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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 83(5): 1566-72, 2012 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22391105


PURPOSE: To evaluate implanted markers as a surrogate for tumor-based setup during image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy with audiovisual biofeedback. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seven patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were implanted bronchoscopically with gold coils. Markers, tumor, and a reference bony structure (vertebra) were contoured for all 10 phases of the four-dimensional respiration-correlated fan-beam computed tomography and weekly four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography. RESULTS: The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-tumor centroid displacements were 2/3, 2/2, and 3/3 mm in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) directions, respectively. The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/3, and 2/3 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. The systematic/random tumor-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/4, and 4/4 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All displacements changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although marker-based image guidance may decrease the risk for geometric miss compared with bony anatomy-based positioning, the observed displacements between markers and tumor centroids indicate the need for repeated soft tissue imaging, particularly in situations with large tumor volume change and large initial marker-to-tumor centroid distance.

Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Marcadores Fiduciais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Movimento , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Idoso , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional/métodos , Ouro , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Carga Tumoral
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 67(1): 183-92, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20339847


PURPOSE: Gemcitabine (GEM) is currently the standard first line treatment for pancreatic cancer; however, the overall survival of patients with this disease remains poor. Imexon is a pro-oxidant small molecule which produced a high response rate in combination with GEM in a phase I trial in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigate the combination of GEM with a novel redox-active agent, imexon, in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Median effect analysis was used for in vitro combination cytotoxicity. The effect of imexon on GEM metabolism and uptake into cells and into DNA and effects on ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) were examined in vitro. The pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of the imexon/GEM combination was evaluated in mouse models. RESULTS: In three human pancreatic cancer lines, there was additivity for the imexon/GEM combination. There was significantly greater efficacy for the drug combination in Panc-1 xenograft tumors. A pharmacokinetic study in mice showed a near doubling in the AUC of imexon when GEM was co-administered, with no effect of imexon on GEM's pharmacokinetic disposition. In vitro, imexon did not alter GEM's metabolism or uptake into DNA, but significantly inhibited RNR, and this effect was greater when combined with GEM. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the interaction between imexon and GEM may be due to complimentary inhibition of RNR plus an enhanced exposure to imexon when the GEM is administered in vivo. This combination is currently being tested in a randomized phase II trial in pancreatic cancer.

Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Hexanonas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
Int J Gastrointest Cancer ; 36(1): 15-28, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16227632


Imexon is an aziridine-containing small molecule currently in Phase I clinical trials. This agent has been shown to bind to thiols and increase intracellular oxidants, inducing apoptosis in hematologic cancer cells. Pancreatic cancers are known to be sensitive to oxidation, suggesting this disease may be an appropriate target for this agent. The current report examines the activity of imexon in pancreatic cells. Imexon induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent apoptosis in a panel of six human pancreatic carcinoma cell (PCC) lines. The mean IC50 (SD) for growth inhibition by the SRB assay was 200 (101) microM for a 48 h exposure with a range of 64-358 microM. Cell killing was schedule-dependent, favoring exposure times > or =48 h. Imexon-treated MiaPaCa-2 cells underwent non-lethal growth arrest following exposure to concentrations < or =200 microM for 48 h. When concentrations were increased to 300 microM for > or =48 h, the MiaPaCa-2 cells arrested in G2 phase and activated caspases 3, 8, and 9 were detected. After a 72 h exposure to the IC80 concentration of imexon, cells exhibited a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential detected by CMXRos staining. However, there was no loss of reduced cellular thiols unless very high concentrations of > or =400 microM were used. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated in a dose-dependent fashion, starting at very low imexon concentrations. Imexon also significantly inhibited MiaPaCa-2 tumor growth in SCID mice at 100 mg/kg/d for 9 d. The tumor growth inhibition (% T/C) was 27% of control, and the tumor growth delay was 21 d, indicating an active agent by NCI standards. The levels of imexon that are cytotoxic in human PCC's are achievable based on the preliminary results of the ongoing Phase I trial. Imexon appears to be active against PCCs in vitro and has an entirely novel mechanism of action involving G2 arrest, accumulation of ROS, and the induction of apoptosis.

Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hexanonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Células Tumorais Cultivadas