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1.
Endocrine ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256343

RESUMO

Thyroid dysfunctions, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, are the second most prevalent endocrinopathies and are associated to reproductive disorders in men. Several genes are differentially modulated by thyroid hormones in testes and imbalances in thyroid hormone levels are also associated to alterations on sperm functionality. Imbalances on antioxidant defense mechanism and stress oxidative have been pointed out as the main factors for the impairments on male reproductive function. To clarify this issue, we investigated the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in testis, followed by their proteomic profile in attempt to characterize the mechanisms involved in the alterations induced by hypo- or hyperthyroidism in adult male rats. Hypothyroidism reduced the Gsr transcript expression and the activity of CAT and GSR enzymes, while the hyperthyroidism reduced the Gpx4 var2 transcript expression. Among 1082 identified proteins, 123 and 37 proteins were downregulated by hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid condition, respectively, being 36 proteins commonly reduced in both comparisons and one exclusively in hypo-hyperthyroidism comparison. A network containing 29 nodes and 68 edges was obtained in protein-protein interaction analysis and the functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed significant alterations for several functions in hypo-euthyroid and hypo-hyperthyroid comparisons, such as ATP metabolic process, coenzyme binding, sperm part, peroxiredoxin activity, mitochondrial protein complex, intramolecular oxidoreductase activity, binding of sperm to zona pellucida, glutathione transferase activity, response to testosterone. Thus, there is a correlation between thyroid disorders and impaired antioxidant defense mechanism, resulting in reproductive dysfunctions, as infertility, mainly observed in hypothyroidism.

2.
Neurotoxicology ; 74: 121-131, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226268

RESUMO

In response to the rapid development of genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crops, the use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), in agriculture, has increased substantially. Currently, it is estimated that 747 million kg of GBHs are applied per year. Although several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there are health risks associated with GBH exposure, the effects these chemicals have on the oxidative and inflammatory response in the brain are still unclear. In fact, alterations in these processes could contribute to the development of neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorders. The present study exposed pregnant rats to GBH and evaluated changes in the expression of genes related to oxidnte defense and inflammation response and monitored the serum metabolome in the adult male offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered distilled water or Roundup®, at either 5 and 50 mg/kg/day, (p.o.) from gestational day (GD) 18 to postnatal day (PND) 5. There was a significant increase in the gene expression levels of Neuroglobin (Ngb - oxygen storage and tissue protection) (105%, p = 0.031), Glutathione Peroxidase 1 (Gpx1 - oxidative stress) (95%, p = 0.005), Prostaglandin-Endoperoxidase Synthase 1 (Ptgs1 - inflammation) (109%, p = 0.033) and Hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (Hif1α - oxygen sensor) (73%, p = 0.017), in the cerebellum of PND90 rats perinatally exposed to 50 mg GBH/kg/day. Moreover, both GBH-exposed groups displayed a significant decrease in the expression of Catalase (Cat - oxidative stress) (49%, p = 0.003; and 31% p = 0.050, respectively) expression, in the cortex. Serum metabolites analyses, from the same animals of each group, demonstrated that there were significant changes in the concentrations of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine, which have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. The results of the present study suggest GBH exposure during pregnancy alters the expression of genes associated with oxidant defense, inflammation and lipid metabolism. It is plausible that maternal GBH exposure could have lasting neuronal effects on the offspring later in life.

3.
Elife ; 82019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084704

RESUMO

Based on the integration of laser scans, sedimentology, geochemistry, archeobotany, geometric morphometrics and photogrammetry, here we present evidence testifying that a Palaeolithic group of people explored a deep cave in northern Italy about 14 ky cal. BP. Ichnological data enable us to shed light on individual and group level behavior, social relationship, and mode of exploration of the uneven terrain. Five individuals, two adults, an adolescent and two children, entered the cave barefoot and illuminated the way with a bunch of wooden sticks. Traces of crawling locomotion are documented for the first time in the global human ichnological record. Anatomical details recognizable in the crawling traces show that no clothing was present between limbs and the trampled sediments. Our study demonstrates that very young children (the youngest about 3 years old) were active members of the Upper Palaeolithic populations, even in apparently dangerous and social activities.

4.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 32(6): 986-994, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931558

RESUMO

Humans and environments are constantly exposed to a wide range of commercial products containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in their composition. The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HP-testicular) axis is sensitive to low doses of AgNPs with repercussions in sperm functionality. The oxidative stress may be related to the pathogenesis of sperm alterations because Ag+ ions are released from AgNPs in the corporal fluids. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AgNP exposure in the antioxidant defense system. For this, the transcript expression and the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GSR) enzymes were evaluated in the testis of rats exposed during the prepubertal period to increasing doses of AgNPs (1.875, 3.75, 7.5, or 15 µg of AgNPs/kg). The higher dose of AgNPs (15 µg/kg) investigated promoted increases in the activity of CAT, GPX, and GSR enzymes and in the expression of Gpx4 var1 transcript. The exposure to 7.5 µg/kg of AgNP increased the Gpx4 var1 mRNA expression. In the group that received 3.75 µg of AgNP/kg, the expression of Sod1, Gpx4 var2, and Gsr transcripts was decreased while the Gpx4 var1 mRNA expression was augmented. The lower dose of AgNPs tested (1.875 µg/kg) increased the expression of Cat and Gpx4 var1 transcripts. Thus, AgNP alters the expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in a nonmonotonic dose-response curve and directly or indirectly modulates the events related to spermatogenesis process.

5.
Food Res Int ; 119: 634-642, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884698

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is enclosed in many consumer products including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and foods. TiO2 (E171) is daily ingested as mixed nano- and submicron-sized particles since it is approved as a white colorant in Europe in a wide variety of food products, Noteworthy, the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily concluded and growing alarms for human hazards deriving from TiO2 exposure are incrementally reported. The objective of the present study was to establish conceivable mechanisms by which nano-sized TiO2 particles affect physiological function of the intestinal epithelium layer. The well-established Caco-2 cell line differentiated for 21 days on permeable supports was used as a predictive model of the human intestinal mucosa to identify the biological response triggered by TiO2 particles. Exposure to 42 µg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles disrupted the tight junctions-permeability barrier with a prompt effect detectable after 4 h incubation time and wide effects on barrier integrity at 24 h. Transport and ultrastructural localization of TiO2 nanoparticles were determined by ICP-OES, TEM and ESI/EELS analysis, respectively. Nano-sized particles were efficiently internalized and preferentially entrapped by Caco-2 monolayers. Storage of TiO2 nanoparticles inside the cells affected enterocytes viability and triggered the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-8. Taken together these data indicate that nano-sized TiO2 particles exert detrimental effects on the intestinal epithelium layer.

6.
Metab Brain Dis ; 34(3): 705-713, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701417

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are clusters of silver atoms with diameters that range from 1 to 100 nm. Due to the various shapes and large surface areas, AgNPs have been employed in the food and textile industries and medical fields. Therefore, because of the widespread use of these compounds, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AgNP exposure on the gene and protein expression levels of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Cytoglobin (Cygb), in the rat cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Post-natal day (PND) 21 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. One group received 15 µg/kg body weight of AgNP by gavage another group received 30 µg/kg and the control group that received saline, from PND23 to PND58. On PND102 the animals were euthanized and the cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were isolated and evaluated for gene and protein expression levels of Nbg and Cygb. The results demonstrated that the 30 µg/kg AgNP group displayed increased gene and protein expression of Cygb in the cortex. In the Hippocampus, AgNP exposure did not modulate gene or protein expression levels of Ngb and Cygb. In cerebellum the Ngb gene and protein expression was increased with both doses of AgNP. AgNP exposure during prepubescence can modulate the gene and protein expression levels of Ngb and Cygb in adulthood. Furthermore, the observed modulation was specific to the cerebellum, and cortex, and was dose dependent.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804926

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance therefore, they are key in preventing excessive immune responses and autoimmunity. In the last decades, several reports have been focussed on understanding the biology of Tregs and their mechanisms of action. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of Tregs to delay/prevent graft rejection and to control autoimmune responses following adoptive transfer in vivo. Due to these promising results, Tregs have been extensively studied as a potential new tool for the prevention of graft rejection and/or the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Currently, solid organ transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure. However, chronic rejection and the ensuing side effects of immunosuppressants represent the main limiting factors for organ acceptance and patient survival. Autoimmune disorders are chronic diseases caused by the breakdown of tolerance against self-antigens. This is triggered either by a numerical or functional Treg defect, or by the resistance of effector T cells to suppression. In this scenario, patients receiving high doses of immunosuppressant are left susceptible to life-threatening opportunistic infections and have increased risk of malignancies. In the last 10 years, a few phase I clinical trials aiming to investigate safety and feasibility of Treg-based therapy have been completed and published, whilst an increasing numbers of trials are still ongoing. The first results showed safety and feasibility of Treg therapy and phase II clinical trials are already enrolling. In this review, we describe our understanding of Tregs focussing primarily on their ontogenesis, mechanisms of action and methods used in the clinic for isolation and expansion. Furthermore, we will describe the ongoing studies and the results from the first clinical trials with Tregs in the setting of solid organ transplantation and autoimmune disorders. Finally, we will discuss strategies to further improve the success of Treg therapy.

8.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(3): 163-175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755151

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that is widely used in the manufacturing of plastics and inner linings of food cans. Previously, it was reported that BPA disturbed the sexual dimorphic nucleus of the hypothalamus and delaying the onset of puberty attributed to an estrogenic action. In addition, BPA during the perinatal period increased LH serum concentrations in male offspring of dams at doses below the reproductive NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level) based upon World Health Organization guidelines. Based upon these findings, the objective of this study was to (1) determine the effects of perinatal treatment with low doses of BPA on regulation of spermatogenesis in adult offspring and (2) elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of gonadal dysfunction. The expression of genes related to spermatogenesis was disrupted with adverse consequences on sperm production, reserves, and function. Both BPA treated groups exhibited reduction in sperm production and epithelial height of seminiferous tubules, accompanied by diminished integrity of the acrosome and plasma membrane, decreased mitochondrial activity and increased incidence of morphological abnormalities. The sperm transit time was also slower. However, only in the group receiving the higher BPA dose was transcript expression of genes affected (reduced Ar and increased Esr1). It is of interest that serum testosterone levels were elevated in the same group where Ar was decreased. Data suggest that exposure to low BPA doses during hypothalamic sexual differentiation period produces permanent deleterious effects on spermatogenesis in adulthood.

9.
Food Chem ; 283: 422-430, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722893

RESUMO

The endocrine system is highly sensitive to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) which interfere with metabolism, growth and reproduction throughout different periods of life, especially in the embryonic and pubertal stages, in which gene reprogramming may be associated with impaired development and control of tissues/organs even in adulthood. Acrylamide is considered a potential EDC and its main source comes from fried, baked and roasted foods that are widely consumed by children, teenagers and adults around the world. This review aimed to present some aspects regarding the acrylamide formation, its toxicokinetics, the occurrence of acrylamide in foods, the recent findings about its effects on different systems and the consequences for the human healthy. The challenges to characterize the molecular mechanisms triggered by acrylamide and to establish safe levels of consumption and/or exposure are also discussed in the present review.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrilamida/química , Acrilamida/farmacocinética , Animais , Criança , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207602, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-quarter of systemic symptoms associated with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) are related to gastrointestinal complaints (GICs). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and features of urticaria-overlapping GICs. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional survey, 1426 consecutive outpatients were observed at our University Department. Only patients suffering from urticaria or GICs with a complete diagnostic work-up including serum total IgE level (Tot-IgE), differential blood count and urticaria activity score (UAS), were evaluated. RESULTS: Among different GICs, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was the most frequent syndrome observed (15.4%; 95%CI: 13.6-17.3). The prevalence of overlap syndrome for urticaria and GERD was 5.9% (95%CI: 4.7-7.2). In urticaria-patients, the prevalence of GERD was four-fold higher than in patients without hives (44% vs. 11%, p<0.001). UAS was significantly higher in urticaria and GERD overlap syndromes vs. isolated urticarias. In patients with GERD or acute/chronic urticaria or overlap syndrome, Tot-IgE and eosinophil blood count (EBC) differed significantly, with a stepwise increase in their values; from the subgroup of patients with GERD only, to that with overlap of CSU to GERD. Prevalence values for urticaria overlapping with GERD were three- and two-fold higher in CSU and in long-duration GERD cases respectively compared to acute urticaria or short-duration GERD cases. Similar to Th2 pathology models, CSU and GERD overlap syndrome was significantly and independently associated with Total-IgE ≥100IU/ml or EBC ≥250/mmc compared to CSU or GERD. Endoscopic/bioptic findings of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) or Barrett's esophagus (BE) were more frequent in chronic overlap syndrome than in GERD-patients. CONCLUSIONS: GERD was the most frequent GIC in patients with urticaria. Overlap syndrome was more frequent among patients with CSU, where this syndrome was associated with higher values of UAS, Tot-IgE, EBC and frequencies of NERD and BE. These results suggest that overlap syndrome is frequently a chronic syndrome with a Th2-like profile.

11.
Nat Immunol ; 19(12): 1403-1414, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397350

RESUMO

Repair of tissue damaged during inflammatory processes is key to the return of local homeostasis and restoration of epithelial integrity. Here we describe CD161+ regulatory T (Treg) cells as a distinct, highly suppressive population of Treg cells that mediate wound healing. These Treg cells were enriched in intestinal lamina propria, particularly in Crohn's disease. CD161+ Treg cells had an all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-regulated gene signature, and CD161 expression on Treg cells was induced by ATRA, which directly regulated the CD161 gene. CD161 was co-stimulatory, and ligation with the T cell antigen receptor induced cytokines that accelerated the wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified a transcription-factor network, including BACH2, RORγt, FOSL2, AP-1 and RUNX1, that controlled expression of the wound-healing program, and found a CD161+ Treg cell signature in Crohn's disease mucosa associated with reduced inflammation. These findings identify CD161+ Treg cells as a population involved in controlling the balance between inflammation and epithelial barrier healing in the gut.

13.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2018: 5974613, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116149

RESUMO

Inflammation may play a role in cancer. However, the contribution of cytokine-mediated crosstalk between normal hemopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and their (inflammatory) microenvironment is largely elusive. Here we compared survival, phenotype, and function of neonatal (umbilical cord blood (CB)) and adult (normal G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood (mPB)) CD34+ cells after in vitro exposure to combined crucial inflammatory factors such as interleukin- (IL-) 1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). To mimic bone marrow (BM) niche, coculture experiments with normal BM stromal cells (BMSCs) were also performed. We found that combined inflammatory cytokines increased only the in vitro survival of CB-derived CD34+ cells by reducing apoptosis. Conversely, selected combinations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß + TNF-α, IL-6 + TNF-α, and IL-1ß + TNF-α + TIMP-1) mainly enhanced the in vitro CXCR4-driven migration of mPB-derived CD34+ cells. TNF-α, alone or in combination, upregulated CD44 and CD13 expression in both sources. Finally, BMSCs alone increased survival/migration of CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ cells at the same extent of the combined inflammatory cytokines; importantly, their copresence did not show additive/synergistic effect. Taken together, these data indicate that combined proinflammatory stimuli promote distinct in vitro functional activation of neonatal or adult normal HSPCs.

14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(29): 3204-3221, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090002

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is very common and affects approximately half of the world population. It causes gastric diseases, but some authors have reported an association of H. pylori infection with other systemic manifestations beginning in 1994. The list of potential effects of H. pylori outside the stomach includes a number of extragastric manifestations and we focused on neurological, dermatological, hematologic, ocular, cardiovascular, metabolic, allergic, and hepatobiliary diseases. This review discusses these important reported manifestations that are not related to the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Oftalmopatias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/etiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1625, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079063

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential in maintaining peripheral immunological tolerance by modulating several subsets of the immune system including monocytes. Under inflammatory conditions, monocytes migrate into the tissues, where they differentiate into dendritic cells or tissue-resident macrophages. As a result of their context-dependent plasticity, monocytes have been implicated in the development/progression of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD), autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection. In the last decade, Tregs have been exploited for their use in cell therapy with the aim to induce tolerance after solid organ transplantation and for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and GvHD. To date, safety and feasibility of Treg infusion has been demonstrated; however, many questions of how these cells induce tolerance have been raised and need to be answered. As monocytes constitute the major cellular component in inflamed tissues, we have developed an in vitro model to test how Tregs modulate their phenotype and function. We demonstrated that expanded Tregs can drive monocytes toward an alternatively activated state more efficiently than freshly isolated Tregs. The effect of expanded Tregs on monocytes led to a reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, monocytes co-cultured with expanded Tregs downregulated the expression of co-stimulatory and MHC-class II molecules with a concomitant upregulation of M2 macrophage specific markers, CD206, heme oxygenase-1, and increased interleukin-10 production. Importantly, monocytes co-cultured with expanded Tregs showed a reduced capacity to expand IL-17-producing T cells compared with monocyte cultured with freshly isolated Tregs and conventional T cells. The capacity to decrease the expansion of pro-inflammatory Th-17 was not cytokine mediated but the consequence of their lower expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. Our data suggest that expanded Tregs have the capacity to induce phenotypical and functional changes in monocytes that might be crucial for tolerance induction in transplantation and the prevention/treatment of GvHD and autoimmune diseases.

16.
PeerJ ; 6: e5249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042894

RESUMO

Ostracoderms (fossil armoured jawless fishes) shed light on early vertebrate evolution by revealing the step-wise acquisition of jawed vertebrate characters, and were important constituents of Middle Palaeozoic vertebrate faunas. A wide variety of head shield shapes are observed within and between the ostracoderm groups, but the timing of these diversifications and the consistency between different measures of their morphospace are unclear. Here, we present the first disparity (explored morphospace) versus diversity (number of taxa) analysis of Pteraspidiformes heterostracans using continuous and discrete characters. Patterns of taxic diversity and morphological disparity are in accordance: they both show a rise to a peak in the Lochkovian followed by a gradual decline in the Middle-Late Devonian. Patterns are largely consistent for disparity measures using sum of ranges or total variance, and when using continuous or discrete characters. Pteraspidiformes heterostracans can be classified as a "bottom-heavy clade", i.e., a group where a high initial disparity decreasing over time is detected. In fact, the group explored morphospace early in its evolutionary history, with much of the subsequent variation in dermal armour occurring as variation in the proportions of already evolved anatomical features. This Early Devonian radiation is also in agreement with the paleobiogeographic distribution of the group, with a maximum of dispersal and explored morphospace during the Lochkovian and Pragian time bins.

17.
Helicobacter ; 23(4): e12502, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown a good efficacy of the "three-in-one" formulation of bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT) for Helicobacter (H.) pylori eradication. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the three-in-one BQT in clinical practice, and investigate the effect of probiotic supplementation, in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective database, multicentre observational study was conducted in seven Italian Hospitals. Consecutive H. pylori-positive patients who received the three-in-one BQT for 10 days were included in the analysis. H. pylori eradication was assessed by histology, 13 C-urea breath test, or stool antigen test. Compliance and adverse events were evaluated by interview. RESULTS: A total of 376 patients were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and 352 in the per protocol (PP) analyses. One hundred and ninety-three subjects received probiotics supplementation. Overall, eradication rates were 90.2% (95% Confidence Interval (CI):86.7-93.0) in ITT and 94.6% (95% CI: 91.7-96.7) in PP analyses. The compliance was good (≥90% of treatment taken) in 94.9% of patients. The proportion of patients with a good compliance was not different with and without probiotics supplementation (94.8% vs 95.1%). Eradication rates were equally high for first-line (91.4%), second-line (87.5%), and third-line treatments (91.7%) in the ITT analysis (P = .48). Adverse events were reported by 32.4% of patients, but only 6.1% of patients discontinued treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The three-in-one BQT is highly effective and well tolerated for H. pylori eradication in daily clinical practice. Probiotics supplementation fails to improve compliance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bismuto/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Tetraciclina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bismuto/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetraciclina/efeitos adversos
18.
Dig Dis ; 36(2): 130-135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesalazine 1 g suppository/die is used for mild to moderately active ulcerative proctitis (UP). Whether addiction of Multi Matrix System (MMX) mesalazine increases the remission rate of UP and prevents proximal extension of disease is unknown. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on 116 outpatients with UP who had been treated with one of the following regimens: (1) MMX mesalazine 1.2 g/die plus mesalazine suppositories for 8 ± 2 weeks and, subsequently, MMX mesalazine 1.2 g/die plus rectal mesalazine 1 g every other day for at least 6 months; (2) mesalazine 1 g suppositories/die alone for 8 ± 2 weeks and, subsequently, rectal mesalazine 1 g every other day for 6 more months. Patients were evaluated clinically at 2 months (±2 weeks) and endoscopically at 6 months (±2 weeks). For categorical variables, Pearson chi-square test was used. RESULTS: A total of 46 of 55 patients (84%) on combined therapy and 49 of 61 patients (80%) on rectal mesalazine reached clinical remission (p > 0.05; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.30-2.07). At 6 months follow-up, proximal extension of disease was observed in 7 of 55 (14%) patients on combined therapy and in 18 of 61 (29%) patients on rectal mesalazine alone (p < 0.05; OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.09-7.53). CONCLUSIONS: Oral MMX mesalazine plus rectal mesalazine combined treatment is associated with prevention of proximal extension of the disease compared with rectal mesalazine alone.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Proctite/tratamento farmacológico , Reto/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Transplantation ; 102(1): e10-e17, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of spontaneous kidney transplant tolerance has been associated with numerous B cell-related immune alterations. We have previously shown that tolerant recipients exhibit reduced B-cell receptor signalling and higher IL-10 production than healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether cluster of differentiation (CD)4 T cells from tolerant recipients also display an anti-inflammatory profile that could contribute to graft maintenance. METHODS: CD4 T cells were isolated from kidney transplant recipients who were identified as being tolerant recipients, patients with chronic rejection or healthy volunteers. CD4 T cells from the 3 groups were compared in terms of their gene expression profile, phenotype, and functionally upon activation. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis of transcription factors and signalling proteins, in addition to surface proteins expression and cytokine production, revealed that tolerant recipients possessed fewer Th17 cells and exhibited reduced Th17 responses, relative to patients with chronic rejection or healthy volunteers. Furthermore, impaired T-cell receptor signalling and altered cytokine cooperation by monocytes contributed to the development of Th17 cells in tolerant recipients. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that defective proinflammatory Th17 responses may contribute to the prolonged graft survival and stable graft function, which is observed in tolerant recipients in the absence of immunosuppressive agents.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Tolerância ao Transplante , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17531, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235515

RESUMO

The relationship between diversity and disparity during the evolutionary history of a clade provides unique insights into evolutionary radiations and the biological response to bottlenecks and to extinctions. Here we present the first comprehensive comparison of diversity and disparity of captorhinids, a group of basal amniotes that is important for understanding the early evolution of high-fiber herbivory. A new fully resolved phylogeny is presented, obtained by the inclusion of 31 morphometric characters. The new dataset is used to calculate diversity and disparity through the evolutionary history of the clade, using both discrete and continuous characters. Captorhinids do not show a decoupling between diversity and disparity, and are characterized by a rather symmetric disparity distribution, with a peak in occupied morphospace at about the midpoint of the clade's evolutionary history (Kungurian). This peak represents a delayed adaptive radiation, identified by the first appearance of several high-fiber herbivores in the clade, along with numerous omnivorous taxa. The discrete characters and continuous morphometric characters indicate the same disparity trends. Therefore, we argue that in the absence of one of these two possible proxies, the disparity obtained from just one source can be considered robust and representative of a general disparity pattern.

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