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ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10210-10220, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442021


For quasi-freestanding 2H-TaS2 in monolayer thickness grown by in situ molecular beam epitaxy on graphene on Ir(111), we find unambiguous evidence for a charge density wave close to a 3 × 3 periodicity. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we determine the magnitude of the partial charge density wave gap. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, complemented by scanning tunneling spectroscopy for the unoccupied states, makes a tight-binding fit for the band structure of the TaS2 monolayer possible. As hybridization with substrate bands is absent, the fit yields a precise value for the doping of the TaS2 layer. Additional Li doping shifts the charge density wave to a 2 × 2 periodicity. Unexpectedly, the bilayer of TaS2 also displays a disordered 2 × 2 charge density wave. Calculations of the phonon dispersions based on a combination of density-functional theory, density-functional perturbation theory, and many-body perturbation theory enable us to provide phase diagrams for the TaS2 charge density wave as functions of doping, hybridization, and interlayer potentials, and offer insight into how they affect lattice dynamics and stability. Our theoretical considerations are consistent with the experimental work presented and shed light on previous experimental and theoretical investigations of related systems.

Sci Rep ; 4: 5498, 2014 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24975349


Human infants show spontaneous behaviours such as general movement, goal-directed behaviour, and self-motivated behaviour from a very early age. However, it is unclear how these behaviours are organised throughout development. A major hindrance to empirical investigation is that there is no common paradigm for all ages that can circumvent infants' underdeveloped verbal and motor abilities. Here, we propose a new paradigm, named the image-scratch task, using a gaze-contingent technique that is adaptable to various extents of motor ability. In this task, participants scratch off a black layer on a display to uncover pictures beneath it by using their gaze. We established quantitative criteria for spontaneous eye-movement based on adults' gaze-data and demonstrated that our task is useful for evaluating eye-movements motivated by outcome attractiveness in 8-month-olds. Finally, we discuss the potential of this paradigm for revealing the mechanisms and developmental transitions underlying infants' spontaneous and intentional behaviours.

Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Psicologia da Criança , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino