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1.
Arch. med ; 21(1): 113-124, 2021/01/03.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148388

RESUMO

Objetivo: la promoción de la salud en términos positivos y de bienestar, implica concebirla como el proceso en el que la comunidad aumenta el control sobre su salud, y la mejora. Las universidades tienen grandes capacidades para ello; por ejemplo, en ferias de salud que rompen los esquemas tradicionales unidireccionales y pasivos de los programas de salud. El programa de salud integral de la Universidad Veracruzana (México) implementó en su primera etapa estrategias para la promoción, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades. Más tarde incorporó una visión más integral acorde a las necesidades enmarcadas en los objetivos sostenibles y la promoción de la salud comenzó a realizarse a través de ferias. No obstante, la comunidad universitaria dudaba que su realización tuviera beneficios. Materiales y métodos: se evaluó el efecto de las ferias en la salud y bienestar percibido por los estudiantes y su entorno y se identificaron las virtudes y fortalezas de carácter, las cuales son esenciales para la vida en bienestar. Resultados: la participación de los estudiantes en las ferias de salud les aporta conocimientos y habilidades para mejorar su salud, así como para adoptar estilos de vida acordes al autocuidado y la sustentabilidad. Además, las 24 fortalezas están presentes en todos los estudiantes, aunque el autocontrol fue la fortaleza menos presente. Conclusiones: las ferias son espacios que promueven la salud, al lograr transmitir y apropiar información, al mismo tiempo que acercan y educan a diferentes públicos de manera efectiva lúdica..Au


Objective: the promotion of health in positive and well-being terms implies conceiving it as the process in which the community increases control over its health and improves it. Universities in this sense have great capacities for their promotion, for example, health fairs break the traditional unidirectional and passive schemes of health programs. The comprehensive health program of the Universidad Veracruzana, implemented in its first stage strategies for the promotion, prevention and treatment of diseases. Later, it incorporated a more comprehensive vision according to the needs framed in the sustainable objectives and the promotion of health began to be carried out through fairs. However, there was a perception in the university community that its implementation had no benefits. Materials and methods: the effect of the fairs on the perceived health and well-being of the students and their environment was evaluated, and the virtues and strengths of character, which are essential for life in well-being, were identified. Results: the participation of the students provides them with knowledge and skills to improve their health, as well as to adopt lifestyles consistent with self-care and sustainability. In addition, the 24 strengths are present in all students, although self-control was the least present strength. Conclusions: fairs are spaces that promote health, by transmitting and appropriating information, at the same time that they approach and educate different audiences in an effective playful way..Au


Assuntos
Adulto Jovem , Estudantes , Educação em Saúde
2.
Ansiedad estrés ; 26(2/3): 136-147, jul.-dic. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although in the 1940s there was an important decrease in global maternal/infant mortality rates, by the 1990s these rates had become stagnant. Many strategies to decrease maternal/infant mortality had been used, which included the prevention of pregnancy complications. Several studies showed an association between these complications and the stress perceived during pregnancy. However, there are some discrepancies which challenge this association. We believe that these discrepancies are due to the lack of understanding about the pregnant stress response and consequently the ways it is measured. The aim of this study was to understand how pregnant women perceive motherhood, pregnancy stressors and the psychological factors that attenuate the stress response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted that explores the perception of gestational stress in 32 pregnant women who were recruited in different Health Centers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out which were conducted by the PhD student in charge of the project and each interview lasted 15-20 min. Since the interviews were audio-recorded they were transcribed and the information was then categorized according to the three issues raised in the objective (motherhood, pregnancy stressors, and psychological factors that attenuate the stress response). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found that the gestational stress response and also its magnitude are influenced not only by how women perceive the aspects, but also and most importantly by its articulation. Likewise, results show that gestational stress is only attenuated when women perceive and cope with both the positive and negative aspects of pregnancy and motherhood


OBJETIVO: Si bien en 1940 hubo una disminución importante en las tasas globales de mortalidad materno/infantil, hacia 1990 estas tasas se estancaron. Desde entonces se han utilizado muchas estrategias para disminuir la mortalidad materno/infantil, las cuales incluyen la prevención de las complicaciones del embarazo. Varios estudios mostraron una asociación entre estas complicaciones y el estrés percibido durante el embarazo. Sin embargo, hay algunas discrepancias que desafían esta asociación. Creemos que estas discrepancias se deben al poco entendimiento que tenemos sobre la respuesta al estrés durante el embarazo y, en consecuencia, en la forma en que esta se mide. Es por ello que el objetivo de este estudio es comprender cómo las mujeres embarazadas perciben la maternidad, los estresores propios del embarazo y los factores psicológicos que modulan la respuesta al estrés. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo que explora la percepción sobre el estrés gestacional en 32 mujeres embarazadas que eran derechohabientes de los centros de salud. Para ello se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, las cuales fueron realizadas por la estudiante de doctorado encargada del proyecto, y cada una tuvo una duración de 15 a 20 min. Puesto que las entrevistas fueron audiograbadas, se transcribieron y se categorizó la información de acuerdo con los 3 temas planteados en el objetivo (percepción de la maternidad, estresores propios del embarazo y factores psicológicos moduladores de estrés). RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Encontramos que la respuesta del estrés gestacional y su magnitud son influidas no solo por la percepción que tiene la mujer de estos aspectos, sino sobre todo por su articulación. Además, los resultados muestran que el estrés gestacional solo se atenúa cuando las mujeres perciben y enfrentan tanto los aspectos positivos como los negativos del embarazo y la maternidad

3.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 49(3): 154-161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the psychometric properties, internal structure, and relationship with anthropometric indicators of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) among Mexican university students according to the measurement invariance approach. METHODS: An instrumental study was carried out to assess the psychometric properties, validity, and reliability of the BSQ. The analysis of the measurement invariance was performed using the Least Squares Estimation, and weighted by adjusted variance and polychoric correlations after assessing different measurement models for BSQ in each group. The scores of the final version were correlated with anthropometric indicators by the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: As regards the dimensional analysis, all of the previous models for BSQ have favourable adjustment rates, although those with a single factor show more robust evidence. The configural invariance was accepted; suggesting that the one-dimensional structure is common for both men and women. However, 16-item factorial loadings were statistically different between the groups. Hence, they were discarded and an 18-item version (BSQ-18) was obtained, which is considered invariant as regards gender. In addition, there is a direct relationship between the scores of the BSQ-18 version and the body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percentage. Satisfactory indicators were found as regards stability. CONCLUSIONS: The BSQ-18 can be used with men and women, and has high reliability indicators to be conducted in clinical settings to assess eating disorders and obesity among university students.

4.
Enferm Clin ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the anthropometric indicator that is most strongly associated with the percentage of body fat and self-regulation of eating behaviour and physical activity among young university students. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,869 Mexican university students, of which 53.9% were women. Standard procedures for anthropometry were followed, including weight, height and waist circumference. This data was used for calculating Body Mass Index (BMI), A Body Shape Index, waist-to-height ratio, Body Roundness Index and Conicity index. The self-regulation of eating habits scale and the self-regulation of physical activity scale were used. Mean with standard deviation, percentages and Pearson correlation coefficient were estimated. RESULTS: The group of men shown a higher prevalence of excess weight compared to the women. Inverse correlations between most anthropometric indices and self-regulation of eating behaviour and physical activity were found. However, in all cases the correlations were weak. The percentage of fat had a medium frequency of association with Conicity index and high with BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and Body Roundness Index, where the BMI showed the highest correlation coefficient CONCLUSIONS: The BMI shows the highest magnitude of association with percentage of body fat in university students among the indicators analysed. Therefore it is suggested that nurses use BMI to determine obesity because it is easy to calculate.

5.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 154-161, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149821

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar las propiedades psicométricas, estructura interna y relación con indicadores antropométricos del Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) en universitarios mexicanos, partiendo de un enfoque de la invarianza de medición. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio instrumental, orientado a la evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas, validez y fiabilidad, del BSQ. Se realizó análisis de invarianza de la medición por el método de estimación mínimos cuadrados ponderados con varianza ajustada y correlaciones policóricas, previa evaluación de diferentes modelos de medición del BSQ en cada grupo. Las puntuaciones de la versión final se correlacionaron con indicadores antropométricos mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: En el análisis dimensional, todos los modelos previos del BSQ presentan índices de ajuste favorables, aunque aquellos de un solo factor presente son los que tienen evidencia más robusta. Se aceptó la invarianza configural, lo que indica que la estructura unidimensional es común a varones y mujeres. Sin embargo, las cargas factoriales de 16 ítems fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre los grupos, por lo que se descartaron y se obtuvo una versión de 18 ítems (BSQ-18), que se considera invariante respecto al sexo. Además, hay relación directa entre las puntuaciones de la versión del BSQ-18 y el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de cintura y el porcentaje de grasa. En cuanto a la fiabilidad, se hallaron indicadores satisfactorios. Conclusiones: El BSQ-18 es aplicable tanto a varones como a mujeres y tiene indicadores de fiabilidad elevados que posibilitan su uso en entornos clínicos para la evaluación en el abordaje de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria y obesidad en jóvenes universitarios.


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyse the psychometric properties, internal structure, and relationship with anthropometric indicators of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) among Mexican university students according to the measurement invariance approach. Methods: An instrumental study was carried out to assess the psychometric properties, validity, and reliability of the BSQ. The analysis of the measurement invariance was performed using the Least Squares Estimation, and weighted by adjusted variance and polychoric correlations after assessing different measurement models for BSQ in each group. The scores of the final version were correlated with anthropometric indicators by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: As regards the dimensional analysis, all of the previous models for BSQ have favourable adjustment rates, although those with a single factor show more robust evidence. The configural invariance was accepted; suggesting that the one-dimensional structure is common for both men and women. However, 16-item factorial loadings were statistically different between the groups. Hence, they were discarded and an 18-item version (BSQ-18) was obtained, which is considered invariant as regards gender. In addition, there is a direct relationship between the scores of the BSQ-18 version and the body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percentage. Satisfactory indicators were found as regards stability. Conclusions: The BSQ-18 can be used with men and women, and has high reliability indicators to be conducted in clinical settings to assess eating disorders and obesity among university students

6.
Span J Psychol ; 23: e26, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662375

RESUMO

Gestational stress is associated with many maternal and child complications, however, this association must be taken with care, since there are studies that find inconsistent results between stress measures and maternal complications. It is believed that the lack of convergence is due to the way in which gestational stress is evaluated.The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument based on a bio-psycho-social model of gestational stress. The design and validation process of the inventory was divided into four phases: (a) Construction of the items bank and content validity, (b) construct validity, (c) inventory reliability and (d) convergent and discriminant validity with psychometric instruments that have been used in other investigations to evaluate gestational stress.A valid and reliable Stressors and Modulators of Gestational Stress Inventory (SMGSI) conformed by two scales was developed: (a) Gestational stressors, which is formed by two factors, the psychological stressors and social stressors with a variance of 48.5% and 51.8% and a reliability of .79 and .67, respectively; and (b) gestational stress modulators integrated by 8 items that explain 55.2% of the variance and with a reliability of .92. In conclusion, a valid and reliable tool was obtained that measures gestational stress from a bio-psycho-social perspective. This inventory allows for the identification of allostatic and pantostatic stress, making it useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent maternal and childhood complications that are associated with chronic gestational stress.

7.
Suma psicol ; 27(1): 1-8, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1139660

RESUMO

Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la relación entre el estrés percibido y la felicidad en adultos mexicanos, así como comparar ambas variables según el estado de salud-enfermedad. La muestra estuvo conformada por 762 adultos mexicanos con una media de edad de 44.96 años, de los cuales el 70.3 % reportó no padecer ninguna enfermedad. Se utilizó la Escala de Estrés Percibido y el Inventario de Felicidad Auténtica. Adicionalmente, los participantes reportaron si padecían alguna enfermedad y seleccionaron, posteriormente, en una lista de opciones. Mediante el SPSS v.24 se realizaron análisis de frecuencias, descriptivos, análisis de correlación y análisis de varianza de un factor. En los resultados se observó una correlación negativa y estadísticamente significativa entre el estrés percibido y la felicidad. Por su parte, solo se observaron diferencias significativas en la subescala de estrés percibido "sobrepasado por la situación"; fue mayor en el grupo de personas con una enfermedad aguda en comparación con el grupo de personas sanas. Se discuten los principales hallazgos, así como las implicaciones para la práctica psicológica.


Abstract The present study aimed to analyze the relationship between perceived stress and happiness in Mexican adults, and test for differences in both variables according to the health disease condition. The sample consisted of 762 Mexican adults with an average age of 44.96 years, of which 70.3% reported not suffering from any disease. The Perceived Stress Scale and the Authentic Happiness Inventory were used. In addition, participants reported if they suffer from any disease, later selecting from a list of options. Using the SPSS v.24, frequency, descriptive, correlation and analysis of variance of one factor were performed. Negative and statistically significant correlation between perceived stress and happiness was found. On the other hand, only significant differences were observed in the subscale of perceived stress "overwhelmed by the situation" being greater in the group of people with an acute illness, compared to the group of healthy people. The main findings as well as implications for psychological practice are discussed.

8.
Span. j. psychol ; 23: e26.1-e26.15, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196601

RESUMO

Gestational stress is associated with many maternal and child complications, however, this association must be taken with care, since there are studies that find inconsistent results between stress measures and maternal complications. It is believed that the lack of convergence is due to the way in which gestational stress is evaluated. The aim of the present study was to design and validate an instrument based on a bio-psycho-social model of gestational stress. The design and validation process of the inventory was divided into four phases: (a) Construction of the items bank and content validity, (b) construct validity, (c) inventory reliability and (d) convergent and discriminant validity with psychometric instruments that have been used in other investigations to evaluate gestational stress. A valid and reliable Stressors and Modulators of Gestational Stress Inventory (SMGSI) conformed by two scales was developed: (a) Gestational stressors, which is formed by two factors, the psychological stressors and social stressors with a variance of 48.5% and 51.8% and a reliability of .79 and .67, respectively; and (b) gestational stress modulators integrated by 8 items that explain 55.2% of the variance and with a reliability of .92. In conclusion, a valid and reliable tool was obtained that measures gestational stress from a bio-psycho-social perspective. This inventory allows for the identification of allostatic and pantostatic stress, making it useful as a diagnostic tool to prevent maternal and childhood complications that are associated with chronic gestational stress


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Liberabit ; 25(2): 267-285, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143228

RESUMO

Objetivos: realizar el análisis de la estructura interna de la versión en español de la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff (PWBS-E) en estudiantes universitarios (n = 1700; 54.75% mujeres; Medad = 19.23) de una institución pública en Veracruz, México. Método: La estructura interna de la PWBS-E fue evaluada mediante el análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA), el modelamiento de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorio (ESEM) y el análisis factorial exploratorio (EFA). La confiabilidad del constructo fue estimada con el coeficiente α y de las puntuaciones con el coeficiente α. Resultados: indicaron que una estructura unidimensional y breve (19 ítems) posee mayor respaldo empírico. Además, se evidenció la existencia de un factor de método asociado a ítems invertidos en los modelos multidimensionales. En cuanto a la confiabilidad, se hallaron indicadores aceptables en ambos niveles (constructo y puntuaciones). Conclusiones: se discuten los hallazgos y las implicancias prácticas de la versión breve de la PWBS-E en universitarios


Objectives: This paper aimed to analyze the internal structure of the Spanish version of the Ryff ’s psychological well-being scale (PWBS-E) among college students (n = 1700, 54.75% females, Mage = 19.23) who attend a public institution located in Veracruz, Mexico. Method: The internal structure of the PWBS-E was assessed using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), while the reliability of the construct was estimated with the ù coefficient and the reliability of the scores, with the α coefficient. Results: Suggested that a short and unidimensional structure (19 items) provides greater empirical support. In addition, a method factor associated with inverted items in multidimensional models was evidenced. Regarding the reliability, acceptable indicators were found in both levels (construct and scores). Conclusions: This paper addresses both the findings and practical implications of the short version of the PWBS-E among college students.

10.
Rev. senol. patol. mamar. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 3-11, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187027

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El cáncer de mama (CaMa) es la neoplasia más común en las mujeres. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que el 30% de las muertes por CaMa son debidas a factores asociados a estilos de vida. En México hay una epidemia de obesidad, que favorece la aparición de hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus 2. No obstante, la prevalencia y contribución clínica de esta tríada en el desarrollo del CaMa y su interacción con los factores de riesgo conocidos han sido poco estudiados. Materiales y métodos: Se analizó asociación de obesidad, la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus 2 y de los factores de riesgo para CaMa (reportados en los expedientes clínicos de mujeres con y sin diagnóstico de CaMa del Hospital N.° 71 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) y su peso proporcional, con la ausencia o presencia de diagnóstico de CaMa. Resultados: Solo los antecedentes heredofamiliares y el tabaquismo, de los factores de riesgo reconocidos para CaMa, mostraron asociación con el diagnóstico de CaMa. Tampoco las enfermedades metabólicas mostraron diferencias. No obstante, el peso proporcional de todas las variables sí mostró significación estadística en el grupo con CaMa. Conclusiones: La visión clásica de que los factores de índole clínico per se son determinantes para el desarrollo de CaMa necesita ser modificada. Es necesario realizar estudios que consideren la interrelación que guardan los factores de riesgo entre sí y otros trastornos que se han normalizado en la población


Introduction and objectives: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women worldwide. The World Health Organisation estimates that 30% of deaths due to BC are associated with lifestyle factors. In Mexico there is an obesity epidemic, which favours the appearance of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). However, there have been few studies of the prevalence and clinical contribution of this triad in the development of BC and its interaction with known risk factors. Materials and methods: We analysed the association of obesity, hypertension and DM2, and risk factors for BC (reported in the clinical files of women with and without a diagnosis of BC in Hospital N.° 71 of the Mexican Institute of Social Security) and their proportional weight, with the presence or absence of a BC diagnosis. Results: Among the recognised risk factors for BC, only a hereditary family history and smoking were associated with a diagnosis of BC. Metabolic diseases showed no differences. However, the proportional weight of all the variables was statistically significant in the group with BC. Conclusions: There is a need to modify the classical view that clinical factors per se determine the development of BC. Studies are needed that analyse the interrelation between risk factors and other disorders that have become highly prevalent in the population


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais
11.
Univ. psychol ; 17(2): 30-38, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979493

RESUMO

Resumen Uno de los instrumentos con mayor evidencia empírica y versatilidad para el estudio de las emociones y la motivación es el Sistema Internacional de Imágenes Afectivas (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). Sin embargo, no ha sido probado en población mexicana. Por esta razón el presente estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar los valores normativos en valencia, arousal y dominancia para los conjuntos 13, 14, 19 y 20 del IAPS en población mexicana, e identificar las diferencias con países de América (Colombia y Estados Unidos). Participaron 408 estudiantes quienes evaluaron 238 imágenes del IAPS a través del Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Los resultados mostraron que la distribución de las imágenes en el espacio afectivo bidimensional (valencia-arousal) adoptan la forma esperada de boomerang, coincidiendo con lo encontrado en otras poblaciones. Sin embargo, en población mexicana es más fuerte la relación entre valencia apetitiva y arousal que entre valencia aversiva y arousal. En conclusión, los valores normativos de los conjuntos 13, 14, 19 y 20 pueden ser utilizados en población mexicana para el estudio objetivo de las emociones.


Abstract The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is an instrument to the study of emotions and motivation with a high empirical evidence and versatility. However, it has not been tested in Mexican population, for that reason the aim of this study was to determine the normative values of valence, arousal and dominance for the IAPS sets of pictures 13, 14, 19 and 20 in Mexican population. Participants were 408 students who assessed 238 images of the IAPS through the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). The results showed that the pictures distribution on the two-dimensional affective space (valence-arousal); take a boomerang form, which is consistent with the findings in other populations. Nevertheless, in the Mexican population there was a stronger relationship between appetitive valence and arousal than the one observe in aversive valence and arousal. In conclusion the normative values in the IAPS sets of pictures 13, 14, 19 and 20 can be used in the study of emotions in Mexican people.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento , Testes Psicológicos , Emoções
12.
J Pregnancy ; 2018: 4857065, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484210

RESUMO

Gestational stress is believed to increase the risk of pregnancy failure and perinatal and adult morbidity and mortality in both the mother and her child or children. However, some contradictions might arise from methodological issues or even from differences in the philosophical grounds that guide the studies on gestational stress. Biased perspectives could lead us to use and/or design inadequate/incomplete panels of biochemical determinations and/or psychological instruments to diagnose it accurately during pregnancy, a psychoneuroimmune-endocrine state in which allostatic loads may be significant. Here, we review these notions and propose a model to evaluate and diagnose stress during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
13.
Eat Weight Disord ; 22(2): 311-319, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is characterized, among other features, by overeating, reduced physical activity and an abnormal accumulation of body fat. These features are thought to result, at least in part, from the individual's inability to self-regulate their eating and physical activity behaviors (E&PaB). Self-regulation of the E&PaB is a three-step sequential process: self-observation, self-evaluation and self-reaction. However, it is yet unclear whether deficient self-regulation of E&PaB could predispose, facilitate and/or consolidate obesity. Unraveling this issue is fundamental in order to more precisely define the role of self-regulation of E&PaB in the management of obesity. METHODS: This research was focused on the question of whether or not self-regulation of E&PaB is related to obesity in female undergraduate students. This population segment seems especially vulnerable to developing obesity since they undergo a significant shift of their E&PaB upon their university enrollment. To address this question, a cross-sectional study with 108 female undergraduate students with normal weight (n = 80) or obesity (n = 28) was performed, in which self-regulation of eating habits and physical activity was measured by two validated scales and a personal data questionnaire. RESULTS: Female undergraduate students displaying lower E&PaB self-reactions were consistently overweight or obese. In addition, a multivariate analysis identified high levels of self-reaction towards eating habits related to a minor presence of overweight issues or obesity. CONCLUSION: Self-regulation should be an essential component in the strategies for obesity prevention as an integral approach that must include orientation about healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. In addition, further studies on the effect of self-regulation in the treatment of the obesity are needed.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Autocontrole , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 18(5): 1324-30, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26574553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research on the emotional impact of tobacco-warning images (TWIs) has not evaluated the role of context (ie, cigarette packs) as a modulator of the emotional response to TWIs. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of the cigarette package brand on the emotional impact of TWIs that cover 30% of cigarette packs in smokers and nonsmokers using a specific methodology for the study of emotion. METHODS: The participants included 95 smokers and 111 nonsmokers who observed three TWIs under two conditions: TWIs that covered 30% of cigarette packs and TWIs alone, without brands. Additionally, 18 pictures from the International Affective Picture System were presented as comparison stimuli and to reduce the effect of habituation. The Self-Assessment Manikin was used to assess valence, arousal, and dominance dimensions. RESULTS: TWIs that covered 30% of cigarette packs were evaluated as least aversive, with lower ratings of arousal and higher ratings of dominance in both groups. Differences in the valence, arousal, and dominance dimensions were found between groups. Smokers rated TWIs that covered 30% of cigarette packs as less aversive and more arousing and gave them lower dominance scores compared with nonsmokers. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cigarette packages modulate the emotional impact of TWIs, especially in smokers, and the minimum size of TWIs (ie, 30% of the front and back of the package) is not sufficiently large to generate an emotional impact associated with avoidance behavior. IMPLICATIONS: Cigarette packages modulate the emotional impact of TWIs, especially in smokers. The cigarette package itself is an appetitive context that captures the attention of the observer and decreases the aversive emotional response to the TWIs. The minimum size of TWIs (ie, 30% of the front and back of the package) is not sufficiently large to generate an emotional impact associated with avoidance behavior.


Assuntos
Emoções , Rotulagem de Produtos , Fumar/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tabaco , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 25(2): 309-316, 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-154867

RESUMO

Las estrategias de promoción de la salud resaltan la importancia de la actividad física para el bienestar y la prevención de enfermedades, sin embargo, esta información que se pone a disposición de las personas pocas veces tiene impacto en sus hábitos. Consolidar hábitos de actividad física saludables requiere, además de conocimientos, una dotación de herramientas para observarse, evaluarse y emprender y mantener acciones para el alcance de sus objetivos. Los jóvenes son uno de los grupos de riesgo más importantes para el desarrollo de obesidad por encontrarse en una etapa de consolidación de sus hábitos. Por lo anterior el objetivo de este estudio fue diseñar y validar un instrumento para medir autorregulación de la actividad física en estudiantes universitarios mexicanos. Fueron redactados 51 ítems, posteriormente sometidos a evaluación por cuatro jueces expertos. Se efectuaron dos aplicaciones del instrumento con un total de 424 participantes. Se realizó un análisis factorial de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados con rotación Promax. Se descartaron los ítems que tuvieron carga factorial inferior a .40 o comunalidad inferior a .30. Se obtuvo un instrumento de 12 ítems agrupados en tres factores que explicaron 49.4% de la varianza: autorreación, autoobservación y autoevaluación. El alfa de Cronbach mostró un adecuado coeficiente de confiabilidad para la prueba (α = .846). La presente Escala es una herramienta válida y confiable para medir la autorregulación de la actividad física en estudiantes universitarios mexicanos y puede ser empleada para elaborar diagnósticos y evaluar intervenciones para mejorar la actividad física (AU)


Strategies for health promotion underscore the importance of physical activity for wellness and disease prevention. However, the information made available to people seldom has an impact on their habits. Consolidating healthy physical activity habits requires, in addition to knowledge, the provision of tools to observe, assess and initiate and maintain actions to achieve its goals. Young people are one of the most important risk groups in the development of obesity because they are still in at the stage of consolidating their habits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate an instrument to measure self-regulation in physical activity in Mexican university students. Initially 51 items were drafted, which were later evaluated by four experts. Two applications of the instrument were conducted with a total of 424 participants. Factorial analysis of non-weighted least squares with Promax rotation was performed. Factor loading under 0.40 or commonality below 0.30 were discarded. A 12 item instrument grouped in three factors was obtained which explained 49.4% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Finally, using Cronbach's alpha test, the instrument had a high reliability coefficient (α = .846). This scale is a valid and reliable tool for measuring self-regulation of the physical activity habits of Mexican college students and can be used to develop diagnostics and evaluate interventions to improve physical activity habits (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , /métodos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Análise de Dados/métodos , Análise de Dados/prevenção & controle , Análise de Variância , Nível de Saúde , Análise Fatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 65(1): 44-50, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26320305

RESUMO

Healthy eating habits promote wellness and prevent disease, however, despite the intention to change a bad habit, people often fail in theirattempts. This is due, since the performance of a change requires self-regulation skills that allow to observe, to evaluate and to take an action, in a constant motivation during the all the process; not only theknowledge about proper nutrition. The objective of this study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluate the level of self-regulation for eating habits in college students.62 items were written and evaluated by four expert judges. Two applications of the instrument were performed to 487 subjects. An unweighted least squares factor analysis whit direct Oblimin rotation was performed. The items saturated in more than one factor were discarded, as well as those who had a loading factor less than 0.40 or commonality less than 0.30. It was obtained an instrument integrated by 14 items grouped into three factors, which explained the 46.9% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Cronbach's alpha yielded a high reliability coefficient (α = 0.874).The results show that the scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure of self-regulation of eating habits in college students. Its applications include the diagnostic of a population and the evaluation of interventions aimed to improving nutrition based on the assumption that the processes of change require sustained self-regulation skills in people protective effect against increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Autoeficácia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Addict Behav ; 50: 60-3, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26101079

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research that has examined responses to alcohol-related words in drinkers has mostly linked such responses to memory, attentional, and perceptual bias. However, studies of emotional processing in alcoholics have not received much attention. The main goal of the present study was to identify the features and differences of emotional responses to alcohol-related words in low- and high-risk drinkers. METHOD: A total of 149 low-risk drinkers and 125 high-risk drinkers evaluated five alcohol-related words and 15 words from the Affective Norms for English Words in the dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin. RESULTS: The results indicated that high-risk drinkers evaluated alcohol-related words as more appetitive and arousing. CONCLUSION: These results, together with findings in the attention and memory research literature, suggest that alcohol-related words can serve as conditioned cues in alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Idioma , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0119014, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781932

RESUMO

The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network's state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them.


Assuntos
Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Mama/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/imunologia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 65(1): 44-50, mar. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-752714

RESUMO

Los hábitos alimentarios saludables promueven el bienestar y previenen enfermedades, sin embargo, pese a la intencionalidad de cambio de hábitos nocivos, las personas con frecuencia fracasan en sus intentos. Lo anterior debido a que el cambio, además de conocimientos sobre una adecuada alimentación, requiere capacidades de autorregulación que permitan observarse, evaluarse y emprender acciones con una constante motivación durante el proceso. El objetivo de este estudio fue diseñar y validar un instrumento para evaluarel nivel de autorregulación de hábitos alimentarios en estudiantes universitarios.Fueron redactados 62 ítems, posteriormente sometidos a evaluación por cuatro jueces expertos. Se efectuaron dos aplicaciones del instrumento con un total de 487 participantes. Se realizó un análisis factorial de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados con rotación a través del método Oblimin directo. Se descartaron los ítems que tuvieron carga factorial inferior a 0.40 o comunalidad inferior a 0.30.Se obtuvo un instrumento de 14 ítems agrupados en tres factores que explicaron 46.9% de la varianza: autorreación, autoobservación y autoevaluación. A través del alfa de Cronbach se obtuvo un coeficiente de confiabilidad muy alto (α = 0.874).Los resultados muestran que la escala constituye una herramienta válida y confiable para medir la autorregulación de hábitos alimentarios en estudiantes universitarios. Sus aplicaciones incluyen la obtención de diagnósticos y la evaluación de intervenciones enfocadas a la mejora de la alimentación, partiendo del supuesto de que los procesos de cambio sostenido requieren de capacidades de autorregulación en las personas.


Healthy eating habits promote wellness and prevent disease, however, despite the intention to change a bad habit, people often fail in theirattempts. This is due, since the performance of a change requires self-regulation skills that allow to observe, to evaluate and to take an action, in a constant motivation during the all the process; not only theknowledge about proper nutrition.The objective of this study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluatethe level of self-regulation for eating habits in college students.62 items were written and evaluated by four expert judges. Two applications of the instrument were performed to 487 subjects. An unweighted least squares factor analysis whit direct Oblimin rotation was performed. The items saturated in more than one factor were discarded, as well as those who had a loading factor less than 0.40 or commonality less than 0.30. It was obtained an instrument integrated by 14 itemsgrouped into three factors, which explained the 46.9% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Cronbach’s alpha yielded a high reliability coefficient (α = 0.874).The results show that the scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure of self-regulation of eating habits in college students. Its applications include the diagnostic of a population and the evaluation of interventions aimed toimproving nutrition based on the assumption that the processes of change require sustained self-regulation skills in people.protective effect against increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Autoeficácia , Estudantes , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Universidades
20.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 36(4): 203-208, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-731319

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The emotional interaction between personal attributes and the environment is a key element to understand aggression. This study identified emotional responses of people with different aggressive traits to pictures with a specific affective content. METHODS: Three hundred fifteen individuals were divided into five groups according to their scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, which consists of 24 pictures of the International Affective Picture System that depict aggression, the suffering of others, filial situations, and sexual content. Each picture was evaluated for valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin scale. RESULTS: Sexual pictures were more appetitive and associated with more arousal in the groups of individuals with some aggression-related dimension than in the non-aggressive group. CONCLUSIONS: A strong interaction was found between aggressive traits (e.g., verbal aggression, physical aggression, anger, and hostility) and pictures with a sexual content. This interaction is decisive in understanding the later phases of aggressive behaviors and sexual aggression (AU)


INTRODUÇÃO: A interação emocional entre atributos pessoais e o ambiente é um elemento fundamental para o entendimento da agressão. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar as respostas emocionais de pessoas com diferentes traços de agressividade para a exposição a figuras com conteúdo afetivo diverso. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e quinze indivíduos foram divididos em cinco grupos de acordo com seus resultados no questionário Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, que consiste de 24 figuras do Sistema Internacional de Figuras com Conteúdo Emocional, mostrando agressão, sofrimento alheio, cenas entre pais e filhos e com conteúdo sexual. Cada figura foi avaliada quanto às dimensões de prazer, alerta e dominância usando a escala Self-Assessment Manikin. RESULTADOS: As figuras com conteúdo sexual foram mais apetitivas, e foram relacionadas a maior reposta de alerta nos grupos de indivíduos com alguma dimensão associada à agressão quando comparados ao grupo não agressivo. CONCLUSÕES: Encontrou-se uma forte interação entre traços agressivos (e.g., agressão verbal, agressão física, raiva e hostilidade) e figuras com conteúdo sexual. Essa interação é decisiva para o entendimento das fases tardias dos comportamentos agressivos e a agressão sexual (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Emoções , Violência/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa
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