphated glucuronic acid and a terminal 5-N-formyl-legionaminic acid residue. This is the first observation of legionaminic acid, a sialic acid-like sugar, in an archaeal-derived glycan structure. The importance of this residue for viral infection was demonstrated upon incubation with N-acetylneuraminic acid, a similar monosaccharide. Such treatment reduced progeny virus production by half 4 h post infection. LC-ESI/MS analysis confirmed the presence of pentasaccharide precursors on two different VP4-derived peptides bearing the N-glycosylation signal, NTT. The same sites modified by the native host, Halorubrum sp. strain PV6, were also recognized by the Haloferax volcanii N-glycosylation apparatus, as determined by LC-ESI/MS of heterologously expressed VP4. Here, however, the N-linked pentasaccharide was the same as shown to decorate the S-layer glycoprotein in this species. Hence, N-glycosylation of the haloarchaeal viral protein, VP4, is host-specific. These results thus present additional examples of archaeal N-glycosylation diversity and show the ability of Archaea to modify heterologously expressed proteins.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/metabolismo , Haloferax volcanii/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Vírus de Archaea/química , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Glicosilação , Haloferax volcanii/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Ácidos Siálicos/análise , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
17.
Environ Microbiol ; 14(2): 426-40, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22003883

RESUMO

Hypersaline environments are dominated by archaea and bacteria and are almost entirely devoid of eukaryotic organisms. In addition, hypersaline environments contain considerable numbers of viruses. Currently, there is only a limited amount of information about these haloviruses. The ones described in detail mostly resemble head-tail bacteriophages, whereas observations based on direct microscopy of the hypersaline environmental samples highlight the abundance of non-tailed virus-like particles. Here we studied nine spatially distant hypersaline environments for the isolation of new halophilic archaea (61 isolates), halophilic bacteria (24 isolates) and their viruses (49 isolates) using a culture-dependent approach. The obtained virus isolates approximately double the number of currently described archaeal viruses. The new isolates could be divided into three tailed and two non-tailed virus morphotypes, suggesting that both types of viruses are widely distributed and characteristic for haloarchaeal viruses. We determined the sensitivity of the hosts against all isolated viruses. It appeared that the host ranges of numerous viruses extend to hosts in distant locations, supporting the idea that there is a global exchange of microbes and their viruses. It suggests that hypersaline environments worldwide function like a single habitat.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Tolerância ao Sal , Vírus/classificação , Archaea/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/classificação , Vírus de Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/virologia , Bacteriófagos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Virol ; 84(7): 3682-9, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20089654

RESUMO

During the search for haloarchaeal viruses, we isolated and characterized a new pleomorphic lipid-containing virus, Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 1 (HHPV-1), that infects the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica. The virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 8,082 bp in size. The organization of the genome shows remarkable synteny and amino acid sequence similarity to the genome and predicted proteins of the halovirus HRPV-1, a pleomorphic single-stranded DNA virus that infects a halophilic archaeon Halorubrum sp. Analysis of the two halovirus sequences, as well as the entire nucleotide sequence of the 10.8-kb pHK2-plasmid and a 12.6-kb chromosomal region in Haloferax volcanii, allows us to suggest a new group of closely related viruses with genomes of either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. Currently, closely related viruses are considered to have the same genome type. Our observation clearly contradicts this categorization and indicates that we should reconsider the way we classify viruses. Our results also provide a new example of related viruses where the viral structural proteins have not diverged as much as the proteins associated with genome replication. This result further strengthens the proposal for higher-order classification to be based on virion architecture rather than on genome type or replication mechanism.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/genética , DNA Viral/análise , Haloarcula/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/química , Vírus de Archaea/classificação , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Plasmídeos , Proteínas Virais/análise
19.
J Virol ; 84(2): 788-98, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19864380

RESUMO

Only a few archaeal viruses have been subjected to detailed structural analyses. Major obstacles have been the extreme conditions such as high salinity or temperature needed for the propagation of these viruses. In addition, unusual morphotypes of many archaeal viruses have made it difficult to obtain further information on virion architectures. We used controlled virion dissociation to reveal the structural organization of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 (HRPV-1) infecting an extremely halophilic archaeal host. The single-stranded DNA genome is enclosed in a pleomorphic membrane vesicle without detected nucleoproteins. VP4, the larger major structural protein of HRPV-1, forms glycosylated spikes on the virion surface and VP3, the smaller major structural protein, resides on the inner surface of the membrane vesicle. Together, these proteins organize the structure of the membrane vesicle. Quantitative lipid comparison of HRPV-1 and its host Halorubrum sp. revealed that HRPV-1 acquires lipids nonselectively from the host cell membrane, which is typical of pleomorphic enveloped viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/ultraestrutura , DNA de Cadeia Simples/ultraestrutura , Genoma Viral , Halorubrum/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/ultraestrutura , Vírus de Archaea/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/ultraestrutura , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Halorubrum/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Vírion/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura
20.
Mol Microbiol ; 72(2): 307-19, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19298373

RESUMO

Archaeal organisms are generally known as diverse extremophiles, but they play a crucial role also in moderate environments. So far, only about 50 archaeal viruses have been described in some detail. Despite this, unusual viral morphotypes within this group have been reported. Interestingly, all isolated archaeal viruses have a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. To further characterize the diversity of archaeal viruses, we screened highly saline water samples for archaea and their viruses. Here, we describe a new haloarchaeal virus, Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 (HRPV-1) that was isolated from a solar saltern and infects an indigenous host belonging to the genus Halorubrum. Infection does not cause cell lysis, but slightly retards growth of the host and results in high replication of the virus. The sequenced genome (7048 nucleotides) of HRPV-1 is single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which makes HRPV-1 the first characterized archaeal virus that does not have a dsDNA genome. In spite of this, similarities to another archaeal virus were observed. Two major structural proteins were recognized in protein analyses, and by lipid analyses it was shown that the virion contains a membrane. Electron microscopy studies indicate that the enveloped virion is pleomorphic (approximately 44 x 55 nm). HRPV-1 virion may represent commonly used virion architecture, and it seems that structure-based virus lineages may be extended to non-icosahedral viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , Halorubrum/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/classificação , Vírus de Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de Archaea/ultraestrutura , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de DNA/ultraestrutura , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Microscopia Eletrônica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Vírion/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...