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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983460

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate age-related differences in fear learning and generalization in healthy children and adolescents (n = 133), aged 8-17 years, using an aversive discriminative fear conditioning and generalization paradigm adapted from Lau et al. (2008). In the current task, participants underwent 24 trials of discriminative conditioning of two female faces with neutral facial expressions, with (CS+) or without (CS-) a 95-dB loud female scream, presented simultaneously with a fearful facial expression (US). The discriminative conditioning was followed by 72 generalization trials (12 CS+, 12 GS1, 12 GS2, 12 GS3, 12 GS4, and 12 CS-): four generalization stimuli depicting gradual morphs from CS+ to CS- in 20%-steps were created for the generalization phases. We hypothesized that generalization in children and adolescents is negatively correlated with age. The subjective ratings of valence, arousal, and US expectancy (the probability of an aversive noise following each stimulus), as well as skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured. Repeated-measures ANOVAs on ratings and SCR amplitudes were calculated with the within-subject factors stimulus type (CS+, CS-, GS1-4) and phase (Pre-Acquisition, Acquisition 1, Acquisition 2, Generalization 1, Generalization 2). To analyze the modulatory role of age, we additionally calculated ANCOVAs considering age as covariate. Results indicated that (1) subjective and physiological responses were generally lower with increasing age irrespective to the stimulus quality, and (2) stimulus discrimination improved with increasing age paralleled by reduced overgeneralization in older individuals. Longitudinal follow-up studies are required to analyze fear generalization with regard to brain maturational aspects and clarify whether overgeneralization of conditioned fear promotes the development of anxiety disorders or vice versa.

2.
Brain Behav ; 11(5): e02054, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Experimental models of neuropsychiatric disorders, for example, ADHD, are used to mimic specific phenotypic traits of a complex human disorder. However, it remains unresolved to what extent the animal phenotype reflects the specific human trait. The null mutant mouse of the serotonin-synthesizing tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2-/- ) gene has been proposed as experimental model for ADHD with high face validity for impulsive, aggressive, and anxious behaviors. To validate this ADHD-like model, we examined the Tph2-/- phenotype in humans when considering allelic variation of TPH2 function ("reverse phenotyping"). METHODS: 58 participants (6 females, 8-18 years) were examined, of whom 32 were diagnosed with ADHD. All participants were phenotyped for impulsivity, aggression, and anxiety using questionnaires, behavioral tests, and MRI scanning while performing the 4-choice serial reaction time task. Additionally, participants were genotyped for the TPH2 G-703T (rs4570625) polymorphism. To analyze the relation between TPH2 G-703T variants and the impulsive/aggressive/anxious phenotype, mediation analyses were performed using behavioral and MRI data as potential mediators. RESULTS: We found that the relation between TPH2 G-703T and aggression as part of the reverse Tph2- /- phenotype was mediated by structure and function of the right middle and inferior frontal gyrus. CONCLUSION: At the example of trait aggression, our results support the assumption that the Tph2 null mutant mouse reflects the TPH2 G-703T-dependent phenotype in humans. Additionally, we conclude that "reverse phenotyping" is a promising method to validate experimental models and human findings for refined analysis of disease mechanisms.

3.
Brain Sci ; 11(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578741

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) represents a widely established method for assessing altered and typically developing brain function. However, systematic studies on EEG data quality, its correlates, and consequences are scarce. To address this research gap, the current study focused on the percentage of artifact-free segments after standard EEG pre-processing as a data quality index. We analyzed participant-related and methodological influences, and validity by replicating landmark EEG effects. Further, effects of data quality on spectral power analyses beyond participant-related characteristics were explored. EEG data from a multicenter ADHD-cohort (age range 6 to 45 years), and a non-ADHD school-age control group were analyzed (ntotal = 305). Resting-state data during eyes open, and eyes closed conditions, and task-related data during a cued Continuous Performance Task (CPT) were collected. After pre-processing, general linear models, and stepwise regression models were fitted to the data. We found that EEG data quality was strongly related to demographic characteristics, but not to methodological factors. We were able to replicate maturational, task, and ADHD effects reported in the EEG literature, establishing a link with EEG-landmark effects. Furthermore, we showed that poor data quality significantly increases spectral power beyond effects of maturation and symptom severity. Taken together, the current results indicate that with a careful design and systematic quality control, informative large-scale multicenter trials characterizing neurophysiological mechanisms in neurodevelopmental disorders across the lifespan are feasible. Nevertheless, results are restricted to the limitations reported. Future work will clarify predictive value.

4.
Pharmacopsychiatry ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comparative pharmacokinetic data about the antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN) and the antipsychotic drug risperidone (RIS) over the lifespan and especially in children and adolescents is lacking. This is the first cross-sectional study that aimed to investigate differences in dose-corrected serum concentrations (CDs) and metabolite to parent compound ratios (MPRs) of VEN and RIS across the lifespan. METHODS: Patients treated with VEN and RIS at the University Hospital of Würzburg, Germany were included in the study. Serum level determinations were performed during clinical routine care. Patients with CYP2D6 influencing co-medication were excluded from analyses. RESULTS: In 953 patients (12-93 years) treated with VEN and 552 patients (7-92 years) treated with RIS, children/adolescents (<18 years) showed 11% and 19%, and 44% and 42% lower CDs of the active moieties (CDsAM) of VEN and RIS than adults and elderly (≥60 years) (Kruskal-Wallis tests; p ≤ 0.001). However, when CDs were normalized to body weight, a different pattern emerged. Gender differences, with higher CDsAM in females were present in adults and elderlies but not in children/adolescents. No gender- or age-dependent difference in MPRs was found; however, 80% of MPRs of RIS in children/adolescents were below the range of "normal" CYP2D6 function for adults. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest a higher clearance as a reason for lower CDsAM of VEN and RIS in children/adolescents compared to adults/elderlies. Metabolism of VEN or RIS by CYP2D6, characterized by MPRs, was not associated with age. However, MPRs of RIS were lower in children/adolescents, possibly due to a higher renal clearance of 9-OH-risperidone.

5.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364375

RESUMO

Objectives: In undergraduate medical education and in the subject of child and adolescent psychiatry, examining young patients face-to-face is a key element of teaching. With the abrupt shutdown of face-to-face teaching caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a case-based online training program integrating audio and video of real patients was developed. Methods: The blended learning platform CaseTrain guides medical students in their final year through real child-psychiatric patient cases, such as anorexia, autism, or attention deficit disorder, through presentation of video and audio of real patients and parents. The teaching format complements lectures on child psychiatric topics, comprising asynchronous elements (self-study using the digital material) as well as synchronous elements (web-conferences with a specialist). Learning objectives for students were set to develop knowledge of the spectra of psychiatric disorders that affect children and to recognize approaches how to assess and manage common psychiatric problems of childhood and adolescence. Results: The feedback from medical students through oral and written evaluation was positive. They appreciated getting to know 'real-world patients' in times of such a pandemic, to learn explorative techniques from role models, and to be in close contact with the supervising specialist. In consequence of critical feedback on the length of some video sequences, these training units will undergo revision. Conclusions: Case-based online training may continue to be a useful option in a post-pandemic future as integral part of medical education, complementing face-to-face lectures and training in (child) psychiatry.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Anorexia/diagnóstico , Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
Ther Drug Monit ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool for the optimization of psychopharmacotherapy; however, in child and adolescent psychiatry, uncomfortable intravenous sample collection is the main challenge and restricts the use of TDM. Therefore, it is important to evaluate alternate specimens to facilitate TDM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using saliva for the TDM of amphetamine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. METHODS: In this study, 28 patient samples (mean age, 11.3 years; boys, 23; girls, 5) treated with lisdexamfetamine were included. The active compound amphetamine was extracted and derivatized before quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Nonparametric Spearman rank correlations were used for correlation analyses; for clinical validation, Bland-Altman analysis was applied. RESULTS: The median amphetamine concentrations in saliva were 2.7 times higher (range 0.7. 23.6) than those in serum (257.8 ng/mL vs. 77.2 ng/mL; z = -4.51, P < 0.001). A strong positive linear correlation was observed between saliva and serum concentrations (ρ = 0.628, P < 0.001). The ratio of saliva-to-serum concentration was strongly pH-dependent (ρ = -0.712, P < 0.001). Therefore, a transformation formula, factoring in salivary pH, to calculate serum concentrations from the measured saliva concentrations was applied. Theoretical and measured serum amphetamine concentrations were subjected to Bland-Altman analysis. Using an acceptance limit of 20%, only 21% (n = 6) of samples fulfilled this criterion. CONCLUSIONS: Amphetamine paired saliva-to-serum concentrations were highly variable and strongly affected by salivary pH, indicating that saliva is an inappropriate sampling matrix for TDM of amphetamine. Furthermore, Bland-Altman analysis did not support saliva as a suitable matrix for TDM.

7.
8.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114672

RESUMO

(1) Background: We aimed to evaluate the effect of proposed "microbiome-stabilising interventions", i.e., breastfeeding for ≥3 months and prophylactic use of Lactobacillus acidophilus/ Bifidobacterium infantis probiotics on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children aged 5-6 years. (2) Methods: We performed a 5-year-follow-up assessment including a strength and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) and an intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)-III test in preterm children previously enrolled in the German Neonatal Network (GNN). The analysis was restricted to children exposed to antenatal corticosteroids and postnatal antibiotics. (3) Results: 2467 primary school-aged children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In multivariable linear regression models breastfeeding ≥3 months was associated with lower conduct disorders (B (95% confidence intervals (CI)): -0.25 (-0.47 to -0.03)) and inattention/hyperactivity (-0.46 (-0.81 to -0.10)) as measured by SDQ. Probiotic treatment during the neonatal period had no effect on SDQ scores or intelligence. (4) Conclusions: Prolonged breastfeeding of highly vulnerable infants may promote their mental health later in childhood, particularly by reducing risk for inattention/hyperactivity and conduct disorders. Future studies need to disentangle the underlying mechanisms during a critical time frame of development.

9.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(12): 1663-1674, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997183

RESUMO

Although aripiprazole is one of the most used antipsychotics, knowledge about serum concentrations in children and adolescents is scarce and age-specific therapeutic ranges have not been established yet. Data of a routine therapeutic drug monitoring service were analyzed in order to evaluate the relationship between dose and serum concentration of aripiprazole in children and adolescents. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the therapeutic reference range defined for adults with schizophrenia (100-350 ng/ml) is applicable for minors. Data from 130 patients (aged 7-19 years) treated with aripiprazole for different indications in doses of 2-30 mg/day were evaluated. Patient characteristics, doses, serum concentrations and therapeutic outcome were assessed by standardized measures. A positive mean correlation between body weight-corrected daily dose and aripiprazole concentration was found (rp = 0.59, p < 0.001) with variation in dose explaining 35% of the variability in serum concentrations. Girls had on average 41% higher dose-corrected concentrations than boys (244.9 versus 173.4 mg/l; p = 0.006). Aripiprazole concentrations did not vary with co-medication (p = 0.22). About 70% of all measured serum concentrations were within the recommended therapeutic range for adults. Using a calculation method in all responding patients with an ICD-10 F2 diagnosis for a rough estimation of a preliminary therapeutic window also demonstrated a similar therapeutic range of aripiprazole in minors (105.9-375.3 ng/ml) than for adults. If confirmed in larger samples and more controlled study designs, these data may contribute to the definition of a therapeutic range of aripiprazole concentrations in children and adolescents.

11.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849082

RESUMO

Objective: This study assesses the reliability and validity of the DSM-5-based, semi-structured Clinical Parent Interview for Externalizing Disorders in Children and Adolescents (ILF-EXTERNAL). Method: Participant data were drawn from the ongoing ESCAschool intervention study. The ILF-EXTERNAL was evaluated in a clinical sample of 474 children and adolescents (aged 6-12 years, 92 females) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To obtain interrater reliability, the one-way random-effects, absolute agreement models of the intraclass correlation (ICC) for single ICC(1,1) and average measurements ICC(1,3) were computed between the interviewers and two independent raters for 45 randomly selected interviews involving ten interviewers. Overall agreement on DSM-5 diagnoses was assessed using Fleiss' kappa. Further analyses evaluated internal consistencies, item-total correlations as well as correlations between symptom severity and the degree of functional impairment. Additionally, parents completed the German version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and two DSM-5-based parent questionnaires for the assessment of ADHD symptoms and symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders (FBB-ADHS; FBB-SSV), which were used to evaluate convergent and divergent validity. Results: ICC coefficients demonstrated very good to excellent interrater reliability on the item and scale level of the ILF-EXTERNAL [scale level: ICC(1,1) = 0.83-0.95; ICC(1,3) = 0.94-0.98]. Overall kappa agreement on DSM-5 diagnoses was substantial to almost perfect for most disorders (0.38 ≤ κ ≤ 0.94). With some exceptions, internal consistencies (0.60 ≤ α ≤ 0.86) and item-total correlations (0.21 ≤ r it ≤ 0.71) were generally satisfactory to good. Furthermore, higher symptom severity was associated with a higher degree of functional impairment. The evaluation of convergent validity revealed positive results regarding clinical judgment and parent ratings (FBB-ADHS; FBB-SSV). Correlations between the ILF-EXTERNAL scales and the CBCL Externalizing Problems were moderate to high. Finally, the ILF-EXTERNAL scales were significantly more strongly associated with the CBCL Externalizing Problems than with the Internalizing Problems, indicating divergent validity. Conclusion: In clinically referred, school-age children, the ILF-EXTERNAL demonstrates sound psychometric properties. The ILF-EXTERNAL is a promising clinical interview and contributes to high-quality diagnostics of externalizing disorders in children and adolescents.

12.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(6): 429-433, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615864

RESUMO

Anxiety and Depression in Transition - Desiderata for Improved Care and Research: Results of the Joint Task Force Transition of DGPPN and DGKJP Abstract. Affective disorders (e. g., anxiety, depression) frequently begin during adolescence. Yet therapeutic approaches during adolescence differ in some respects from those employed during adulthood. During the transition from adolescence to adulthood, there is a high risk of discontinuation of therapeutic treatment, which may consequently affect integration in employment. There is a need for age-specific therapeutic strategies that address the relevant issues of adolescents as well as the presently unmet needs in research and treatment for this specific population.

14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 228: 113562, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety have complex etiologies and are associated with a significant burden of disease. Although air pollution has been hypothesized as a possible risk factor of these disorders, the associations are still under-investigated. We aimed to analyze associations between long-term exposure to ambient ozone and particulate matter with diameter <10 µm (PM10) and diagnoses of depression and anxiety in a general population. METHODS: We utilized data from a large statutory health insurance company from Saxony, Germany. Information on outpatient clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety was available for the years 2005-2014. We assigned ambient ozone and PM10 estimates to residential districts of 1.13 million individuals aged 16 and older. Depression and anxiety were defined as diagnoses counts. Associations with depression and anxiety were assessed using adjusted generalized estimating equations models. RESULTS: In the ten-year study period, the observed prevalences of depression and anxiety were 7.40% and 3.82%, respectively. In the two-pollutant model, 10 more days with a maximum 8-h average ozone concentration exceeding 120 µg/m³ resulted in a relative risk (RR) of 1.010 with 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.005, 1.014) for depression and an RR of 1.007 (95% CI (1.000, 1.014)) for anxiety. The effect estimates of PM10 for depression and anxiety were 1.180 (95% CI (1.160, 1.201)) and 1.176 (95% CI (1.148, 1.205)) per 10 µg/m³ increase in PM10 concentration, respectively. Age, sex, and access to healthcare of the individual were also associated with the diagnosis of the disorders. The associations were consistent across one- and two-pollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that increased levels of ambient ozone and PM10 may elevate the risk of a depression or anxiety diagnosis in the general population. However, given the lack of data on individual air pollutant exposure and socioeconomic status, our results should be interpreted with caution. Further well-designed epidemiological studies should replicate our findings.

15.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(11): 1527-1537, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468273

RESUMO

While DNA methylation patterns have been studied for a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, the role of the enzymes establishing DNA methylation-DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)-has yet to be investigated. In an effort to investigate DNMT genotype-specific effects on dimensional anxiety traits in addition to the categorical phenotype of panic disorder, 506 panic disorder patients and 3112 healthy participants were assessed for anxiety related cognition [Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] as well as pathological worry [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)] and genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and DNMT3B (rs2424932, rs4911259) genes, which have previously been found associated with clinical and trait-related phenotypes. There was no association with the categorical phenotype panic disorder. However, a significant association was discerned between DNMT3A rs1465764 and PSWQ scores in healthy participants, with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. In addition, a marginally significant association between questionnaire scores (PSWQ, ASI) in healthy participants and DNMT3B rs2424932 was detected, again with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. The present results suggest a possible minor role of DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene variation in conveying resilience towards anxiety disorders. As the observed associations indicated a protective effect of two SNPs particularly with pathological worry, future studies are proposed to explore these variants in generalized anxiety disorder rather than panic disorder.

16.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 36: 119111, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197942

RESUMO

The glucose-fructose oxidoreductase domain containing gene family (GFOD) is small and contains only two members in human (GFOD1 and GFOD2). Information about its function is scarce. As the name implies the proteins contain an enzyme-defining domain, however, if this is functional and has enzymatic activity remains to be shown. A single nucleotide polymorphism situated in an intron of GFOD1 was found to be associated with inattentive symptomology in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Further, in a large schizophrenia genome-wide association study the GFOD2 locus was found to be associated with the psychiatric condition. Until now, however, it is unclear what specific functions are associated with the two GFOD-family members, if they might be involved in neurodevelopment and how this may relate to the development of psychiatric disorders. In order to gain first insights into the hypothesis that GFOD-family members are involved in brain development and/or function we performed RNA in situ hybridization on zebrafish (Danio rerio) tissues at different developmental stages. We found that both family members are expressed in the central nervous system at embryonic, larvae and adult stages. We were able to define subtle differences of expression of the two gfod genes and we showed that a subset of GABAergic neurons express gfod1. Taken together, we conclude that both gfod gene family members are expressed in overlapping as well as in distinct regions in the zebrafish central nervous system. Our data suggest that gfod1 and gfod2 are relevant both for the developing and adult zebrafish brain. This study paves the way for further functional analyses of this yet unexplored gene family.

17.
Trials ; 21(1): 56, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychosocially impairing and cost-intensive mental disorder, with first symptoms occurring in early childhood. It can usually be diagnosed reliably at preschool age. Early detection of children with ADHD symptoms and an early, age-appropriate treatment are needed in order to reduce symptoms, prevent secondary problems and enable a better school start. Despite existing ADHD treatment research and guideline recommendations for the treatment of ADHD in preschool children, there is still a need to optimise individualised treatment strategies in order to improve outcomes. Therefore, the ESCApreschool study (Evidence-Based, Stepped Care of ADHD in Preschool Children aged 3 years and 0 months to 6 years and 11 months of age (3;0 to 6;11 years) addresses the treatment of 3-6-year-old preschool children with elevated ADHD symptoms within a large multicentre trial. The study aims to investigate the efficacy of an individualised stepwise-intensifying treatment programme. METHODS: The target sample size of ESCApreschool is 200 children (boys and girls) aged 3;0 to 6;11 years with an ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) or a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) plus additional substantial ADHD symptoms. The first step of the adaptive, stepped care design used in ESCApreschool consists of a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) intervention for parents. Participants are randomised to either the TASH group or a waiting control group. The treatment in step 2 depends on the outcome of step 1: TASH responders without significant residual ADHD/ODD symptoms receive booster sessions of TASH. Partial or non-responders of step 1 are randomised again to either parent management and preschool teacher training or treatment as usual. DISCUSSION: The ESCApreschool trial aims to improve knowledge about individualised treatment strategies for preschool children with ADHD following an adaptive stepped care approach, and to provide a scientific basis for individualised medicine for preschool children with ADHD in routine clinical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) as a Current Controlled Trial under DRKS00008971 on 1 October 2015. This manuscript is based on protocol version 3 (14 October 2016).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
18.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(1): 81-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838600

RESUMO

Copy-number variants (CNVs), in particular rare, small and large ones (< 1% frequency) and those encompassing brain-related genes, have been shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability (ID). However, the vast majority of CNV findings lack specificity with respect to autistic or developmental-delay phenotypes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the size and frequency of CNVs in high-functioning ASD (HFA) without ID compared with a random population sample and with published findings in ASD and ID. To investigate the role of CNVs for the "core symptoms" of high-functioning autism, we included in the present exploratory study only patients with HFA without ID. The aim was to test whether HFA have similar large rare (> 1 Mb) CNVs as reported in ASD and ID. We performed high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis in 108 children and adolescents with HFA without ID. There was no significant difference in the overall number of rare CNVs compared to 124 random population samples. However, patients with HFA carried significantly more frequently CNVs containing brain-related genes. Surprisingly, six HFA patients carried very large CNVs known to be typically present in ID. Our findings provide new evidence that not only small, but also large CNVs affecting several key genes contribute to the genetic etiology/risk of HFA without affecting their intellectual ability.

19.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(9): 1301-1310, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865460

RESUMO

Alterations in fear learning/generalization are considered to be relevant mechanisms engendering the development of anxiety disorders being the most prevalent mental disorders. Although anxiety disorders almost exclusively have their first onset in childhood and adolescence, etiological research focuses on adult individuals. In this study, we evaluated findings of a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in adult anxiety disorders with significant associations of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large cohort of 347 healthy children (8-12 years) characterized for dimensional anxiety. We investigated the modulation of anxiety parameters by these SNPs in a discriminative fear conditioning and generalization paradigm in the to-date largest sample of children. Results extended findings of the meta-analysis showing a genomic locus on 2p21 to modulate anxious personality traits and arousal ratings. These SNPs might, thus, serve as susceptibility markers for a shared risk across pathological anxiety, presumably mediated by alterations in arousal.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Medo/psicologia , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Criança , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(9): 2047-2057, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116028

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic background, hampering identification of underlying genetic risk factors. We hypothesized that combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multi-generation pedigrees with multiple affected individuals can point toward novel ADHD genes. Three families with multiple ADHD-affected members (Ntotal = 70) and apparent dominant inheritance pattern were included in this study. Genotyping was performed in 37 family members, and WES was additionally carried out in 10 of those. Linkage analysis was performed using multi-point analysis in Superlink Online SNP 1.1. From prioritized linkage regions with a LOD score ≥ 2, a total of 24 genes harboring rare variants were selected. Those genes were taken forward and were jointly analyzed in gene-set analyses of exome-chip data using the MAGMA software in an independent sample of patients with persistent ADHD and healthy controls (N = 9365). The gene-set including all 24 genes together, and particularly the gene-set from one of the three families (12 genes), were significantly associated with persistent ADHD in this sample. Among the latter, gene-wide analysis for the AAED1 gene reached significance. A rare variant (rs151326868) within AAED1 segregated with ADHD in one of the families. The analytic strategy followed here is an effective approach for identifying novel ADHD risk genes. Additionally, this study suggests that both rare and more frequent variants in multiple genes act together in contributing to ADHD risk, even in individual multi-case families.

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