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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(5): 483-490, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714427

RESUMO

There are limited data on infants with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the neonatal period. We investigated the association between the timing of ART initiation and time-to-suppression among infants who tested HIV-positive and initiated ART within the first 28 days of life. The effect was estimated using cumulative probability flexible parametric spline models and a multivariable generalized additive mixed model was performed to test nonlinear associations. Forty-four neonates were included. Nineteen (43.2%) initiated ART within 7 days of life and 25 (56.8%) from 8 to 28 days. Infants treated within 7 days were 4-fold more likely to suppress earlier than those treated after 7 days [Hazard ratio (HR) 4.01 (1.7-9.5)]. For each week the ART initiation was delayed, the probability of suppression decreased by 35% (HR 0.65 [0.46-0.92]). Age at ART start was linearly associated with time-to-suppression. However, a linear association with normally distributed residuals was not found between baseline viral load and time-to-suppression, with no association found when baseline viral loads were ≤5 log(10) copies/mL, but with exponential increase in time-to-suppression with > log5 copies/mL at baseline. Starting ART within 7 days of life led to 4-fold faster time to viral suppression, in comparison to initiation from 8 to 28 days.

2.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional, clinical and immunological status of children at HIV diagnosis in the continental region of Equatorial Guinea. METHODS: Children <18 years diagnosed with HIV between 2009 and 2017 were included. Clinical, immunological and nutritional data were collected. Weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age Z-scores were calculated using WHO Child Growth Standards. The population was assessed in two equal periods (2009-2013 and 2014-2017) from the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 213 children were diagnosed with HIV (49.3% males), median age 3.8 years (IQR: 1.5-8.2). A total of 121 cases (56.8%) were at WHO clinical stage III, and 53 (24.9%) were at WHO clinical stage IV. CDC immunological stage II was diagnosed in 51/130 (39.2%) and CDC stage III in 44/130 (33.8%). About 56.2% of children were underweight (weight-for-age <-2 SD); 20.1% moderately and 36.1% severely so. About 27.6% of children were wasted (weight-for-height <-2 SD); 11.9% moderately and 15.7% severely so. About 56.3% of children were stunted (height-for-age <-2 SD); 20.7% moderately and 35.6% severely so. The prevalence of wasting was higher in children ≤5 years than in children >5 years (36.4% vs. 19.1%, P = 0.026). In the second period, the prevalence of moderate-severe immunodeficiency decreased (87.2% to 67.0%, P = 0.018), without significant differences in the other nutritional or clinical data. Severe underweight was a risk factor for moderate-severe immunodeficiency (aOR: 4 [95% CI: 1.4-11.4], P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: We highlight a high proportion of malnutrition at the time of HIV diagnosis in Guinea´s paediatric population. Early diagnosis of HIV infection is a priority, achievable by training Guinea´s physicians to suspect HIV early, introducing HIV molecular diagnostic techniques and ensuring intensive nutritional treatment.

3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(12): 1230-1235, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (CMVc) affects 0.7%-6% of recent births. Among its clinical manifestations are low weight and length at birth. OBJECTIVE: Describe the growth patterns of children with CMVc in their early years. METHODS: Observational, multicenter study of patients with CMVc. Anthropometric data were collected during the first 2 years of life and compared with World Health Organization standards. RESULTS: Anthropometric characteristics of 383 children with CMVc were studied, of which 198 (51%) were symptomatic at birth. At birth, 9% were small for gestational age (SGA) in terms of their weight and length and 17% had microcephaly. At 24 ± 3 months, 10% had a weight and length ≤2 SD, and 13% a head circumference ≤2 SD. Of those who were SGA at birth, at 24 ± 3 months >20% remained at ≤2 SD of their weight and length. Conversely, 75% of children with low weight or length at 24 ± 3 had not been SGA at birth. 20% of infants with microcephaly at birth remained with microcephaly, and 10% of those without microcephaly developed it at 24 ± 3 months. The average growth rate in length and weight was normal. Patients who were symptomatic at birth, premature and with motor and neurocognitive impairment had a significantly higher risk of low weight and length at 24 ± 3 months. CONCLUSION: Around 10% of children with CMVc are at ≤2 SD in weight, length and head circumference at 24 ± 3 months. The lack of adequate growth is associated with symptoms at birth, prematurity and motor and neurocognitive impairment. Growth impairment could be incorporated into the symptomatic spectrum of CMVc.

4.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515866

RESUMO

HIV co-infection has been suggested to play a deleterious role on the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis among vertically HCV-infected children. The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal evolution of vertically acquired HIV/HCV co-infection in youths, in comparison with HCV infection alone. This was a retrospective, multicentre study including vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients and age- and sex-matched vertically HCV-mono-infected patients. Progression to advanced liver fibrosis, defined as F3 or more by elastography or METAVIR biopsy staging, and response to treatment were compared by means of univariate and multivariate regression analyses and Cox regression models. Sixty-seven co-infected patients were compared with 67 matched HCV-mono-infected patients. No progression to advanced liver disease was observed during the first decade. At a median age of 20.0 [19.0, 22.0] years, 26.7% co-infected vs 20% mono-infected had progressed to advanced fibrosis (P = .617). Peg-IFN/RBV for HCV treatment was given to 37.9% vs 86.6% (P-value < .001). At treatment initiation, co-infected patients were older (16.9 ± 4.1 vs 11.7 ± 4.5 years, P < .001), and 47.1% vs 7.1% showed advanced fibrosis (P < .003), with no differences in hard-to-treat genotype distribution. Sustained viral response was comparable between groups (43.5% vs 44.0%, P = .122). In vertically HIV/HCV-co-infected patients, the progression to liver fibrosis was rare during childhood. At the end of adolescence, over 25% of patients displayed advanced liver disease. Response to Peg-IFN/RBV was poor and comparable in both groups, supporting the need for fast access to early treatment with direct-acting antivirals against HCV for vertically co-infected patients.

5.
Lancet HIV ; 6(9): e623-e631, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498110

RESUMO

Despite considerable progress in paediatric HIV treatment and timely revision of global policies recommending the use of more effective and tolerable antiretroviral regimens, optimal antiretroviral formulations for infants, children, and adolescents remain limited. The Paediatric Antiretroviral Drug Optimization group reviews medium-term and long-term priorities for antiretroviral drug development to guide industry and other stakeholders on formulations most needed for low-income and middle-income countries. The group convened in December, 2018, to assess progress since the previous meeting and update the list of priority formulations. Issues relating to drug optimisation for neonatal prophylaxis and paediatric treatment, and those relating to the investigation of novel antiretrovirals in adolescents and pregnant and lactating women were also discussed. Continued focus on identifying, prioritising, and providing access to optimal antiretroviral formulations suitable for infants, children, and adolescents is key to ensuring that global HIV treatment targets can be met.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with marked immune reconstitution. Although a long term viral suppression is achievable, not all children however, attain complete immunological recovery due to persistent immune activation. We use CD4/CD8 ratio like a marker of immune reconstitution. METHODS: Perinatal HIV-infected children who underwent a first-line cART, achieved viral suppression in the first year and maintained it for more than 5 years, with no viral rebound were included. Logistic models were applied to estimate the prognostic factors, clinical characteristics at cART start, of a lower CD4/CD8 ratio at the last visit. RESULTS: 146 HIV-infected children were included: 77% Caucasian, 45% male and 28% CDC C. Median age at cART initiation was 2.3 years (IQR: 0.5-6.2). 42 (30%) children received mono-dual therapy previously to cART. Time of undetectable viral load was 9.5 years (IQR: 7.8, 12.5). 33% of the children not achieved CD4/CD8 ratio >1. Univariate analysis showed an association between CD4/CD8 <1 with lower CD4 nadir and baseline CD4; older age at diagnosis and at cART initiation; and a previous exposure to mono-dual therapy. Multivariate analysis also revealed relationship between CD4/CD8 <1 and lower CD4 nadir (OR: 1.002, CI 95% 1.000-1.004) as well as previous exposure to mono-dual therapy (OR: 0.16, CI 95% 0.003-0.720). CONCLUSIONS: CD4/CD8 >1 was not achieved in 33% of the children. Lower CD4 nadir and previous exposure to suboptimal therapy, before initiating cART, are factors showing independently association with a worse immune recovery (CD4/CD8 < 1).

7.
World J Pediatr ; 15(5): 492-498, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are scarce. This study aimed to compare HRQoL of PHIV+ to sociodemographic-matched youth not living with HIV (HIV-), Spanish general youth population, and to explore associations between sociodemographic variables, drug consumption, and HRQoL. METHODS: PHIV+ youth were randomly selected from CoRISpe database (Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network). HRQoL was evaluated by SF-12v2. RESULTS: Thirty-nine PHIV+ youth (mean age: 23.36 years, SD = 3.83) and thirty-nine HIV- youth (mean age: 22.97 years, SD = 3.80) participated in this study. PHIV+ obtained lower scores in SF-12 physical health subscale (PCS) than HIV- (P = 0.001) and Spanish general youth population (P = 0.006). PHIV+ had lower scores on the mental health subscale (MCS) than the Spanish general youth population (P < 0.001). PHIV+ who were at school obtained better scores than those were not at school. PHIV+ youth who had used cocaine and cannabis had lower scores in MCS (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for HRQoL management in the associated medical follow-up.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(2): 269-276, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children aged 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2-4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24-45] %, CD8% 28 [18-36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4-5.9] copies per milliliter. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6-19.3] months. After suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL 50-400 followed by VL <50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL ≥400 followed by VL <50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6195] copies/10 PBMC. Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, P = 0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, P = 0.0022) and the absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/suboptimal response, P = 0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1-infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169837

RESUMO

Background: Assays to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir size require large amounts of blood, which represents a drawback especially in pediatric settings. We investigated whether HIV-antibody repertoire could estimate the viral reservoir size. Moreover, we assessed the magnitude of HIV-antibody response as a predictor of time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody responses to 10 different viral proteins were evaluated by HIV Western blot (WB) kit and a WB score was assigned to each patient. Patients were classified in 2 subgroups based on the timing of ART initiation (early treated [ET], 0-24 weeks and late treated [LT], >24 weeks). Human immunodeficiency virus-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction on total peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Logistic regression and principal component analysis were built on these data to test the ability of WB score to predict the expected value of HIV-DNA and the timing of ART initiation. Results: Sixty-nine perinatally HIV-infected children were evaluated. Reduced HIV-specific antibody responses and lower size of HIV-DNA were observed in ET compared with LT patients (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively). We found that WB score correlates with HIV-DNA (P = .032) and timing of ART initiation (P < .001). Based on the logistic regression analysis, we found that WB score can predict the HIV-DNA size and the timing of ART initiation with an Akaike information criterion of -118.13 and -151.51, respectively. Conclusions: Western blot score can estimate HIV-DNA size and timing of ART initiation in long-term virally suppressed children. This rapid, inexpensive, and easily reproducible tool can provide useful information to identify potential candidates for HIV remission studies.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting ART <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2,4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24,45] %, CD8% 28 [18,36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4,5.9] copies/ml. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6,19.3] months. Following suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL50-400 followed by VL<50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL≥400 followed by VL<50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6,195] copies/10 PBMC.Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, p=0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, p=0.0022) and absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/ suboptimal response, p=0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSION: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1 infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(3): e48-e57, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The expanded use of long-term antiretroviral treatments in infected children may exacerbate the problem of drug resistance mutations selection, which can compromise treatment efficiency. OBJECTIVE: We describe the temporal trends of HIV drug resistance mutations and the HIV-1 variants during 23 years (1993 to March 2016) in the Madrid cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected patients with at least one available HIV-1 pol sequence/genotypic resistance profile, establishing different groups according to the sampling year of first resistance data. We determined the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations or acquired drug resistance mutations (DRM), the drug susceptibility among resistant viruses and HIV-1 variants characterized by phylogeny across time. RESULTS: A total of 245 pediatric patients were selected, being mainly female, Spanish native, perinatally infected and carrying HIV-1 subtype B. At first sampling, most pediatric patients were on antiretroviral therapy and heavily pretreated. During 1993 to 2016, transmitted drug resistance mutations was found in 13 (26%) of 50 naive children [non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), 14.6%; nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), 10.4%; protease inhibitors, 8.7%]. DRM appeared in 139 (73.2%) of 190 pretreated patients (NRTI, 64.5%; NNRTI, 36%; protease inhibitors, 35.1%). DRM to NNRTI was higher in last 5 years. Non-B variants infected 14.5% of children and adolescents of the Madrid Cohort, being mainly intersubtype recombinants (76.5%), including complex unique recombinant strains. They caused 3.4% infections before 2000, rising to 85.7% during 2011 to 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic surveillance resistance and molecular epidemiology studies in long-term pretreated HIV-infected pediatric populations are required to optimize treatment regimens. Results will permit a better understanding of long-time dynamics of viral resistance and HIV-1 variants in Spain.

13.
J Infect ; 76(3): 258-269, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This phase IIIb, open-label, multicentre, extension study (NCT01894919) evaluated long-term antibody persistence and booster responses in participants who received a reduced 2 + 1 or licensed 3 + 1 meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB)-schedule (infants), or 2-dose catch-up schedule (2-10-year-olds) in parent study NCT01339923. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children aged 35 months to 12 years (N = 851) were enrolled. Follow-on participants (N = 646) were randomised 2:1 to vaccination and non-vaccination subsets; vaccination subsets received an additional 4CMenB dose. Newly enrolled vaccine-naïve participants (N = 205) received 2 catch-up doses, 1 month apart (accelerated schedule). Antibody levels were determined using human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA) against MenB indicator strains for fHbp, NadA, PorA and NHBA. Safety was also evaluated. RESULTS: Antibody levels declined across follow-on groups at 24-36 months versus 1 month post-vaccination. Antibody persistence and booster responses were similar between infants receiving the reduced or licensed 4CMenB-schedule. An additional dose in follow-on participants induced higher hSBA titres than a first dose in vaccine-naïve children. Two catch-up doses in vaccine-naïve participants induced robust antibody responses. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSION: Antibody persistence, booster responses, and safety profiles were similar with either 2 + 1 or 3 + 1 vaccination schedules. The accelerated schedule in vaccine-naïve children induced robust antibody responses.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(11): 1597-1603, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190337

RESUMO

Globally 1.8 million children are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet only 51% of those eligible actually start treatment. Research and development (R&D) for pediatric antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a lengthy process and lags considerably behind drug development in adults. Providing safe, effective, and well-tolerated drugs for children remains critical to ensuring scale-up globally. We review current approaches to R&D for pediatric ARVs and suggest innovations to enable simplified, faster, and more comprehensive strategies to develop optimal formulations. Several approaches could be adopted, including focusing on a limited number of prioritized formulations and strengthening existing partnerships to ensure that pediatric investigation plans are developed early in the drug development process. Simplified and more efficient mechanisms to undertake R&D need to be put in place, and financing mechanisms must be made more sustainable. Lessons learned from HIV should be shared to support progress in developing pediatric formulations for other diseases, including tuberculosis and viral hepatitis.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Aprovação de Drogas/métodos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Criança , Aprovação de Drogas/economia , Aprovação de Drogas/organização & administração , Combinação de Medicamentos , Composição de Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
18.
J Pediatr ; 185: 117-123.e6, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28363363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether dexamethasone (DXM) decreases the time to recovery in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 children, ranging in age from 1 month to 14 years, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pleural effusion. Patients received either intravenous DXM (0.25?mg/kg/dose) or placebo every 6 hours over a period of 48 hours, along with antibiotics. The primary endpoint was the time to recovery in hours, defined objectively. We also evaluated complications and adverse events. RESULTS: Among the 60 randomized patients (mean age, 4.7 years; 58% female), 57 (95%) completed the study. Compared with placebo recipients, the patients receiving DXM had a shorter time to recovery, after adjustment by severity group and stratification by center (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.10-3.45; P?=?.021). The median time to recovery for patients receiving DXM was 68 hours (2.8 days) shorter than patients receiving placebo (109 hours vs 177 hours; P?=?.037). In exploratory subgroup analysis, the median time to recovery for patients with simple effusion receiving DXM was 76 hours (3.1 days) shorter than for patients with simple effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.017). The median time to recovery for patients with complicated effusion receiving DXM was 14 hours (0.5 days) shorter than for patients with complicated effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.66). The difference in the effect of DXM in the 2 severity groups was not statistically significant (P?=?.138 for interaction). There were no significant differences in complications or adverse events attributable to the study drugs, except for hyperglycemia. CONCLUSION: In this trial, DXM seemed to be a safe and effective adjunctive therapy for parapneumonic pleural effusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01261546.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Derrame Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(10): 1335-1342, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28158709

RESUMO

Background: DNA detection of human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a marker of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in congenital hCMV infection (cCMV), but its prognostic value is unknown. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective study was performed using the Spanish Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Database (REDICCMV; http://www.cmvcongenito.es). Newborns with cCMV and a lumbar puncture performed were included and classified according to their hCMV-PCR in CSF result (positive/negative). Clinical characteristics, neuroimaging abnormalities, plasma viral load, and audiological and neurological outcomes of both groups were compared. Results: A total of 136 neonates were included in the study: 21 (15.4%) with positive CSF hCMV-PCR and 115 (84.6%) with negative results. Seventeen patients (81%) in the positive group were symptomatic at birth compared with 52.2% of infants in the negative group (odds ratio [OR], 3.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-14.1; P = .01). Only 4 asymptomatic newborns (6.8%) had a positive CSF hCMV-PCR. There were no differences between groups regarding the rate of microcephaly, neuroimaging abnormalities, neurological sequelae at 6 months of age, or plasma viral load. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) at birth was associated with a positive CSF hCMV-PCR result (OR, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.08-11.27; P = .04), although no association was found at 6 months of age. Conclusions: A positive hCMV-PCR result in CSF is associated with symptomatic cCMV and SNHL at birth. However, no differences in neuroimaging studies, plasma viral load, or outcomes at 6 months were found. These results suggest that hCMV-PCR in CSF may not be a useful prognostic marker in cCMV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções Assintomáticas , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , DNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/virologia , Seguimentos , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/virologia , Neuroimagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Saliva/virologia , Punção Espinal , Carga Viral
20.
Pediatr Res ; 81(1-1): 80-87, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27653084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV-1 is necessary to reduce HIV-related mortality. As maternal antibodies transferred across the placenta may persist up to 18 mo, commercial virological assays (CVAs) are needed. This study compares four CVAs for EID using dried blood specimens (DBS) from HIV-1-exposed infants. METHODS: DBS from 68 infants born to HIV-1-infected women were collected from November 2012 to December 2013 in Equatorial Guinea. Four CVAs were performed: Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 kPCR assay, Roche CAP/CTM Quantitative Test v2.0, CAP/CTM Qualitative Tests v1.0 and v2.0. Definitive diagnosis was established following World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. RESULTS: Two HIV-1-infected infants (2.9%) were detected by the four CVAs while 49 (72%) resulted negative. Discordant results were observed in 17 (25%) infants and HIV-1 infection was excluded in 14 patients when virological and serological testing was performed in additional DBS. Different false-positive rates HIV-1 were observed with Roche assays. CONCLUSION: CVAs using DBS were useful for EID, although discrepant results were common. Further research is required to reduce false-positive results that could result in wrong diagnosis and unneeded treatment. We propose caution with low viral load (VL) values when using VL assays. Clear guidelines are required for EID of HIV-exposed infants with discrepant virological results.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1 , Adulto , Bioensaio/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Guiné Equatorial , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Virologia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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