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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(10): 3947-3956, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577024

RESUMO

This study aims to compare the differences between clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and those of other Brazilian health institutions. A systematic review of Brazilian CPGs was carried out. CPGs with recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of non-communicable disease (NCDs) were included. CPG methodological quality and transparency was independently assessed by 2 reviewers using the AGREE II. CPGs were rated as high, moderate, and low quality (ranging from A to C). Twenty-six CPGs were assessed for quality. MoH CPGs were published more recently, and were of better quality than the others: 6/6 (100%) were rated as Moderate-A. Although CPGs presented a wide range of methodological quality and transparency, MoH CPGs presented better consistency in the preparation method. To avoid confusion and to improve the quality of care within finite resources in Brazil, and to avoid potential bias, conflicts of interest, national CPGs used within SUS should be developed by Conitec with partners who have no conflict of interest.

2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3947-3956, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039492

RESUMO

Abstract This study aims to compare the differences between clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and those of other Brazilian health institutions. A systematic review of Brazilian CPGs was carried out. CPGs with recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of non-communicable disease (NCDs) were included. CPG methodological quality and transparency was independently assessed by 2 reviewers using the AGREE II. CPGs were rated as high, moderate, and low quality (ranging from A to C). Twenty-six CPGs were assessed for quality. MoH CPGs were published more recently, and were of better quality than the others: 6/6 (100%) were rated as Moderate-A. Although CPGs presented a wide range of methodological quality and transparency, MoH CPGs presented better consistency in the preparation method. To avoid confusion and to improve the quality of care within finite resources in Brazil, and to avoid potential bias, conflicts of interest, national CPGs used within SUS should be developed by Conitec with partners who have no conflict of interest.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo é comparar as diferenças entre as guias de prática clínica (GPCs) do Ministério da Saúde (MS) e as de outras instituições de saúde brasileiras. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática das GPCs brasileiras. Foram incluídas GPCs com recomendações para o tratamento farmacológico de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis elencadas (DCNTs). A qualidade metodológica e a transparência das GPCs foram avaliadas de forma independente por 2 revisores utilizando o AGREE II. As GPCs foram classificadas como alta, moderada e baixa qualidade (variando de A a C). Vinte e seis GPCs foram avaliadas quanto à qualidade. As GPCs do MS foram publicadas mais recentemente, e apresentaram melhor qualidade do que as outras: 6/6 (100%) foram classificadas como Moderada-A. Embora as GPCs tenham apresentado uma ampla gama de qualidade metodológica e transparência, as GPCs do MS apresentaram melhor consistência no desenvolvimento. Para evitar confusão e melhorar a qualidade do cuidado com os recursos limitados no Brasil e, para evitar viés, conflitos de interesse, GPCs nacionais usadas no SUS devem ser desenvolvidas, sobretudo, pela Conitec e parceiros sem conflitos de interesse.

3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(9): 3539-3550, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508771

RESUMO

This work cross-culturally adapted the Spanish questionnaire `Patients' knowledge about their medications ("Conocimiento del Paciente sobre sus Medicamentos" - CPM-ES-ES) for use in Brazil. It measures the level of medication knowledge by means of 11 questions. Eighty patients ≥ 80 years were investigated and in 39 cases the caregivers were interviewed. The evaluation of conceptual and item equivalences considered the concept of knowledge and the questions that assess it as pertinent. Semantic equivalence was obtained by the correspondence in the denotative and connotative meaning of items. The study of measurement equivalence included factorial analysis and the calculation of validity and reliability estimates. As with the original questionnaire, principal component analysis identified 4 components, however, in 2 of them there were differences regarding included items. One question was removed from this analysis due to its sample inadequacy. Medication knowledge was correlated with medication regimen complexity r = -.22, p = .046. Medication knowledge of antihypertensives was correlated with their adherence r = .70, p < .001, and blood pressure control rb = .46, p = .029. The adapted version revealed functional equivalence, therefore it can be used in the Brazilian context.

4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3539-3550, set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019673

RESUMO

Resumo Este trabalho adaptou transculturalmente o questionário espanhol "Conocimiento del Paciente sobre sus Medicamentos" (CPM-ES-ES) para uso no Brasil. Ele mede o grau de conhecimento sobre medicamentos por meio de 11 perguntas. Oitenta pacientes ≥ 80 anos foram investigados e com 39 também foi entrevistado o cuidador. A avaliação das equivalências conceitual e de item considerou o conceito de conhecimento e as perguntas que o medem como pertinentes. A equivalência semântica foi obtida pela correspondência de significado denotativo e conotativo dos itens. O estudo da equivalência de mensuração incluiu análise fatorial e o cálculo de estimativas de validade e confiabilidade. Semelhante ao questionário original, a análise de componentes principais identificou 4 componentes, porém, em 2 deles houve diferenças nos itens incluídos. Uma pergunta foi removida desta análise devido à sua inadequação amostral. O conhecimento sobre medicamentos esteve correlacionado à complexidade da prescrição r = -0,22, p = 0,046. O conhecimento sobre anti-hipertensivos esteve correlacionado à sua adesão r = 0,70, p < 0,001, e ao controle da pressão arterial rb = 0,46, p = 0,029. A versão adaptada apresentou equivalência funcional de modo que pode ser usada no contexto brasileiro.


Abstract This work cross-culturally adapted the Spanish questionnaire `Patients' knowledge about their medications ("Conocimiento del Paciente sobre sus Medicamentos" - CPM-ES-ES) for use in Brazil. It measures the level of medication knowledge by means of 11 questions. Eighty patients ≥ 80 years were investigated and in 39 cases the caregivers were interviewed. The evaluation of conceptual and item equivalences considered the concept of knowledge and the questions that assess it as pertinent. Semantic equivalence was obtained by the correspondence in the denotative and connotative meaning of items. The study of measurement equivalence included factorial analysis and the calculation of validity and reliability estimates. As with the original questionnaire, principal component analysis identified 4 components, however, in 2 of them there were differences regarding included items. One question was removed from this analysis due to its sample inadequacy. Medication knowledge was correlated with medication regimen complexity r = -.22, p = .046. Medication knowledge of antihypertensives was correlated with their adherence r = .70, p < .001, and blood pressure control rb = .46, p = .029. The adapted version revealed functional equivalence, therefore it can be used in the Brazilian context.

5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180006, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of polypharmacy may be due to the concomitant presence of chronic conditions, medical care by several doctors simultaneously and self-medication. Combined with the vulnerability of the elderly to the effects of drugs due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, polypharmacy makes this population more susceptible to adverse outcomes. In Brazil, studies show that polypharmacy is a common problem among elderly people. However, few information is available on the association between polypharmacy and mortality. OBJECTIVE: It was assessed the survival of the elderly from São Paulo city exposed to the use of polypharmacy (five or more medications). METHODS: That was a population-based cohort, the Health, Well-Being and Aging Study (SABE Study), conducted from 2006 to 2010. The sample was composed of 1,258 individuals aged 60 years or more. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional risks model were used to examine the association between polypharmacy and mortality. RESULTS: The probability of survival after five years of the users of polypharmacy at baseline was 77.2%, while among the non-users was 85.5%. Polypharmacy remained as a risk factor for death even after adjustment in other conditions associated with mortality, such as age, gender, income, chronic diseases and hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The results point polypharmacy as an indicator of mortality in elderly people. The use of multiple medications by the elderly should be carefully assessed to avoid or minimize the damage to this population.


Assuntos
Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Polimedicação , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacoepidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180007, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-medication involves the concept of the spontaneous search by the individual for some drug that he or she considers appropriate to solve a health problem. Self-medication practice is little explored by the elderly according to other studies based in population data. OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in self-medication practice among the Brazilian elderly between 2006 and 2010. METHODS: This is a population-based study whose data were obtained from the Health, Well-being and Ageing Study (SABE Study). Thesample consisted of 1,257 elderly people in 2006 and 865 in 2010, who used drugs. RESULTS: The findings showed self-medication reduction from 42.3% in 2006 to 18.2% in 2010. In both periods, predominant utilized therapeutic classes were those acting on the nervous system (27.9% in 2006, and 29.6% in 2010) and on the alimentary tract and metabolism (25.5% in 2006, and 35.9% in 2010). The most commonly used medicines in 2006 and 2010 were analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and vitamins. There was a tendency to decrease the use of potentially inappropriate medicines between 2006 (26.4%) and 2010 (18.1%). The elderly themselves were the main responsible for the decision about the drug use in 2006 (62.5%) and 2010 (66.5%). CONCLUSION: Theextent of self-medication practice among the elderly who participated in the study decreased between 2006 and 2010, but the use of medicines that offer risks to health was still reported. Thus, the findings reinforce the importance of monitoring, evaluating, and continuously educating the elderly about risks and benefits of drug consumption, particularly over-the-counter medicines.


Assuntos
Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Polimedicação , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(4): 553-560, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776060

RESUMO

Importance: As the rate of publication of new and sometimes conflicting medical research increases, clinicians rely heavily on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to inform practice. However, CPGs are of widely variable quality, and there are no existing objective measures to rate the quality of CPGs. Objective: To systematically assess 421 CPGs for the management of common noncommunicable diseases in primary care using the validated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Instrument, version II (AGREE-II) tool and elucidate the factors associated with quality of CPGs. Evidence Review: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and 12 websites for CPGs were searched for CPGs for the management of common noncommunicable diseases in primary care published between January 1, 2011, and August 30, 2017. The assessment of the quality of CPGs was performed by 3 appraisers using the 6 domains of the AGREE-II instrument. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with quality of CPGs. Findings: Of the 421 CPGs reviewed, 23.5% (99) were classified as high quality. Among included guidelines, clarity of presentation (70%) and scope and purpose (61%) had the highest median AGREE-II scores. The domains with the lowest median scores were applicability (22%) and rigor of development (33%). Factors associated with high-quality CPGs included having more than 20 authors (odds ratio, 9.08; 95% CI, 3.35-24.62), development at governmental institutions (odds ratio, 10.38; 95% CI, 2.72-39.60), and reporting funding (odds ratio, 10.34; 95% CI, 4.77-22.39). Year of publication, region, guideline version, and scope were not associated with quality among included CPGs. Conclusions and Relevance: Primary care professionals and policymakers should be aware that CPGs in primary care are of widely variable quality, with less than 25% of included CPGs rated as high quality. High-quality CPGs were associated with a higher number of authors, governmental institutions, and the report of funding. Region of origin was not associated with quality of CPGs, which suggests that the improvement of the quality of CPGs should be an international concern.

8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(11): 3997-4006, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427469

RESUMO

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause illness, disability or death, especially in the elderly. An active search for suspected ADRs was carried out using triggers, which motivated the search of elderly people under care in adult emergency departments (ED). It was a cross-sectional and retrospective study that used an adaptation of the Institute of Health Care Improvement triggers. A total of 287 medical records were analyzed and 38 triggers were found, identifying 7 suspected ADRs. One was found without the use of triggers. Thus, in total, 8 ADRs (2.79%) were found, of which 6 were considered serious. There was a higher prevalence of ADRs in females (62.5%) and in those over 80 years of age (50%). The medications most implicated were those for alimentary tract and metabolism and cardiovascular system. Of the triggers tested, some are essential for use at EDs, such as those that indicate problems with anticoagulants, hypoglycemic agents and antihypertensives. Triggers have proved useful for an active search for suspected ADRs at EDs, including severe ones, identifying problems occurring outside hospital settings and signaling medications that pose an increased risk to the elderly .


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(9): e00069817, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208171

RESUMO

The study aimed to verify the application and performance of triggers for adverse drug events in hospitalized newborns. This prospective cohort study was conducted in the neonatal care units of a university hospital from March to September 2015. A list of triggers was developed for the identification of adverse drug events in this population. The list included antidote, clinical, and laboratory triggers. A total of 125 newborns who had received drugs during the hospitalization were included. Neonatal patient charts were screened to detect triggers. When a trigger was found, the patient chart was reviewed to identify possible adverse drug events. Each trigger's yield in the identification of adverse drug events was calculated and then classified according to its performance. Nine hundred and twenty-five triggers identified 208 suspected adverse drug events. The triggers' overall yield was 22.5%. The most frequently identified triggers were: drop in oxygen saturation, increased frequency of bowel movements, medications stop, and vomiting. The triggers with the best performance in the identification of adverse drug events were: increased creatinine, increased urea, necrotizing enterocolitis, prescription of flumazenil, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, and oversedation. The triggers identified in this study can be used to track adverse drug events in similar neonatal care services, focusing on the triggers with the best performance and the lowest workload in the identification.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Farmacovigilância , Vigilância da População/métodos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.2): e180006, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985269

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: O uso de polifarmácia pode ser resultante da presença concomitante de condições crônicas, atendimento por diversos médicos e automedicação. Combinada com a vulnerabilidade de idosos aos efeitos dos medicamentos devido a alterações farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas, a polifarmácia torna essa população mais suscetível a desfechos adversos. No Brasil, estudos mostram que a polifarmácia é um problema frequente entre idosos, mas faltam informações sobre sua associação com mortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar a sobrevida de idosos do município de São Paulo expostos ao uso de polifarmácia (cinco ou mais medicamentos). Métodos: Trata-se de uma coorte de base populacional, o Estudo Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (Sabe), da qual se pesquisou o seguimento de 2006 a 2010. A amostra foi composta por 1.258 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais. O método de Kaplan-Meier e o modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox foram usados para examinar a associação entre mortalidade e polifarmácia. Resultados: A probabilidade de sobrevida após cinco anos dos indivíduos usuários de polifarmácia na linha de base foi de 77,2%, enquanto nos não usuários foi de 85,5%. Apolifarmácia permaneceu como fator de risco para óbito mesmo após ajuste de demais condições associadas à mortalidade, como idade, sexo, renda, doenças crônicas e internação hospitalar. Conclusão: Os resultados apontam para a polifarmácia como um preditor de mortalidade para pessoas idosas. O uso de múltiplos medicamentos por idosos deve ser cuidadosamente avaliado para evitar ou minimizar danos a essa população.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The use of polypharmacy may be due to the concomitant presence of chronic conditions, medical care by several doctors simultaneously and self-medication. Combined with the vulnerability of the elderly to the effects of drugs due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, polypharmacy makes this population more susceptible to adverse outcomes. In Brazil, studies show that polypharmacy is a common problem among elderly people. However, few information is available on the association between polypharmacy and mortality. Objective: It was assessed the survival of the elderly from São Paulo city exposed to the use of polypharmacy (five or more medications). Methods: That was a population-based cohort, the Health, Well-Being and Aging Study (SABE Study), conducted from 2006 to 2010. The sample was composed of 1,258 individuals aged 60 years or more. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional risks model were used to examine the association between polypharmacy and mortality. Results: The probability of survival after five years of the users of polypharmacy at baseline was 77.2%, while among the non-users was 85.5%. Polypharmacy remained as a risk factor for death even after adjustment in other conditions associated with mortality, such as age, gender, income, chronic diseases and hospitalization. Conclusion: The results point polypharmacy as an indicator of mortality in elderly people. The use of multiple medications by the elderly should be carefully assessed to avoid or minimize the damage to this population.

11.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.2): e180007, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985273

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: Automedicação retrata o princípio do próprio indivíduo buscar espontaneamente por algum medicamento que considere adequado para resolver um problema de saúde. Essa prática é ainda pouco explorada entre idosos de acordo com outros estudos baseados em dados populacionais. Objetivo: Examinar as tendências da prática de automedicação dos idosos do Estudo SABE entre 2006 e 2010. Método: Estudode base populacional cujos dados foram obtidos do Estudo Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE). Aamostra de 2006 foi constituída de 1.258 idosos e a de 2010, de 865 idosos que utilizaram medicamentos. Resultados: Observou-se redução da automedicação de 42,3% em 2006 para 18,2% em 2010. Em ambos os períodos, as classes terapêuticas predominantes foram as dos medicamentos com ação no sistema nervoso (27,9% em 2006 e 29,6% em 2010) e trato alimentar e metabolismo (25,5% em 2006 e 35,9% em 2010). Entreos medicamentos mais usados nos anos de 2006 e 2010 estão os analgésicos/anti-inflamatórios e vitaminas. Houve tendência a declínio da utilização de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados entre 2006 (26,4%) e 2010 (18,1%). Oidoso foi o principal responsável pela indicação da automedicação em 2006 (65,2%) e 2010 (66,5%). Conclusão: A extensão da prática de automedicação nos idosos do SABE apresentou redução entre 2006 e 2010, porém o emprego de medicamentos que oferecem risco à saúde ainda foi relatado. Desse modo, os achados reforçam a importância de monitorar, avaliar e educar continuamente os idosos acerca dos riscos e benefícios do consumo de medicamentos, sobretudo daqueles isentos de prescrição.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Self-medication involves the concept of the spontaneous search by the individual for some drug that he or she considers appropriate to solve a health problem. Self-medication practice is little explored by the elderly according to other studies based in population data. Objective: To examine the trends in self-medication practice among the Brazilian elderly between 2006 and 2010. Methods: This is a population-based study whose data were obtained from the Health, Well-being and Ageing Study (SABE Study). Thesample consisted of 1,257 elderly people in 2006 and 865 in 2010, who used drugs. Results: The findings showed self-medication reduction from 42.3% in 2006 to 18.2% in 2010. In both periods, predominant utilized therapeutic classes were those acting on the nervous system (27.9% in 2006, and 29.6% in 2010) and on the alimentary tract and metabolism (25.5% in 2006, and 35.9% in 2010). The most commonly used medicines in 2006 and 2010 were analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and vitamins. There was a tendency to decrease the use of potentially inappropriate medicines between 2006 (26.4%) and 2010 (18.1%). The elderly themselves were the main responsible for the decision about the drug use in 2006 (62.5%) and 2010 (66.5%). Conclusion: Theextent of self-medication practice among the elderly who participated in the study decreased between 2006 and 2010, but the use of medicines that offer risks to health was still reported. Thus, the findings reinforce the importance of monitoring, evaluating, and continuously educating the elderly about risks and benefits of drug consumption, particularly over-the-counter medicines.

12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(9): e00069817, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952465

RESUMO

O objetivo foi verificar a aplicação e o desempenho dos rastreadores para a busca ativa de eventos adversos a medicamentos em recém-nascidos hospitalizados. Trata-se de um estudo de coorte prospectivo. A pesquisa foi realizada em um hospital universitário, nas unidades de cuidado neonatal, durante o período de março a setembro de 2015. Uma lista de rastreadores foi desenvolvida para ser utilizada na identificação de eventos adversos a medicamentos nessa população. A lista contemplou rastreadores antídotos, clínicos e laboratoriais. Foram incluídos 125 recém-nascidos que utilizaram medicamentos durante a internação. Os prontuários dos recém-nascidos eram avaliados, a fim de detectar a existência de um rastreador. Se o rastreador fosse encontrado, seguia-se com uma revisão à procura de possíveis eventos adversos a medicamentos ocorridos. O rendimento de cada um dos rastreadores para identificar eventos adversos a medicamentos foi calculado e depois categorizado de acordo com o desempenho. Novecentos e vinte e cinco rastreadores identificaram 208 suspeitas de eventos adversos a medicamentos. A taxa de rendimento geral dos rastreadores foi de 22,5%. Os rastreadores mais identificados nos prontuários foram: queda da saturação de oxigênio, aumento da frequência de evacuação, suspensão de medicamento e vômito. Os rastreadores de alto desempenho na identificação de eventos adversos a medicamentos foram: aumento da creatinina, aumento da ureia, enterocolite necrosante, prescrição de flumazenil, hipercalcemia, hipercalemia, hipernatremia, hipersedação. Os rastreadores elencados com base neste estudo podem ser utilizados para a busca de eventos adversos a medicamentos em instituições de saúde de perfil semelhante, devendo ser considerados aqueles que obtiveram melhor desempenho e menor carga de trabalho para serem identificados.


El objetivo fue verificar la aplicación y el desempeño de los rastreadores para la búsqueda activa de eventos adversos con medicamentos en recién nacidos hospitalizados. Se trata de un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. La investigación se realizó en un hospital universitario, dentro de las unidades de cuidado neonatal, durante el período de marzo a septiembre de 2015. Se desarrolló una lista de rastreadores para que fuera utilizada en la identificación de eventos adversos con medicamentos en esa población. La lista contempló rastreadores antídotos, clínicos y de laboratorio. Se incluyeron a 125 recién nacidos a quienes se les administró medicamentos durante el internamiento. Los registros médicos de los recién nacidos se evaluaron, con el fin de detectar la existencia de un rastreador. Si se encontraba el rastreador, se continuaba con una revisión, en búsqueda de posibles eventos adversos con medicamentos acaecidos. El rendimiento de cada uno de los rastreadores para identificar eventos adversos con medicamentos fue calculado, y después categorizado, de acuerdo con el desempeño. Novecientos veinticinco rastreadores identificaron 208 eventos adversos con medicamentos sospechosos. La tasa de rendimiento general de los rastreadores fue de un 22,5%. Los rastreadores más identificados en los registros médicos fueron: caída de la saturación de oxígeno, aumento de la frecuencia de evacuación, suspensión de medicamentos y vómito. Los rastreadores de alto desempeño en la identificación de eventos adversos con medicamentos fueron: aumento de la creatinina, aumento de la urea, enterocolitis necrotizante, prescripción de flumazenil, hipercalcemia, hipercalemia, hipernatremia, hipersedación. Los rastreadores expuestos en base a este estudio se pueden utilizar para la búsqueda de eventos adversos con medicamentos en instituciones de salud con un perfil semejante, debiendo ser considerados aquellos que obtuvieron un mejor desempeño y menor carga de trabajo para ser identificados.


The study aimed to verify the application and performance of triggers for adverse drug events in hospitalized newborns. This prospective cohort study was conducted in the neonatal care units of a university hospital from March to September 2015. A list of triggers was developed for the identification of adverse drug events in this population. The list included antidote, clinical, and laboratory triggers. A total of 125 newborns who had received drugs during the hospitalization were included. Neonatal patient charts were screened to detect triggers. When a trigger was found, the patient chart was reviewed to identify possible adverse drug events. Each trigger's yield in the identification of adverse drug events was calculated and then classified according to its performance. Nine hundred and twenty-five triggers identified 208 suspected adverse drug events. The triggers' overall yield was 22.5%. The most frequently identified triggers were: drop in oxygen saturation, increased frequency of bowel movements, medications stop, and vomiting. The triggers with the best performance in the identification of adverse drug events were: increased creatinine, increased urea, necrotizing enterocolitis, prescription of flumazenil, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, and oversedation. The triggers identified in this study can be used to track adverse drug events in similar neonatal care services, focusing on the triggers with the best performance and the lowest workload in the identification.

13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(11): 3997-4006, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974737

RESUMO

Resumo Reações adversas a medicamentos (RAM) podem ser causa de enfermidades, incapacidades ou óbitos, principalmente em idosos. Realizou-se busca ativa de suspeitas de RAM que motivaram a procura de idosos por cuidados em pronto socorro (PS) utilizando rastreadores e discutindo seu uso nessa unidade de atendimento. Tratou-se de um estudo transversal e retrospectivo que utilizou adaptação dos rastreadores do "Institute of Healthcare Improvement". Foram analisados 287 prontuários, nos quais foram encontrados 38 rastreadores que identificaram 7 suspeitas de RAM. Uma foi encontrada sem uso dos rastreadores. Assim, no total, foram encontradas 8 reações (2,79%). Os medicamentos mais implicados foram os para trato alimentar e metabolismo e sistema cardiovascular. Dos rastreadores testados, alguns são essenciais para uso em PS, como os que indicam problemas com anticoagulantes, hipoglicemiantes e anti-hipertensivos, medicamentos bastante utilizados por idosos. Outros são adequados a estudos prospectivos, por necessitarem avaliação detalhada para confirmar da suspeita de RAM. Os rastreadores devem ser adaptados para cada instituição, mas se mostraram úteis para a detecção das suspeitas de RAM, identificando problemas ocorridos fora do ambiente hospitalar e sinalizando medicamentos que envolvem maior risco ao paciente idoso.


Abstract Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause illness, disability or death, especially in the elderly. An active search for suspected ADRs was carried out using triggers, which motivated the search of elderly people under care in adult emergency departments (ED). It was a cross-sectional and retrospective study that used an adaptation of the Institute of Health Care Improvement triggers. A total of 287 medical records were analyzed and 38 triggers were found, identifying 7 suspected ADRs. One was found without the use of triggers. Thus, in total, 8 ADRs (2.79%) were found, of which 6 were considered serious. There was a higher prevalence of ADRs in females (62.5%) and in those over 80 years of age (50%). The medications most implicated were those for alimentary tract and metabolism and cardiovascular system. Of the triggers tested, some are essential for use at EDs, such as those that indicate problems with anticoagulants, hypoglycemic agents and antihypertensives. Triggers have proved useful for an active search for suspected ADRs at EDs, including severe ones, identifying problems occurring outside hospital settings and signaling medications that pose an increased risk to the elderly .

14.
Syst Rev ; 6(1): 220, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) constitute an important tool for the promotion of evidence-based health, which may improve healthcare outcomes for individuals with NCDs. Studies have shown that many CPGs have poor or moderate quality. Therefore, the aim of the proposed study is to systematically identify and appraise CPGs for pharmacological treatment of the most prevalent NCDs in primary care. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search will be conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library. Twelve databases specific to CPGs will also be searched. Three appraisers will assess the quality of the CPGs using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument, version II. The AGREE II results will be checked for discrepancies. Differences between scores equal than or greater to 2 will be considered discrepant and the appraisers will decide the final score by consensus. If no consensus is reached, a fourth appraiser will decide the score. According to the AGREE II User's Manual, the six domains of the instrument are independent. Thus, each domain score will be calculated by the sum of the individual item scores and scaling the total as a percentage of the maximum possible score for the domain. DISCUSSION: The AGREE II instrument will be applied to evaluate the quality of CPGs and contribute to enhance the discussion and development of guidelines of high quality. The findings will be submitted for publication in high-impact, peer-reviewed scientific journals and will also be disseminated at international conferences. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016043364.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(10): 3381-3391, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069192

RESUMO

This study looked into mortality due to medicinal drug poisoning by age, gender and intent among the population of the state of São Paulo. The adjusted time sequence of mortality due to drug poisoning was developed based on data available in the DATASUS Mortality Data System for 1996 to 2012. We checked the variables for magnitude and trends. We found an increase in adjusted mortality starting in 2005, and more so as of 2009, confirmed by a 95% CI for the average annual rate of change. (AARC) We did not find the same trend in overall mortality in the state (AARC = -0.22%, 95% CI = -1.12 - 0.69) for specific, external cause mortality (AARC = -3.14%, 95% CI = -4.75 - -1.49) and for mortality due to accidental drug poisoning (AARC=+9,76%, 95% IC = -12.16 - 37.14). The largest increase was found in intentional self-poisoning with medicinal drugs (AARC = +10.64%, 95% CI = 6.92 - 14.40), and among the younger subjects (largest magnitude). The trend in mortality due to drug poisoning in the State of São Paulo, the importance of intent and mortality among the younger population reiterate the need to implement control measures.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(10): 3381-3391, Out. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890154

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo verificou a tendência da mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa por faixas etárias, sexo e intenção, na população do estado de São Paulo. A série temporal de mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa ajustada foi construída a partir de dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do DATASUS (1996 a 2012). Foram verificadas a magnitude e a tendência para as variáveis estudadas. Observou-se tendência crescente de mortalidade ajustada a partir de 2005, que se acentuou a partir de 2009, o que foi confirmado pelo valor do IC95% para a taxa de variação anual média. Tal tendência não foi verificada para a mortalidade geral para o estado (TVAM = -0,22%; IC95% = -1,12 - 0,69), para a mortalidade específica por causas externas (TVAM = -3,14%; IC95% = -4,75 - -1,49) e para a mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa acidental (TVAM = +9,76%, IC95% = -12,16 - 37,14). A autointoxicação medicamentosa intencional foi a que mais cresceu no período (TVAM = +10,64%, IC95% = 6,92 - 14,49), assim como a mortalidade entre os mais jovens (maior magnitude). A tendência observada para a mortalidade por intoxicação medicamentosa no estado de São Paulo, a relevância da componente intencional e da mortalidade entre as faixas etárias mais jovens ressaltam a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle.


Abstract This study looked into mortality due to medicinal drug poisoning by age, gender and intent among the population of the state of São Paulo. The adjusted time sequence of mortality due to drug poisoning was developed based on data available in the DATASUS Mortality Data System for 1996 to 2012. We checked the variables for magnitude and trends. We found an increase in adjusted mortality starting in 2005, and more so as of 2009, confirmed by a 95% CI for the average annual rate of change. (AARC) We did not find the same trend in overall mortality in the state (AARC = -0.22%, 95% CI = -1.12 - 0.69) for specific, external cause mortality (AARC = -3.14%, 95% CI = -4.75 - -1.49) and for mortality due to accidental drug poisoning (AARC=+9,76%, 95% IC = -12.16 - 37.14). The largest increase was found in intentional self-poisoning with medicinal drugs (AARC = +10.64%, 95% CI = 6.92 - 14.40), and among the younger subjects (largest magnitude). The trend in mortality due to drug poisoning in the State of São Paulo, the importance of intent and mortality among the younger population reiterate the need to implement control measures.

17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(1): 261-268, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28076549

RESUMO

Few Brazilian articles discuss the importance of pharmacy technicians who offer direct assistance to patients. This paper describes an experience of the training of pharmacy technicians in drug dispensing. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary healthcare setting. The technicians were trained by the pharmacist to advise patients at the time of drug dispensing and to screen cases that needed pharmaceutical consultation. Problems were identified by verifying the prescription and return date for dispensing the medication as well as through direct questioning of the patients. Flowcharts for problem identification and intervention were created for use by the technicians. After training, pharmacy technicians identified 3944 problems, the most common of which were the use of a lower dosage than that prescribed (26%) and non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. The findings of the present study demonstrate the importance of training pharmacy technicians with regard to dispensing drugs so that they can assist pharmacists in the process of identifying and solving drug-related problems, thereby making them active members of the care process in the public health system.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Técnicos em Farmácia/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
18.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(1): 261-268, jan. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-839920

RESUMO

Resumo São escassos artigos científicos brasileiros que discutam a importância do trabalho do técnico em farmácia em assistência direta ao paciente. Este trabalho descreve uma experiência de capacitação de técnicos de farmácia para dispensação de medicamentos. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, transversal, realizado na atenção primária à saúde. Os técnicos foram capacitados pelo farmacêutico a orientar os pacientes no momento da dispensação e para triar casos que necessitavam atendimento farmacêutico. A identificação dos problemas foi feita por meio da observação da prescrição, data de retorno para dispensação ou do questionamento direto ao paciente. Foram elaborados fluxos de identificação de problemas e de intervenção, após os quais os técnicos identificaram 3.944 problemas, sendo os mais comuns: uso de medicamento em quantidade inferior à prescrita (26%) e não adesão ao tratamento farmacológico (25%). Os resultados demonstram a importância da capacitação dos técnicos na dispensação de medicamentos, fazendo deles um aliado do farmacêutico no processo de identificação e resolução de problemas relacionados a medicamentos, além de torná-los membros ativos do processo de cuidado no sistema de saúde pública.


Abstract Few Brazilian articles discuss the importance of pharmacy technicians who offer direct assistance to patients. This paper describes an experience of the training of pharmacy technicians in drug dispensing. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary healthcare setting. The technicians were trained by the pharmacist to advise patients at the time of drug dispensing and to screen cases that needed pharmaceutical consultation. Problems were identified by verifying the prescription and return date for dispensing the medication as well as through direct questioning of the patients. Flowcharts for problem identification and intervention were created for use by the technicians. After training, pharmacy technicians identified 3944 problems, the most common of which were the use of a lower dosage than that prescribed (26%) and non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. The findings of the present study demonstrate the importance of training pharmacy technicians with regard to dispensing drugs so that they can assist pharmacists in the process of identifying and solving drug-related problems, thereby making them active members of the care process in the public health system.


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Técnicos em Farmácia/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(1): 261-268, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890150

RESUMO

Resumo São escassos artigos científicos brasileiros que discutam a importância do trabalho do técnico em farmácia em assistência direta ao paciente. Este trabalho descreve uma experiência de capacitação de técnicos de farmácia para dispensação de medicamentos. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, transversal, realizado na atenção primária à saúde. Os técnicos foram capacitados pelo farmacêutico a orientar os pacientes no momento da dispensação e para triar casos que necessitavam atendimento farmacêutico. A identificação dos problemas foi feita por meio da observação da prescrição, data de retorno para dispensação ou do questionamento direto ao paciente. Foram elaborados fluxos de identificação de problemas e de intervenção, após os quais os técnicos identificaram 3.944 problemas, sendo os mais comuns: uso de medicamento em quantidade inferior à prescrita (26%) e não adesão ao tratamento farmacológico (25%). Os resultados demonstram a importância da capacitação dos técnicos na dispensação de medicamentos, fazendo deles um aliado do farmacêutico no processo de identificação e resolução de problemas relacionados a medicamentos, além de torná-los membros ativos do processo de cuidado no sistema de saúde pública.


Abstract Few Brazilian articles discuss the importance of pharmacy technicians who offer direct assistance to patients. This paper describes an experience of the training of pharmacy technicians in drug dispensing. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary healthcare setting. The technicians were trained by the pharmacist to advise patients at the time of drug dispensing and to screen cases that needed pharmaceutical consultation. Problems were identified by verifying the prescription and return date for dispensing the medication as well as through direct questioning of the patients. Flowcharts for problem identification and intervention were created for use by the technicians. After training, pharmacy technicians identified 3944 problems, the most common of which were the use of a lower dosage than that prescribed (26%) and non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. The findings of the present study demonstrate the importance of training pharmacy technicians with regard to dispensing drugs so that they can assist pharmacists in the process of identifying and solving drug-related problems, thereby making them active members of the care process in the public health system.

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