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1.
Endocr Connect ; 9(7): 705-714, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698135

RESUMO

Background: The prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is heterogeneous. Genomic studies have identified ACC subgroups characterized by specific molecular alterations, including features measured at DNA level (somatic mutations, chromosome alterations, DNA methylation), which are closely associated with outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate intratumor heterogeneity of prognostic molecular markers at the DNA level. Methods: Two different tissue samples (primary tumor, local recurrence or metastasis) were analyzed in 26 patients who underwent surgery for primary or recurrent ACC. DNA-related biomarkers with prognostic role were investigated in frozen and paraffin-embedded samples. Somatic mutations of p53/Rb and Wnt/ß-catenin pathways were assessed using next-generation sequencing (n = 26), chromosome alteration profiles were determined using SNP arrays (n = 14) and methylation profiles were determined using four-gene bisulfite pyrosequencing (n = 12). Results: Somatic mutations for ZNRF3, TP53, CTNN1B and CDKN2A were found in 7, 6, 6 and 4 patients, respectively, with intratumor heterogeneity in 8/26 patients (31%). Chromosome alteration profiles were 'Noisy' (numerous and anarchic alterations) in 8/14 and 'Chromosomal' (extended patterns of loss of heterozygosity) in 5/14 of the study samples. For these profiles, no intratumor heterogeneity was observed. Methylation profiles were hypermethylated in 5/12 and non-hypermethylated in 7/12 of the study samples. Intratumor heterogeneity of methylation profiles was observed in 2/12 patients (17%). Conclusions: Intratumor heterogeneity impacts DNA-related molecular markers. While somatic mutation can differ, prognostic DNA methylation and chromosome alteration profile seem rather stable and might be more robust for the prognostic assessment.

2.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(3): 101434, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622829

RESUMO

Almost one decade ago, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitotane (EDP-M) has been established as first-line systemic therapy of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Although heterogeneous, the prognosis of advanced stage ACC is still poor and novel treatments are urgently needed. This article provides a short summary of current systemic ACC treatment and provides a comprehensive overview of new therapeutic approaches that have been investigated in the past years, including drugs targeting the IGF pathway, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, radionuclide treatment, and immunotherapy. The results of most of these trials were disappointing and we will discuss possible reasons why these drugs failed (e.g. drug interactions with mitotane, disease heterogeneity with exceptional responses in very few patients, and resistance mechanisms to immunotherapy). We then will present potential new drug targets that have emerged from many molecular studies (e.g. wnt/ß-catenin, cyclin-dependent kinases, PARP1) that may be the foundation of next-generation therapies of ACC.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to refine the clinical picture of primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with predominant adrenal manifestation and risk of adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: 97 patients from 14 centers in Europe, Canada and the United States were included in this retrospective analysis between 1994 and 2017. RESULTS: Of 81 patients with imaging data, 19 (23%) had isolated adrenal involvement (iPAL), while 62 (77%) had additional extra-adrenal involvement (PAL+). Among patients who had both CT and PET scans, 18FDG-PET revealed extra-adrenal involvement not detected by CT scan in 9/18 cases (50%). The most common clinical manifestations were B symptoms (55%), fatigue (45%), and abdominal pain (35%). Endocrinological assessment was often inadequate. With a median follow-up of 41.6 months, 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival rates in the entire cohort were 35.5% and 39.4%, respectively. The hazard ratios of iPAL for PFS and OS were 40.1 (95% CI: 2.63-613.7, p=0.008) and 2.69 (95% CI: 0.61-11.89, p=0.191), respectively. PFS was much shorter in iPAL versus PAL+ (median 4 months vs. not reached, p=0.006), and OS also appeared to be shorter (median 16 months vs. not reached), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.16). Isolated PAL was more frequent in females (OR=3.81; P=0.01) and less frequently associated with B symptoms (OR= 0.159; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We found unexpected heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of PAL. Further studies are needed to clarify whether clinical distinction between iPAL and PAL+ is corroborated by differences in molecular biology.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449514

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Objective response rate to mitotane in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is approximately 20%, and adverse drug effects are frequent. To date, there is no marker established that predicts treatment response. Mitotane has been shown to inhibit sterol-O-acyl transferase 1 (SOAT1), which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in ACC cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SOAT1 protein expression as a marker of treatment response to mitotane. PATIENTS: A total of 231 ACC patients treated with single-agent mitotane as adjuvant (n = 158) or advanced disease therapy (n = 73) from 12 ENSAT centers were included. SOAT1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. SETTING: Retrospective study at 12 ACC referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Sixty-one of 135 patients (45%) with adjuvant mitotane treatment had recurrences and 45/68 patients (66%) with mitotane treatment for advanced disease had progressive disease. After multivariate adjustment for sex, age, hormone secretion, tumor stage, and Ki67 index, RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.85; P = 0.82), and DSS (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.58-2.93; P = 0.53) in adjuvantly treated ACC patients did not differ significantly between tumors with high and low SOAT1 expression. Similarly, in the advanced stage setting, PFS (HR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.63-2.84; P = 0.45) and DSS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.70; P = 0.45) were comparable and response rates not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: SOAT1 expression was not correlated with clinical endpoints RFS, PFS, and DSS in ACC patients with mitotane monotherapy. Other factors appear to be relevant for mitotane treatment response and ACC patient survival.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373071

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are aggressive tumors with a heterogeneous prognosis and limited therapeutic options for advanced stages. This study aims to identify novel drug targets for a personalized treatment in ACC. RNA was isolated from 40 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ACC samples. We evaluated gene expression of 84 known cancer drug targets by reverse transcriptase quantitative real time-PCR and calculated fold change using 5 normal adrenal glands as reference (overexpression by fold change >2.0). The most promising candidate cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was investigated at protein level in 104 ACC samples and tested by in vitro experiments in two ACC cell lines (NCI-H295R and MUC1). The most frequently overexpressed genes were TOP2A (100% of cases, median fold change = 16.5), IGF2 (95%, fold change = 52.9), CDK1 (80%, fold change = 6.7), CDK4 (62%, fold change = 2.6), PLK4 (60%, fold change = 2.8), and PLK1 (52%, fold change = 2.3). CDK4 was chosen for functional validation, as it is actionable by approved CDK4/6-inhibitors (e.g., palbociclib). Nuclear immunostaining of CDK4 significantly correlated with mRNA expression (R = 0.52, P < 0.005). We exposed both NCI-H295R and MUC1 cell lines to palbociclib and found a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of cell viability, which was more pronounced in the NCI-H295R cells in line with higher CDK4 expression. Furthermore, we tested palbociclib in combination with insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin receptor inhibitor linsitinib showing an additive effect. In conclusion, we demonstrate that RNA profiling is useful to discover potential drug targets and that CDK4/6 inhibitors are promising candidates for treatment of selected patients with ACC.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

8.
Clin Chem ; 65(10): 1276-1286, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with variable prognosis even within the same tumor stage. Cancer-related sex hormones and their sulfated metabolites in body fluids can be used as tumor markers. The role of steroid sulfation in ACC has not yet been studied. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a novel tool for tissue-based chemical phenotyping. METHODS: We performed phenotyping of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 72 ACC by MALDI-MSI at a metabolomics level. RESULTS: Tumoral steroid hormone metabolites-estradiol sulfate [hazard ratio (HR) 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.69; P = 0.005] and estrone 3-sulfate (HR 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.63; P = 0.003)-were significantly associated with prognosis in Kaplan-Meier analyses and after multivariable adjustment for age, tumor stage, and sex (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79; P = 0.015 and HR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.91; P = 0.033, respectively). Expression of sulfotransferase SULT2A1 was associated with prognosis to a similar extent and was validated to be a prognostic factor in two published data sets. We discovered the presence of estradiol-17ß 3,17-disulfate (E2S2) in a subset of tumors with particularly poor overall survival. Electron microscopy revealed novel membrane-delimited organelles in only these tumors. By applying cluster analyses of metabolomic data, 3 sulfation-related phenotypes exhibited specific metabolic features unrelated to steroid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-MSI provides novel insights into the pathophysiology of ACC. Steroid hormone sulfation may be used for prognostication and treatment stratification. Sulfation-related metabolic reprogramming may be of relevance also in conditions beyond the rare ACC and can be directly investigated by the use of MALDI-MSI.

9.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294750

RESUMO

Importance: The risk stratification of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on tumor proliferation index and stage is limited. Adjuvant therapy after surgery is recommended for most patients. Pan-genomic studies have identified distinct molecular groups closely associated with outcome. Objective: To compare the molecular classification for prognostic assessment of ACC with other known prognostic factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective biomarker analysis, ACC tumor samples from 368 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal were collected from March 1, 2005, to September 30, 2015 (144 in the training cohort and 224 in the validation cohort) at 21 referral centers with a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range, 18-74 months). Data were analyzed from March 2016 to March 2018. Exposures: Meta-analysis of pan-genomic studies (transcriptome, methylome, chromosome alteration, and mutational profiles) was performed on the training cohort. Targeted biomarker analysis, including targeted gene expression (BUB1B and PINK1), targeted methylation (PAX5, GSTP1, PYCARD, and PAX6), and targeted next-generation sequencing, was performed on the training and validation cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazards regression and C indexes were used to assess the prognostic value of each model. Results: Of the 368 patients (mean [SD] age, 49 [16] years), 144 were in the training cohort (100 [69.4%] female) and 224 were in the validation cohort (142 [63.4%] female). In the training cohort, pan-genomic measures classified ACC into 3 molecular groups (A1, A2, and A3-B), with 5-year survival of 9% for group A1, 45% for group A2, and 82% for group A3-B (log-rank P < .001). Molecular class was an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in stage I to III ACC after complete surgery (hazard ratio, 55.91; 95% CI, 8.55-365.40; P < .001). The combination of European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stage, tumor proliferation index, and molecular class provided the most discriminant prognostic model (C index, 0.88). In the validation cohort, the molecular classification, determined by targeted biomarker measures, was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor of recurrence (hazard ratio, 5.96 [95% CI, 1.81-19.58], P = .003 for the targeted classifier combining expression, methylation, and chromosome alterations; and 2.61 [95% CI, 1.31-5.19], P = .006 for the targeted classifier combining methylation, chromosome alterations, and mutational profile). The prognostic value of the molecular markers was limited for patients with stage IV ACC. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that in localized ACC, targeted classifiers may be used as independent markers of recurrence. The determination of molecular class may improve individual prognostic assessment and thus may spare unnecessary adjuvant treatment.

10.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(10): 1273-1283, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical treatment in Cushing's disease (CD) is limited due to poor understanding of its pathogenesis. Pathogenic variants of ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 (USP8) have been confirmed as causative in around half of corticotroph tumors. We aimed to further characterize the molecular landscape of those CD tumors lacking USP8 mutations in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 18 paired tumor-blood samples with wild-type USP8 status. Candidate gene variants were screened by Sanger sequencing in 175 additional samples. The most frequent variant was characterized by further functional in vitro assays. RESULTS: Recurrent somatic hotspot mutations in another deubiquitinase, USP48, were found in 10.3% of analyzed samples. Several possibly damaging variants were found in TP53 in 6 of 18 samples. USP48 variants were associated with smaller tumors and trended toward higher frequency in female patients. They also changed the structural conformation of USP48 and increased its catalytic activity toward its physiological substrates histone 2A and zinc finger protein Gli1, as well as enhanced the stimulatory effect of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) on pro-opiomelanocortin production and adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. CONCLUSIONS: USP48 pathogenic variants are relatively frequent in USP8 wild-type tumors and enhance CRH-induced hormone production in a manner coherent with sonic hedgehog activation. In addition, TP53 pathogenic variants may be more frequent in larger CD tumors than previously reported.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2535-2546, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844069

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cushing disease (CD) is a rare disorder with severe sequels and incompletely understood pathogenesis. The underlying corticotroph adenomas harbor frequently somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) gene. These mutations render USP8 hyperactive and prevent client proteins from degradation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of USP8 mutations on proteins deregulated in CD. DESIGN: One hundred eight pituitary adenomas (75 corticotroph [58 USP8 wild type (WT) and 17 USP8 mutated], 14 somatotroph, and 19 nonfunctioning) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. All evaluated proteins [USP8, arginine vasopressin receptor 1b and 2, corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), p27/kip1, cyclin E, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), orphan nuclear receptor 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, histone deacetylase 2, glucocorticoid receptor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 enzyme substrate 1] were known to be deregulated in CD. Furthermore, AtT20 cells were transfected with USP8 to investigate the expression of possible downstream proteins by immunoblot. RESULTS: Whereas most of the investigated proteins were not differentially expressed, the cell-cycle inhibitor p27 was significantly reduced in USP8 mutated corticotroph adenoma (H-score 2.0 ± 1.0 vs 1.1 ± 1.1 in WT adenomas; P = 0.004). In contrast, the chaperone HSP90 was expressed higher (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.2 ± 0.4; P = 0.29), and the phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB was increased in USP8 mutated adenomas (1.30.5 ± 0.40.9 vs 0.70.5 ± 0.40.7; P = 0.014). Accordingly, AtT20 cells transfected with the USP8 P720R mutant had higher phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) levels than WT transfected cells (1.3 ± 0.14 vs 1 ± 0.23; P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: We could demonstrate that USP8 mutations are associated with deregulation of p27/kip1, HSP90, and pCREB. These findings suggest that these proteins are direct or indirect clients of USP8 and could therefore be potential targets for therapeutic approaches in patients with CD.

12.
Endocrinology ; 160(2): 447-459, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615103

RESUMO

Cushing syndrome is a severe endocrine disorder of cortisol excess associated with major metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae. We recently identified somatic mutations in PRKACA, the gene encoding the catalytic (C) α subunit of protein kinase A (PKA), as being responsible for cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (CPAs), which are a major cause of Cushing syndrome. In spite of previous studies on the two initially identified mutations (L206R, 199_200insW), the mechanisms of action of the clinically highly relevant PRKACA mutations remain poorly understood. Here, by investigating a large panel of PRKACA mutations, including all those identified so far in Cushing syndrome, we unexpectedly found that not all mutations interfere with the binding of regulatory (R) subunits as previously hypothesized. Because several mutations lie in a region of PKA Cα involved in substrate recognition, we investigated their consequences on substrate specificity by quantitative phosphoproteomics. We found that all three mutations analyzed (L206R, 200_201insV, and d244-248+E249Q) cause major changes in the preference of PKA for its targets, leading to hyperphosphorylation of several PKA substrates, most notably including histone H1.4 at Ser36, which is required for and promotes mitosis. This is reflected by a ninefold hyperphosphorylation of H1.4 in CPAs carrying the L206R mutation. Thus, our findings suggest that in addition to hampering binding to R subunits, PRKACA mutations act by altering PKA substrate specificity. These findings shed light on the molecular events leading to Cushing syndrome and illustrate how mutations altering substrate specificity of a protein kinase may cause human disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Adenoma Adrenocortical/genética , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Fosforilação , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(2): 531-538, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the surgical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), lymphadenectomy may improve oncologic outcome. However, patterns of metastatic lymphatic spread in ACC are unknown. METHODS: Clinical data of patients included in the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) registry were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: nonmetastatic ACC, complete resection of the primary tumor, a disease-free time of > 3 months, and lymph node metastases as the first disease relapse. The retroperitoneal lymphatic drainage area was evaluated by using follow-up imaging. RESULTS: Of 971 patients from the ENSAT registry, 56 patients were included. In left-sided ACC (n = 36), lymphatic recurrence was detected in the left renal hilum (50%), in the perirenal fat tissue cranial to the renal hilum (ventral, 47%; dorsal, 55%), para-aortic (47%), interaorto-caval (22%), and/or in the perirenal fat tissue caudal to the renal hilum (ventral, 20%; dorsal, 17%). In right-sided ACC (n = 20), lymph node metastases were detected in the perirenal fat tissue cranial to the renal hilum (dorsal, 55%; ventral, 45%), interaorto-caval (35%), in the area of the right renal artery (10%), and/or paracaval (15%). Patients with right-sided ACC showed left-paraaortic lymph node recurrences in 10% of cases. CONCLUSION: Metastatic lymphatic spread appears to be more extensive than previously thought. The distribution pattern of lymph node metastases described in our study could be used as a guide for a more extended lymph node dissection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/secundário , Excisão de Linfonodo/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Endocrine ; 62(3): 517-518, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203121

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Figure 1. There is a typo in the word "osteoclastogenesis" and the word "activity" is missing in the same entity. It should be "osteoclastogenesis" instead of "osteoclestogenesis".

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(12): 4511-4523, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113656

RESUMO

Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has a heterogeneous prognosis, and current medical therapies have limited efficacy in its advanced stages. Genome-wide multiomics studies identified molecular patterns associated with clinical outcome. Objective: Here, we aimed at identifying a molecular signature useful for both personalized prognostic stratification and druggable targets, using methods applicable in clinical routine. Design: In total, 117 tumor samples from 107 patients with ACC were analyzed. Targeted next-generation sequencing of 160 genes and pyrosequencing of 4 genes were applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens to detect point mutations, copy number alterations, and promoter region methylation. Molecular results were combined with clinical/histopathological parameters (tumor stage, age, symptoms, resection status, and Ki-67) to predict progression-free survival (PFS). Results: In addition to known driver mutations, we detected recurrent alterations in genes not previously associated with ACC (e.g., NOTCH1, CIC, KDM6A, BRCA1, BRCA2). Best prediction of PFS was obtained integrating molecular results (more than one somatic mutation, alterations in Wnt/ß-catenin and p53 pathways, high methylation pattern) and clinical/histopathological parameters into a combined score (P < 0.0001, χ2 = 68.6). Accuracy of prediction for early disease progress was 83.3% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.872, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.94). Furthermore, 17 potentially targetable alterations were found in 64 patients (e.g., in CDK4, NOTCH1, NF1, MDM2, and EGFR and in DNA repair system). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that molecular profiling of FFPE tumor samples improves prognostication of ACC beyond clinical/histopathological parameters and identifies new potential drug targets. These findings pave the way to precision medicine in this rare disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação Puntual , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Endocrine ; 62(3): 506-516, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073456

RESUMO

Adrenal incidentalomas constitute a common clinical problem with an overall prevalence of around 2-3%, but are more common with advancing age being present in 10% of those aged 70 years. The majority of these lesions are benign adrenocortical adenomas (80%), characterized in 10-40% of the cases by autonomous cortisol hypersecretion, and in 1-10% by aldosterone hypersecretion. Several observational studies have shown that autonomous cortisol and aldosterone hypersecretion are more prevalent than expected in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis: these patients have accelerated bone loss and an increased incidence of vertebral fractures. In contrast to glucocorticoid action, the effects of aldosterone on bone are less well understood. Recent data, demonstrating a concomitant co-secretion of glucocorticoid metabolites in patients with primary aldosteronism, could explain some of the metabolic abnormalities seen in patients with aldosterone hypersecretion. In clinical practice, patients with unexplained osteoporosis, particularly when associated with other features such as impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension, should be investigated for the possible presence of autonomous cortisol or aldosterone secretion due to an adrenal adenoma. Randomized intervention studies are needed, however, to investigate the optimum interventions for osteoporosis and other co-morbidities in these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Adenoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adenoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Humanos
18.
Endocrinology ; 159(8): 2836-2849, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850793

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated a potential new treatment target for ACC, focusing on the mitochondrial reduced form of NAD phosphate (NADPH) generator nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). NNT has a central role within mitochondrial antioxidant pathways, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Inactivating human NNT mutations result in congenital adrenal insufficiency. We hypothesized that NNT silencing in ACC cells will induce toxic levels of oxidative stress. To explore this, we transiently knocked down NNT in NCI-H295R ACC cells. As predicted, this manipulation increased intracellular levels of oxidative stress; this resulted in a pronounced suppression of cell proliferation and higher apoptotic rates, as well as sensitization of cells to chemically induced oxidative stress. Steroidogenesis was paradoxically stimulated by NNT loss, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling. Next, we generated a stable NNT knockdown model in the same cell line to investigate the longer lasting effects of NNT silencing. After long-term culture, cells adapted metabolically to chronic NNT knockdown, restoring their redox balance and resilience to oxidative stress, although their proliferation remained suppressed. This was associated with higher rates of oxygen consumption. The molecular pathways underpinning these responses were explored in detail by RNA sequencing and nontargeted metabolome analysis, revealing major alterations in nucleotide synthesis, protein folding, and polyamine metabolism. This study provides preclinical evidence of the therapeutic merit of antioxidant targeting in ACC as well as illuminating the long-term adaptive response of cells to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/genética , NADP Trans-Hidrogenase Específica para A ou B/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Corticosteroides/biossíntese , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Metabolômica , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1686-1695, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452402

RESUMO

Context: Although mitotane is the only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), data on monotherapy in advanced disease are still scarce. Objective: To assess the efficacy of mitotane in advanced ACC in a contemporary setting and to identify predictive factors. Design and Setting: Multicenter cohort study of three German referral centers. Patients: One hundred twenty-seven patients with advanced ACC treated with mitotane monotherapy. Outcome Measures: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by Kaplan-Meier method, and predictive factors by Cox regression. Results: Twenty-six patients (20.5%) experienced objective response, including three with complete remission. Overall, median PFS was 4.1 months (range 1.0 to 73) and median OS 18.5 months (range 1.3 to 220). Multivariate analysis indicated two main predictive factors: low tumor burden (<10 tumoral lesions), hazard ratio (HR) for progression of 0.51 (P = 0.002) and for death of 0.59 (P = 0.017); and initiation of mitotane at delayed advanced recurrence, HR 0.35(P < 0.001) and 0.34 (P < 0.001), respectively. Accordingly, 67% of patients with low tumor burden and mitotane initiation ≥360 days after primary diagnosis experienced a clinical benefit (stable disease >180 days). Patients who achieved mitotane levels >14 mg/L had significantly longer OS (HR 0.42; P = 0.003). Conclusions: At 20.5% the objective response rate was slightly lower than previously reported. However, >20% of patients experienced long-term disease control at >1 year. In general, patients with late diagnosis of advanced disease and low tumor burden might especially benefit from mitotane monotherapy, whereas patients with early advanced disease and high tumor burden are probably better candidates for combined therapy of mitotane and cytotoxic drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Mitotano/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 178(2): 181-188, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) is the most effective cytotoxic treatment for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1) plays a critical role in the repair of platinum-induced DNA damage. Two studies investigating the role of ERCC1 immunostaining as a predictive marker for the response to PBC in ACC had reported conflicting results. Both studies used the ERCC1-antibody clone 8F1 that later turned out to be not specific. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive role of ERCC1 with a new specific antibody in a larger series of ACC. DESIGN AND METHODS: 146 ACC patients with available FFPE slides were investigated. All patients underwent PBC (median cycles = 6), including cisplatin (n = 131) or carboplatin (n = 15), in most cases combined with etoposide (n = 144), doxorubicin (n = 131) and mitotane (n = 131). Immunostaining was performed with the novel ERCC1-antibody clone 4F9. The relationship between ERCC1 expression and clinicopathological parameters, as well as best objective response to therapy and progression-free survival (PFS) during PBC was evaluated. RESULTS: High ERCC1 expression was observed in 66% of ACC samples. During PBC, 43 patients experienced objective response (29.5%), 49 stable disease (33.6%), 8 mixed response (5.5%) and 46 progressive disease (31.5%) without any relationship with the ERCC1 immunostaining. No significant correlation was also found between ERCC1 expression and progression-free survival (median 6.5 vs 6 months, P = 0.33, HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.82-2.0). CONCLUSION: ERCC1 expression is not directly associated with sensitivity to PBC in ACC. Thus, other predictive biomarkers are required to support treatment decisions in patients with ACC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Endonucleases/análise , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/química , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/química , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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