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1.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246557

RESUMO

Lignin solvolysis from the plant cell wall is the critical first step in lignin depolymerization processes involving whole biomass feedstocks. However, little is known about the coupled reaction kinetics and transport phenomena that govern the effective rates of lignin extraction. Here, we report a validated simulation framework that determines intrinsic, transport-independent kinetic parameters for the solvolysis of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose upon incorporation of feedstock characteristics for the methanol-based extraction of poplar as an example fractionation process. Lignin fragment diffusion is predicted to compete on the same time and length scales as reactions of lignin within cell walls and longitudinal pores of typical milled particle sizes, and mass transfer resistances are predicted to dominate the solvolysis of poplar particles that exceed approximately 2 mm in length. Beyond the approximately 2 mm threshold, effectiveness factors are predicted to be below 0.25, which implies that pore diffusion resistances may attenuate observable kinetic rate measurements by at least 75 % in such cases. Thus, researchers are recommended to conduct kinetic evaluations of lignin-first catalysts using biomass particles smaller than approximately 0.2 mm in length to avoid feedstock-specific mass transfer limitations in lignin conversion studies. Overall, this work highlights opportunities to improve lignin solvolysis by genetic engineering and provides actionable kinetic information to guide the design and scale-up of emerging biorefinery strategies.

2.
Nat Mater ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844277

RESUMO

Core-shell particles with earth-abundant cores represent an effective design strategy for improving the performance of noble metal catalysts, while simultaneously reducing the content of expensive noble metals1-4. However, the structural and catalytic stabilities of these materials often suffer during the harsh conditions encountered in important reactions, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)3-5. Here, we demonstrate that atomically thin Pt shells stabilize titanium tungsten carbide cores, even at highly oxidizing potentials. In situ, time-resolved experiments showed how the Pt coating protects the normally labile core against oxidation and dissolution, and detailed microscopy studies revealed the dynamics of partially and fully coated core-shell nanoparticles during potential cycling. Particles with complete Pt coverage precisely maintained their core-shell structure and atomic composition during accelerated electrochemical ageing studies consisting of over 10,000 potential cycles. The exceptional durability of fully coated materials highlights the potential of core-shell architectures using earth-abundant transition metal carbide (TMC) and nitride (TMN) cores for future catalytic applications.

3.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(10): 2971-2980, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553162

RESUMO

Zeolites are microporous crystalline materials with well-defined cavities and pores, which can be prepared under different pore topologies and chemical compositions. Their preparation is typically defined by multiple interconnected variables (e.g., reagent sources, molar ratios, aging treatments, reaction time and temperature, among others), but unfortunately their distinctive influence, particularly on the nucleation and crystallization processes, is still far from being understood. Thus, the discovery and/or optimization of specific zeolites is closely related to the exploration of the parametric space through trial-and-error methods, generally by studying the influence of each parameter individually. In the past decade, machine learning (ML) methods have rapidly evolved to address complex problems involving highly nonlinear or massively combinatorial processes that conventional approaches cannot solve. Considering the vast and interconnected multiparametric space in zeolite synthesis, coupled with our poor understanding of the mechanisms involved in their nucleation and crystallization, the use of ML is especially timely for improving zeolite synthesis. Indeed, the complex space of zeolite synthesis requires drawing inferences from incomplete and imperfect information, for which ML methods are very well-suited to replace the intuition-based approaches traditionally used to guide experimentation. In this Account, we contend that both existing and new ML approaches can provide the "missing link" needed to complete the traditional zeolite synthesis workflow used in our quest to rationalize zeolite synthesis. Within this context, we have made important efforts on developing ML tools in different critical areas, such as (1) data-mining tools to process the large amount of data generated using high-throughput platforms; (2) novel complex algorithms to predict the formation of energetically stable hypothetical zeolites and guide the synthesis of new zeolite structures; (3) new "ab initio" organic structure directing agent predictions to direct the synthesis of hypothetical or known zeolites; (4) an automated tool for nonsupervised data extraction and classification from published research articles. ML has already revolutionized many areas in materials science by enhancing our ability to map intricate behavior to process variables, especially in the absence of well-understood mechanisms. Undoubtedly, ML is a burgeoning field with many future opportunities for further breakthroughs to advance the design of molecular sieves. For this reason, this Account includes an outlook of future research directions based on current challenges and opportunities. We envision this Account will become a hallmark reference for both well-established and new researchers in the field of zeolite synthesis.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(29): 11641-11650, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306002

RESUMO

Copper-exchanged zeolites can continuously and selectively catalyze the partial oxidation of methane to methanol using only oxygen and water at low temperatures, but the genesis and nature of the active sites are currently unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that this reaction is catalyzed by a [Cu-O-Cu]2+ motif that forms via a hypothesized proton-aided diffusion of hydrated Cu ions within the cages of SSZ-13 zeolites. While various Cu configurations may be present and active for methane oxidation, a dimeric Cu motif is the primary active site for selective partial methane oxidation. Mechanistically, CH4 activation proceeds via rate-determining C-H scission to form a surface-bound C1 intermediate that can either be desorbed as methanol in the presence of H2O/H+ or completely oxidized to CO2 by gas-phase O2. High partial oxidation selectivity can be obtained with (i) high methane and water partial pressures and (ii) maximizing Cu dimer formation by using zeolites with high Al content and low Cu loadings.

5.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(5): 892-899, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139725

RESUMO

Zeolites are porous, aluminosilicate materials with many industrial and "green" applications. Despite their industrial relevance, many aspects of zeolite synthesis remain poorly understood requiring costly trial and error synthesis. In this paper, we create natural language processing techniques and text markup parsing tools to automatically extract synthesis information and trends from zeolite journal articles. We further engineer a data set of germanium-containing zeolites to test the accuracy of the extracted data and to discover potential opportunities for zeolites containing germanium. We also create a regression model for a zeolite's framework density from the synthesis conditions. This model has a cross-validated root mean squared error of 0.98 T/1000 Å3, and many of the model decision boundaries correspond to known synthesis heuristics in germanium-containing zeolites. We propose that this automatic data extraction can be applied to many different problems in zeolite synthesis and enable novel zeolite morphologies.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2033, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048697

RESUMO

The ratio of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units in lignin has been regarded as a major factor in determining the maximum monomer yield from lignin depolymerization. This limit arises from the notion that G units are prone to C-C bond formation during lignin biosynthesis, resulting in less ether linkages that generate monomers. This study uses reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) in flow-through reactors as an analytical tool to depolymerize lignin in poplar with naturally varying S/G ratios, and directly challenges the common conception that the S/G ratio predicts monomer yields. Rather, this work suggests that the plant controls C-O and C-C bond content by regulating monomer transport during lignin biosynthesis. Overall, our results indicate that additional factors beyond the monomeric composition of native lignin are important in developing a fundamental understanding of lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Lignina/biossíntese , Populus/metabolismo , Catálise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Variação Genética , Lignina/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Populus/genética
7.
ChemSusChem ; 12(10): 2171-2175, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848866

RESUMO

Strontium-substituted lanthanum cobaltite (La0.8 Sr0.2 CoO3 ) matrix-stabilized Co0 /CoII catalytic sites were prepared, which present tunable C-O and C-C hydrogenolysis activity for the vapor-phase upgrading of oxygenated arenes. CoII sites associated with oxygen vacancies were favored at low temperatures and performed selective C-O hydrogenolysis, in which Sr-substitution facilitated oxygen vacancy formation, leading to approximately 10 times higher reactivity compared to undoped LaCoO3 . Co0 sites were favored at high temperatures and performed extensive C-C bond hydrogenolysis, generating a wide range of alkanes. The lower reaction order with P H 2 (1.1±0.1) for C-C hydrogenolysis than for C-O hydrogenolysis (2.0±0.1) led to a high selectivity towards C-C hydrogenolysis at low P H 2 . The Co3 O4 surfaces featured a narrower temperature window for obtaining the respective optimal CoII and Co0 pairs compared to analogous perovskite surfaces; whereas, the perovskite matrix stabilizes these pairs for selective C-O and C-C hydrogenolysis. This stabilization effect offers an additional handle to control reactivity in oxide catalysts.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(34): 10669-10672, 2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096234

RESUMO

Industrial synthesis of succinic acid relies on hydrocarbon oxidation or biomass fermentation routes that suffer from energy-costly separation processes. Here we demonstrate an alternate route to succinic anhydrides via ß-lactone carbonylation by heterogeneous bimetallic ion-pair catalysis in Co(CO)4--incorporated Cr-MIL-101 (Co(CO)4⊂Cr-MIL-101, Cr-MIL-101 = Cr3O(BDC)3F, H2BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid). Postsynthetically introduced Co(CO)4- facilitates CO insertion to ß-lactone substrates activated by the Lewis acidic Cr(III) centers of the metal-organic framework (MOF), leading to catalytic carbonylation with activity and selectivity profiles that compare favorably to those reported for homogeneous ion-pair catalysts. Moreover, the heterogeneous nature of the MOF catalyst enables continuous production of succinic anhydride through a packed bed reactor, with room temperature ß-propiolactone carbonylation activity of 1300 molAnhydride·molCo-1 over 6 h on stream. Simple evaporation of the fully converted product stream yields the desired anhydride as isolated solids, highlighting the unique processing advantages conferred by this first example of heterogeneous ß-lactone carbonylation pathway.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(22): 6956-6960, 2018 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734809

RESUMO

The zirconium nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF) known as NU-1000 serve as competent supports for the activation of methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) toward olefin metathesis. Itself inactive for olefin metathesis, MTO becomes an active catalyst only when immobilized on the strongly acidic Lewis acid sites of dehydrated NU-1000. Uptake of MTO at the dehydrated secondary building units (SBUs) occurs rapidly and quantitatively to produce a catalyst active in both gas- and liquid-phase processes. These results demonstrate for the first time the utility of MOF SBUs for olefin metathesis, an academically and industrially relevant transformation.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(22): 6454-6458, 2018 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575492

RESUMO

Bimetallic nanoparticle encapsulation in microporous zeolite crystals is a promising route for producing catalysts with unprecedented reaction selectivities. Herein, a novel synthetic approach was developed to produce PtZnx nanoclusters encapsulated inside zeolite micropores by introducing Pt2+ cations into a zincosilicate framework via ion exchange, and subsequent controlled demetallation and alloying with framework Zn. The resulting zeolites featured nanoclusters with sizes of approximately 1 nm, having an interatomic structure corresponding to a PtZnx alloy as confirmed by pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. These materials featured simultaneous shape and substrate specificity demonstrated by the selective production of p-chloroaniline from the competitive hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene and 1,3-dimethyl-5-nitrobenzene.

11.
Acc Chem Res ; 51(5): 1054-1062, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510023

RESUMO

Conspecuts Commercial and emerging renewable energy technologies are underpinned by precious metal catalysts, which enable the transformation of reactants into useful products. However, the noble metals (NMs) comprise the least abundant elements in the lithosphere, making them prohibitively scarce and expensive for future global-scale technologies. As such, intense research efforts have been devoted to eliminating or substantially reducing the loadings of NMs in various catalytic applications. These efforts have resulted in a plethora of heterogeneous NM catalyst morphologies beyond the traditional supported spherical nanoparticle. In many of these new architectures, such as shaped, high index, and bimetallic particles, less than 20% of the loaded NMs are available to perform catalytic turnovers. The majority of NM atoms are subsurface, providing only a secondary catalytic role through geometric and ligand effects with the active surface NM atoms. A handful of architectures can approach 100% NM utilization, but severe drawbacks limit general applicability. For example, in addition to problems with stability and leaching, single atom and ultrasmall cluster catalysts have extreme metal-support interactions, discretized d-bands, and a lack of adjacent NM surface sites. While monolayer thin films do not possess these features, they exhibit such low surface areas that they are not commercially relevant, serving predominantly as model catalysts. This Account champions core-shell nanoparticles (CS NPs) as a vehicle to design highly active, stable, and low-cost materials with high NM utilization for both thermo- and electrocatalysis. The unique benefits of the many emerging NM architectures could be preserved while their fundamental limitations could be overcome through reformulation via a core-shell morphology. However, the commercial realization of CS NPs remains challenging, requiring concerted advances in theory and manufacturing. We begin by formulating seven constraints governing proper core material design, which naturally point to early transition metal ceramics as suitable core candidates. Two constraints prove extremely challenging. The first relates to the core modifying the shell work function and d-band. To properly investigate materials that could satisfy this constraint, we discuss our development of a new heat, quench, and exfoliation (HQE) density functional theory (DFT) technique to model heterometallic interfaces. This technique is used to predict how transition metal carbides can favorably tune the catalytic properties of various NM monolayer shell configurations. The second challenging constraint relates to the scalable manufacturing of CS NP architectures with independent synthetic control of the thickness and composition of the shell and the size and composition of the core. We discuss our development of a synthetic method that enables high temperature self-assembly of tunable CS NP configurations. Finally, we discuss how these principles and methods were used to design catalysts for a variety of applications. These include the design of a thermally stable sub-monolayer CS catalyst, a highly active methanol electrooxidation catalyst, CO-tolerant Pt catalysts, and a hydrogen evolution catalyst that is less expensive than state-of-the-art NM-free catalysts. Such core-shell architectures offer the promise of ultralow precious metal loadings while ceramic cores hold the promise of thermodynamic stability and access to unique catalytic activity/tunability.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(12): 7914-7919, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528067

RESUMO

Zeolites containing framework heteroatoms (e.g., Ti, Sn, and Hf) with open coordination sites behave as solid-state Lewis acids and exhibit remarkable catalytic properties unachievable with bulk oxides. However, direct evidence confirming the incorporation of such heteroatom species into the zeolite framework is difficult to obtain because of the limited number of analytical methods capable of discerning framework incorporation from extraframework species. In this work, the structural environments of hafnium (Hf) framework and extraframework species added post-synthetically into *BEA zeolites were analyzed using coupled pair distribution function (PDF) and diffuse reflectance (DR) UV-vis measurements. PDF analysis enabled the visualization and identification of framework and extraframework HfOx species, both of which were undetectable by traditional X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. Reactivity data from the aldol condensation of benzaldehyde and acetone confirmed that framework Hf species are responsible for catalytic activity.

13.
Chem Mater ; 29(8): 3663-3670, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572706

RESUMO

The archetypal silica- and aluminosilicate-based zeolite-type materials are renowned for wide-ranging applications in heterogeneous catalysis, gas-separation and ion-exchange. Their compositional space can be expanded to include nanoporous metal chalcogenides, exemplified by germanium and tin sulfides and selenides. By comparison with the properties of bulk metal dichalcogenides and their 2D derivatives, these open-framework analogues may be viewed as three-dimensional semiconductors filled with nanometer voids. Applications exist in a range of molecule size and shape discriminating devices. However, what is the electronic structure of nanoporous metal chalcogenides? Herein, materials modeling is used to describe the properties of a homologous series of nanoporous metal chalcogenides denoted np-MX2, where M = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, and X = O, S, Se, Te, with Sodalite, LTA and aluminum chromium phosphate-1 structure types. Depending on the choice of metal and anion their properties can be tuned from insulators to semiconductors to metals with additional modification achieved through doping, solid solutions, and inclusion (with fullerene, quantum dots, and hole transport materials). These systems form the basis of a new branch of semiconductor nanochemistry in three dimensions.

14.
ACS Cent Sci ; 3(5): 444-448, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573206

RESUMO

Despite the commercial desirability of epoxide carbonylation to ß-lactones, the reliance of this process on homogeneous catalysts makes its industrial application challenging. Here we report the preparation and use of a Co(CO)4--incorporated Cr-MIL-101 (Co(CO)4⊂Cr-MIL-101, Cr-MIL-101 = Cr3O(BDC)3F, H2BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) heterogeneous catalyst for the ring-expansion carbonylation of epoxides, whose activity, selectivity, and substrate scope are on par with those of the reported homogeneous catalysts. We ascribe the observed performance to the unique cooperativity between the postsynthetically introduced Co(CO)4- and the site-isolated Lewis acidic Cr(III) centers in the metal-organic framework (MOF). The heterogeneous nature of Co(CO)4⊂Cr-MIL-101 allows the first demonstration of gas-phase continuous-flow production of ß-lactones from epoxides, attesting to the potential applicability of the heterogeneous epoxide carbonylation strategy.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(30): 8828-8833, 2017 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544178

RESUMO

Core-shell architectures offer an effective way to tune and enhance the properties of noble-metal catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of Pt shell on titanium tungsten nitride core nanoparticles (Pt/TiWN) by high temperature ammonia nitridation of a parent core-shell carbide material (Pt/TiWC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed significant core-level shifts for Pt shells supported on TiWN cores, corresponding to increased stabilization of the Pt valence d-states. The modulation of the electronic structure of the Pt shell by the nitride core translated into enhanced CO tolerance during hydrogen electrooxidation in the presence of CO. The ability to control shell coverage and vary the heterometallic composition of the shell and nitride core opens up attractive opportunities to synthesize a broad range of new materials with tunable catalytic properties.

16.
ChemSusChem ; 10(10): 2226-2234, 2017 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371565

RESUMO

Reductive catalytic fractionation of biomass has recently emerged as a powerful lignin extraction and depolymerization method to produce monomeric aromatic oxygenates in high yields. Here, bifunctional molybdenum-based polyoxometalates supported on titania (POM/TiO2 ) are shown to promote tandem hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and alkylation reactions, converting lignin-derived oxygenated aromatics into alkylated benzenes and alkylated phenols in high yields. In particular, anisole and 4-propylguaiacol were used as model compounds for this gas-phase study using a packed-bed flow reactor. For anisole, 30 % selectivity for alkylated aromatic compounds (54 % C-alkylation of the methoxy groups by methyl balance) with an overall 72 % selectivity for HDO at 82 % anisole conversion was observed over H3 PMo12 O40 /TiO2 at 7 h on stream. Under similar conditions, 4-propylguaiacol was mainly converted into 4-propylphenol and alkylated 4-propylphenols with a selectivity to alkylated 4-propylphenols of 42 % (77 % C-alkylation) with a total HDO selectivity to 4-propylbenzene and alkylated 4-propylbenzenes of 4 % at 92 % conversion (7 h on stream). Higher catalyst loadings pushed the 4-propylguaiacol conversion to 100 % and resulted in a higher selectivity to propylbenzene of 41 %, alkylated aromatics of 21 % and alkylated phenols of 17 % (51 % C-alkylation). The reactivity studies coupled with catalyst characterization revealed that Lewis acid sites act synergistically with neighboring Brønsted acid sites to simultaneously promote alkylation and hydrodeoxygenation activity. A reaction mechanism is proposed involving activation of the ether bond on a Lewis acid site, followed by methyl transfer and C-alkylation. Mo-based POMs represent a versatile catalytic platform to simultaneously upgrade lignin-derived oxygenated aromatics into alkylated arenes.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/química , Lignina/química , Modelos Químicos , Molibdênio/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Alquilação
17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(22): 4475-4482, 2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786468

RESUMO

Noble metal-coated core-shell nanoparticles have been applied to a suite of catalytic applications, with the aim of decreasing the noble metal loading while ideally improving their performance. The chemistry and therefore activity at the surface of these materials are intimately related to the accurate description of the core-shell interface. Using density functional theory, we developed a procedure to obtain realistic surface topology descriptions at the heterometallic junction. This procedure was applied to a topical series of catalysts: Ti0.1W0.9C coated in atomically thin monolayers of noble metals. Our quantum chemical calculations provide access to both relevant surface descriptions of these materials and also rationalize several experimental observations. Our general procedure paves the way for the rationalization and prediction of next-generation heterometallic catalysts.

18.
ACS Cent Sci ; 2(6): 424-9, 2016 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27413787

RESUMO

The direct catalytic conversion of methane to liquid oxygenated compounds, such as methanol or dimethyl ether, at low temperature using molecular oxygen is a grand challenge in C-H activation that has never been met with synthetic, heterogeneous catalysts. We report the first demonstration of direct, catalytic oxidation of methane into methanol with molecular oxygen over copper-exchanged zeolites at low reaction temperatures (483-498 K). Reaction kinetics studies show sustained catalytic activity and high selectivity for a variety of commercially available zeolite topologies under mild conditions (e.g., 483 K and atmospheric pressure). Transient and steady state measurements with isotopically labeled molecules confirm catalytic turnover. The catalytic rates and apparent activation energies are affected by the zeolite topology, with caged-based zeolites (e.g., Cu-SSZ-13) showing the highest rates. Although the reaction rates are low, the discovery of catalytic sites in copper-exchanged zeolites will accelerate the development of strategies to directly oxidize methane into methanol under mild conditions.

19.
ChemSusChem ; 9(15): 1904-10, 2016 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27337680

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is a sustainable pathway for the synthesis of value-added organic compounds, provided affordable catalysts with high activity, selectivity and durability are developed. Here, we synthesize Cu/C, Ni/C, and CuNi/C nanoparticles and compare their performance to Pt/C, Ru/C, PtRu/C for the ECH of hydroxyacetone, a bio-derived feedstock surrogate containing a carbonyl and a hydroxyl functional group. The non-precious metal electrocatalysts show promising conversion-time behavior, product selectivities, and Faradaic efficiencies. Ni/C forms propylene glycol with a selectivity of 89 % (at 80 % conversion), while Cu/C catalyzes ECH (52 % selectivity) and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO, 48 % selectivity, accounting for evaporation). CuNi/C shows increased turnover frequencies but reduced ECH selectivity (80 % at 80 % conversion) as compared to the Ni/C catalyst. Importantly, stability studies show that the non-precious metal catalysts do not leach at operating conditions.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Oxigênio/química , Elementos de Transição/química , Carbono/química , Catálise , Eletroquímica , Hidrogenação , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
20.
Science ; 352(6288): 974-8, 2016 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27199426

RESUMO

We demonstrated the self-assembly of transition metal carbide nanoparticles coated with atomically thin noble metal monolayers by carburizing mixtures of noble metal salts and transition metal oxides encapsulated in removable silica templates. This approach allows for control of the final core-shell architecture, including particle size, monolayer coverage, and heterometallic composition. Carbon-supported Ti(0.1)W(0.9)C nanoparticles coated with Pt or bimetallic PtRu monolayers exhibited enhanced resistance to sintering and CO poisoning, achieving an order of magnitude increase in specific activity over commercial catalysts for methanol electrooxidation after 10,000 cycles. These core-shell materials provide a new direction to reduce the loading, enhance the activity, and increase the stability of noble metal catalysts.

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