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2.
Perit Dial Int ; : 896860820970066, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a viable option for renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in challenging times during disasters and pandemics when resources are limited. While PD techniques are well described, there is uncertainty about how to determine the amount of PD to be prescribed toward a target dose. The aim of this study is to derive practical equations to assist with the prescription of PD for AKI. METHODS: Using established physiological principles behind PD clearance and membrane transport, a primary determinant of dose delivery, equations were mathematically derived to estimate dialysate volume required to achieve a target dose of PD. RESULTS: The main derivative equation is VD = (1.2 × std-Kt/V × TBW)/(t dwell + 4), where VD is the total dialysate volume per day, std-Kt/V is the desired weekly dose, TBW is the total body water, and t dwell is the dwell time. VD can be expressed in terms of dwell volume, v dwell, by VD = (0.3 × std-Kt/V × TBW) - (6 × v dwell). Two further equations were derived which directly describe the mathematical relationship between t dwell and v dwell. A calculator is included as an Online Supplementary Material. CONCLUSIONS: The equations are intended as a practical tool to estimate solute clearances and guide prescription of continuous PD. The estimated dialysate volume required for any dose target can be calculated from cycle duration or dwell volume. However, the exact target dose of PD is uncertain and should be adjusted according to the clinical circumstances and response to treatment. The equations presented in this article facilitate the adjustment of PD prescription toward the targeted solute clearance.

3.
Hemodial Int ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225535

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medium cutoff (MCO) membranes for hemodialysis (HD) remove more effectively large middle molecules than high-flux (HF) membranes. In patients on in-center short frequent HD regimen (5 sessions per week, 2 hours and 30 minutes per session) the effect of MCO on middle weight uremic toxins has not been elucidated. METHODS: This retrospective study included 15 patients previously performing short frequent HD with HF dialyzer (HF-HD), that were switched to short frequent HD with MCO dialyzer (MCO-HD) for 2 months, and returned to HF-HD. The primary endpoint was the predialysis concentration of α1-acid glycoprotein during the different study phases. Secondary endpoints were predialysis concentration of other middle molecules, albumin, and assessment of the quality of life using the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). FINDINGS: During MCO-HD phase there was a reduction in mean ± SD α1-acid glycoprotein concentration (98.71 ± 25.2 vs. 88.6 ± 24.6 mg/dL, P = 0.107), followed by an increment 2 months after returning to HF-HD (89.18 ± 26.12 vs. 97.33 ± 31.29 mg/dL, P = 0.002); however, only the second variation was statistically significant. MCO-HD provided lower median predialysis concentration of prolactin (16 [10.2-25.6] vs. 14.1 [11.7-34.8] ng/mL, P = 0.036). Single-pool Kt/V, standard Kt/V, predialysis ß2-microglobulin, myoglobin, and SF-36 questionnaire remained stable during the first two phases (pre-MCO and MCO). ß2-Microglobulin increased in the post-MCO phase (20.02 ± 8.14 vs. 21.27 ± 7.64 µg/mL, P = 0.000). Mean predialysis concentration of albumin reduced significantly from pre-MCO vs. MCO phases (39.9 ± 3.7 vs. 38.3 ± 3.3 g/L, P = 0.020) and rebounded significantly from MCO vs. post-MCO phases (38.7 ± 3.1 vs. 41.3 ± 3.0 g/L, P = 0.007). DISCUSSION: In this retrospective analysis, short frequent MCO-HD promotes a reduction in prolactin, a middle weight uremic toxin, and trends toward a reduction in α1-acid glycoprotein. No patients developed hypoalbuminemia. These findings are encouraging and deserve investigation in prospective studies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237794

RESUMO

Despite the pandemic status of COVID-19, there is limited information about host risk factors and treatment beyond supportive care. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) could be a potential treatment target. Our aim was to determine the incidence of IgG deficiency and associated risk factors in a cohort of 62 critical ill COVID-19 patients admitted to two German ICUs (72.6% male, median age: 61 years). 13 (21.0%) of the patients displayed IgG deficiency (IgG <7 g/L) at baseline (predominant for the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 subclasses). IgG-deficient patients had worse measures of clinical disease severity than those with normal IgG levels (shorter duration from disease onset to ICU admission, lower ratio of PaO2 to FiO2, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and higher levels of ferritin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and serum creatinine). IgG-deficient patients were also more likely to have sustained lower levels of lymphocyte counts and higher levels of ferritin throughout the hospital stay. Furthermore, IgG-deficient patients compared to those with normal IgG levels displayed higher rates of acute kidney injury (76.9% vs. 26.5%; p=0.005) and death (46.2% vs. 14.3%; p=0.012), longer ICU (28 [6-48] vs. 12 [3-18] days; p=0.012) and hospital length of stay (30 [22-50] vs. 18 [9-24] days; p=0.004). Multivariable logistic regression showed increasing odds of 90-day overall mortality associated with IgG-deficiency (OR 12.8, 95% CI 1.5-108.4; p=0.019). IgG deficiency might be common in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and warrants investigation as both a marker of disease severity as well as a potential therapeutic target.

5.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 605, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation in COVID-19 often leads to multiple organ failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). Renal replacement therapy (RRT) in combination with sequential extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBP) might support renal function, attenuate systemic inflammation, and prevent or mitigate multiple organ dysfunctions in COVID-19. AIM: Describe overtime variations of clinical and biochemical features of critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated with EBP with a hemodiafilter characterized by enhanced cytokine adsorption properties. METHODS: An observational prospective study assessing the outcome of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU (February to April 2020) treated with EBP according to local practice. Main endpoints included overtime variation of IL-6 and multiorgan function-scores, mortality, and occurrence of technical complications or adverse events. RESULTS: The study evaluated 37 patients. Median baseline IL-6 was 1230 pg/ml (IQR 895) and decreased overtime (p < 0.001 Kruskal-Wallis test) during the first 72 h of the treatment, with the most significant decrease in the first 24 h (p = 0.001). The reduction in serum IL-6 concentrations correlated with the improvement in organ function, as measured in the decrease of SOFA score (rho = 0.48, p = 0.0003). Median baseline SOFA was 13 (IQR 6) and decreased significantly overtime (p < 0.001 at Kruskal-Wallis test) during the first 72 h of the treatment, with the most significant decrease in the first 48 h (median 8 IQR 5, p = 0.001). Compared to the expected mortality rates, as calculated by APACHE IV, the mean observed rates were 8.3% lower after treatment. The best improvement in mortality rate was observed in patients receiving EBP early on during the ICU stay. Premature clotting (running < 24 h) occurred in patients (18.9% of total) which featured higher effluent dose (median 33.6 ml/kg/h, IQR 9) and higher filtration fraction (median 31%, IQR 7.4). No electrolyte disorders, catheter displacement, circuit disconnection, unexpected bleeding, air, or thromboembolisms due to venous cannulation of EBP were recorded during the treatment. In one case, infection of vascular access occurred during RRT, requiring replacement. CONCLUSIONS: EBP with heparin-coated hemodiafilter featuring cytokine adsorption properties administered to patients with COVID-19 showed to be feasible and with no adverse events. During the treatment, patients experienced serum IL-6 level reduction, attenuation of systemic inflammation, multiorgan dysfunction improvement, and reduction in expected ICU mortality rate.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/sangue , Hemodiafiltração/instrumentação , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(12): 747-764, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060844

RESUMO

Kidney involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common, and can range from the presence of proteinuria and haematuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT; also known as kidney replacement therapy). COVID-19-associated AKI (COVID-19 AKI) is associated with high mortality and serves as an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. The pathophysiology and mechanisms of AKI in patients with COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated and seem to be multifactorial, in keeping with the pathophysiology of AKI in other patients who are critically ill. Little is known about the prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI. The emergence of regional 'surges' in COVID-19 cases can limit hospital resources, including dialysis availability and supplies; thus, careful daily assessment of available resources is needed. In this Consensus Statement, the Acute Disease Quality Initiative provides recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI based on current literature. We also make recommendations for areas of future research, which are aimed at improving understanding of the underlying processes and improving outcomes for patients with COVID-19 AKI.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2019209, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021646

RESUMO

Importance: In the last decade, new biomarkers for acute kidney injury (AKI) have been identified and studied in clinical trials. Guidance is needed regarding how best to incorporate them into clinical practice. Objective: To develop recommendations on AKI biomarkers based on existing data and expert consensus for practicing clinicians and researchers. Evidence Review: At the 23rd Acute Disease Quality Initiative meeting, a meeting of 23 international experts in critical care, nephrology, and related specialties, the panel focused on 4 broad areas, as follows: (1) AKI risk assessment; (2) AKI prediction and prevention; (3) AKI diagnosis, etiology, and management; and (4) AKI progression and kidney recovery. A literature search revealed more than 65 000 articles published between 1965 and May 2019. In a modified Delphi process, recommendations and consensus statements were developed based on existing data, with 90% agreement among panel members required for final adoption. Recommendations were graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations system. Findings: The panel developed 11 consensus statements for biomarker use and 14 research recommendations. The key suggestions were that a combination of damage and functional biomarkers, along with clinical information, be used to identify high-risk patient groups, improve the diagnostic accuracy of AKI, improve processes of care, and assist the management of AKI. Conclusions and Relevance: Current evidence from clinical studies supports the use of new biomarkers in prevention and management of AKI. Substantial gaps in knowledge remain, and more research is necessary.

8.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 614, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076940

RESUMO

Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated immune response to infection leading to life-threatening organ dysfunction. Sepsis-induced liver injury is recognized as a powerful independent predictor of mortality in the intensive care unit. During systemic infections, the liver regulates immune defenses via bacterial clearance, production of acute-phase proteins (APPs) and cytokines, and metabolic adaptation to inflammation. Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and impaired bacterial clearance and disrupted metabolic products can cause gut microbiota dysbiosis and disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Changes in the gut microbiota play crucial roles in liver injury during sepsis. Bacterial translocation and resulting intestinal inflammation lead to a systemic inflammatory response and acute liver injury. The gut-liver crosstalk is a potential target for therapeutic interventions. This review analyzes the underlying mechanisms for the gut-liver crosstalk in sepsis-induced liver injury.

9.
Clin Nephrol ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074093

RESUMO

Backgroundː Chronic kidney disease stage G5 (CKD G5) patients show an activated but impaired immune system. One function of the FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells is to preserve tolerance to self while maintaining the ability to fight infectious agents. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate longitudinal changes in Treg cells before and 1 month after the first dialysis treatment. Materials and methodsː CKD G5 patients not yet on dialysis were enrolled and started on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Tregs were analyzed by flow cytometry at two time points: T0 (before the first dialysis treatment) and T1 (1 month after the first dialysis session). Wilcoxon test for dependent samples was used to compare the mean percentage difference between T0 and T1: Δ% = 100 × [(T1 - T0) / T0]. Resultsː 21 patients were enrolled: 8 on HD and 13 on PD. The proportion of total lymphocytes (low side scatter lymphocyte gate) and T lymphocytes (in the CD3+CD4+ gate) did not change significantly 1 month after the start of dialysis in both groups. Treg cells (as CD25+FOXP3+, FOXP3+, or CD25+CD127-), analyzed as percentage of the lymphocyte gate, showed a significant increase post PD (CD25+FOXP3+: median = 35.92; p = 0.0425; FOXP3+: median = 30.85; p = 0.0479 and CD25+CD127-: median = 23.71; p = 0.0215). The same populations, did not change 1 month after the first dialysis session. Conclusionː Our study is the first to evaluate longitudinal effects of dialysis on Treg cells in uremia and suggests that PD was more effective in increasing Treg levels 1 month post initiation of dialysis and may contribute to improvement of inflammatory status. Thus, PD may contribute to better outcomes for patients with renal dysfunction, also maintaining homeostasis of peritoneal and renal tissues.

11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986608

RESUMO

Objectives Identification of acute kidney injury (AKI) can be challenging in patients with a variety of clinical features at intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the capacity of biomarkers in this subpopulation has been poorly studied. In our study we examined the influence that patients' clinical features at ICU admission have over the predicting ability of the combination of urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7). Methods Urinary [TIMP2]•[IGFBP7] were measured for all patients upon admission to ICU. We calculated the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for AKI prediction in the overall cohort and for subgroups of patients according to etiology of ICU admission, which included: sepsis, trauma, neurological conditions, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and non-classifiable causes. Results In the overall cohort of 719 patients, 239 (33.2%) developed AKI in the first seven days. [TIMP2]•[IGFBP7] at ICU admission were significantly higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients. This is true not only for the overall cohort but also in the other subgroups. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for [TIMP2]•[IGFBP7] in predicting AKI in the first seven days was 0.633 (95% CI 0.588-0.678), for the overall cohort, with sensitivity and specificity of 66.1 and 51.9% respectively. When we considered patients with combined sepsis, trauma, and respiratory disease we found a higher AUC than patients without these conditions (0.711 vs. 0.575; p=0.002). Conclusions The accuracy of [TIMP2]•[IGFBP7] in predicting the risk of AKI in the first seven days after ICU admission has significant variability when the reason for ICU admission is considered.

12.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(5): F792-F795, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969711

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses an unprecedented challenge to world health systems, substantially increasing hospitalization and mortality rates in all affected countries. Being primarily a respiratory disease, COVID-19 is mainly associated with pneumonia or minor upper respiratory tract symptoms; however, different organs can sustain considerable (if not terminal) damage because of coronavirus. Acute kidney injury is the most common complication of COVID-19-related pneumonia, and more than 20% of patients requiring ventilatory support develop renal failure. Additionally, chronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. All these data demonstrate the relevance of renal function assessment in patients with COVID-19 and the need of early kidney-directed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, the sole assessment of renal function could be not entirely indicative of kidney tissue status. In this viewpoint, we discuss the clinical significance and potential relevance of renal functional reserve evaluation in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Rim/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Humanos , Nefropatias/etiologia , Testes de Função Renal , Pandemias
13.
Blood Purif ; 49(6): 670-676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intraperitoneal volume (IPV) should be individualized and aimed to maintain an intraperitoneal pressure (IPP) lower than 17 cm H2O. IPP is very variable, given its relation with body size. However, it is not yet fully understood which anthropometric variable mostly affects IPP and the relation between IPP and organomegaly in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients is not known. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between antropometric variables and IPP in a large cohort of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and to identify if a relation between nephromegaly and IPP exists in PKD patients. METHODS: IPP was measured in PD patients and data was retrospectively collected. In PKD patients, total kidney volumes were measured in CT scans, and normalized with height (hTKV). RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in the study, 18% affected by PKD. Mean IPP was 14.9 ± 2.9 cm H2O and it showed significant positive correlation with body mass index (BMI; ρ = 0.42, p < 0.001). No correlation was found between IPP and absolute IPV; conversely, IPP has a significant inverse correlation with IPV normalized with BMI and body surface area (ρ -0.38, p = 0.001 and ρ -0.25, p = 0.02, -respectively). Patients with IPP >17 cm H2O have significant larger BMI and lower IPV/BMI compared to those with IPP <17 cm H2O (29 ± 3.6 vs. 26 ± 4 kg/m2, p < 0.05 and 97 ± 15.5 vs. 109 ± 22 mL/kg/m2, p < 0.05). PKD patients have a wide variability in hTKV (range 645-3,787 mL/m2) and it showed a significant correlation with IPP/IPV (ρ = 0.6, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with larger BMI have greater IPP, irrespectively to IPV. In PKD patients, hTKV correlate with IPP/IPV ratio. However, given the wide range of distribution of hTKV, increased IPP cannot be presumed because of pre-existing polycystic kidney, but need to be quantified.

14.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) has been proved benefit from remote monitoring (RM), but evidences are limited. In this study, we compared clinical outcomes and quality of life (QoL) in two group of patients undergoing APD, with and without exposure of RM. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study, comparing outcomes in two groups of APD patients monitored during 6 months with RM (group A: n = 35) or standard care (group B: n = 38 patients). In our clinical practice, we assign the RM system to patients who live more distant from the PD center or difficulty in moving. We evaluated emergency visits, hospitalizations, peritonitis, overhydration, and dropout. QoL was assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF). We included four additional questions focused on patient's perception of monitoring, safety and timely problems solution (Do you think that home-therapy monitoring could interfere with your privacy? Do you think that your dialysis sessions are monitored frequently enough? Do you think that dialysis-related issues are solved timely? Do you feel comfortable carrying out your home-based therapy?). RESULTS: The case group presented a higher comorbidity score, according to Charlson Comorbidity Index (group A: 5.0; IQR 4.0-8.0 versus group B: 4.0; IQR 3.0-6.0) (p = 0.042). The results in group A showed a reduction in the urgent visits due to acute overhydration (group A: 0.17 ± 0.45 versus group B: 0.66 ± 1.36) (p: 0.042) and in the number of disease-specific hospitalization (group A n = 2.0; 18.2% versus group B n = 7.0; 77.8%) (p = 0.022). We did not find any difference between the two groups in terms of hospitalization because of all-cause, peritonitis, overhydration, and dropout. The analysis of KDQOL-SF subscales was similar in the two groups; on the contrary, the answers of our pointed questions have showed a significant difference between the two groups (group A: 100 IQR 87.5-100.0 versus group B 87.5; IQR 75.0-100.0) (p: 0.018). CONCLUSION: RM improved clinical outcomes in PD patients, reducing the emergency visits and the hospitalizations, related to nephrological problems, especially in patients with higher comorbidity score. The acceptance and satisfaction of care were better in patients monitored with RM than with standard APD.

15.
Nephron ; 144(11): 550-554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750694

RESUMO

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spotlighted the vulnerability of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) to the viral infection. Social distancing is the most effective preventive measure to reduce the risk of infection. Nonetheless, the necessity to frequently reach the dialysis center and the inherent social gathering both impede social distancing and also self-quarantine for infected individuals. A baseline hyperinflammatory state driven by factors such as the retention of uremic toxins afflicts these patients. Concomitantly, a condition of relative immunosuppression is also attributed to similar factors. The use of high-flux (HF) dialyzers for HD is the standard of care. However, with HF membranes, the removal of large middle molecules is scant. Medium cutoff (MCO) dialyzers are a new class of membranes that allow substantial removal of large middle molecules with negligible albumin losses. Recent trials confirmed long-term safety and long-term sustained reduction in the concentration of large uremic toxins with MCO dialyzers. Herein, we discuss the rationale for applying MCO membranes in COVID-19 patients and its possible immunoadjuvant effects that could mitigate the burden of COVID-19 infection in dialysis patients. We also discuss the direct cytopathic effect of the virus on renal tissue and extracorporeal blood purification techniques that can prevent kidney damage or reduce acute kidney injury progression.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Membranas Artificiais , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(11): 1214-1233, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755094

RESUMO

In December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread around the word. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate CoV infections, however, multiorgan damage might be due to direct SARS-CoV2 action against the infected organ cells, as well as an imbalanced host immune response. In effect, a "cytokines storm" and an impaired innate immunity were found in the COVID-19 critically ill patients. In this review, we summarized the virus immune response steps, underlying the relevance of introducing the measurement of plasma cytokine levels and of circulating lymphocyte subsets in clinical practice for the follow-up of critically ill COVID-19 patients and support new therapy.

17.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal functional reserve can be used as a clinical tool for risk stratification of patients undergoing potentially nephrotoxic procedures. Ultrasound assessment of intra-parenchymal renal resistive index variation-IRRIV test-has been recently proposed as a safe, reproducible, inexpensive and easy to perform technique to identify the presence of renal functional reserve. The present study has been designed to externally validate the IRRIV test in a validation cohort of healthy subjects. METHODS: We examined data from a group of 47 healthy subjects undergoing protein loading and IRRIV testing. The correlation between IRRIV and renal functional reserve was tested using Pearson correlation analysis. Concordance between presence of renal functional reserve (i.e. a value of renal functional reserve ≥ 15 ml/min/1.73 m2) and IRRIV was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We found a significant correlation between IRRIV and renal functional reserve (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.90; p < 0.01]). Concordance between the presence of renal functional reserve and the IRRIV test was described in 45 (95.7%) subjects. In particular, a negative IRRIV test correctly predicted the absence of renal functional reserve in 5 subjects, while a positive IRRIV test correctly predicted the presence of renal functional reserve in 40 subjects. Only two subjects were incorrectly classified by the IRRIV test. IRRIV predicts renal functional reserve with a ROC-AUC of 0.86 [CI 95% 0.68-1]. CONCLUSIONS: The IRRIV test is an ultrasound technique that significantly predicts the presence and the degree of renal functional reserve in healthy subjects.

18.
Blood Purif ; : 1-8, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683368

RESUMO

Technique failure (TF) is a well-recognized challenge encountered in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Identification of patients at risk for this complication is of utmost importance. Early detection of patients at risk and development of preventative strategies can improve technique survival that may lead to an increased utilization of PD. It will also promote a safe and planned transfer to hemodialysis once a patient identified with TF. The aim of this review is to summarize risk factors and scenarios associated with TF focusing on prevention of remediable factors at their earliest stage. Furthermore, integration of this knowledge into quality improvement initiatives should be entertained in an effort to improve outcomes.

19.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(12): 2367-2377, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is increasing globally and it is usually associated to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and high mortality. Literature is lacking in short- and intermediate-term data on recovery of renal function after acute kidney injury (AKI). OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate the overall survival and renal recovery after an episode of AKI requiring dialysis out of intensive care units (ICUs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study including patients admitted in two nephrology units along a period of 2 years. Patients admitted to ICUs and renal transplant patients were excluded. Baseline renal function, mortality and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improvement were evaluated. RESULTS: 151 consecutive adult patients with AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) were included. Mean age was 70.5 ± 15.2 years, 60.3% were males. Median baseline creatinine (bCr) and baseline GFR (bGFR) were 1.4 mg/dL and 46 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. After 1 year of follow-up, we completed the monitoring of 94 patients: 64.9% had died, 10.6% were alive on dialysis and 24.5% were alive without need for RRT. Patients with bGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 prior to AKI episode had a slower but sustained GFR improvement through the follow-up in comparison with patients with bGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 whose recovery was incomplete. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AKI requiring RRT have high short- and intermediate-term mortality and some require maintenance dialysis. Patients with GFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 prior to AKI had a renal recovery closer to the basal renal function than in patients with a previously diminished GFR.

20.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 25(11): 856-864, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621370

RESUMO

AIM: Reduced treatment compliance in patients with peritoneal dialysis facilitates the development of fluid overload and as a result increased blood pressure and vascular stiffness in the long term. We aimed to evaluate blood pressure change and anti-hypertensive needs of patients within 1 year after the changeover to remote monitoring automated peritoneal dialysis (RM-APD) and compare the effect of RM-APD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on peripheral and central haemodynamic parameters, volume status of patients and anti-hypertensive drug needs. METHODS: This was an observational and cross-sectional study. We enrolled 15 patients performing CAPD, 20 patients performing RM-APD, and 38 age, and gender-matched healthy control. We measured pulse wave velocity to assess arterial stiffness, peripheral and central haemodynamic parameters. We measured the volume status of participants via bioimpedance spectroscopy. RESULTS: The mean excess hydration of patients who underwent CAPD were higher than those who performed RM-APD and healthy control (P = .02). We found that mean diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and central pulse pressure were significantly different between the RM-APD, CAPD and healthy control (P = .02, P = .05, P = .007, P = .05 and P = .005, respectively). Post hoc analysis of these results showed that the differences between the groups were caused by the healthy control group and the patients with underwent CAPD. Daily anti-hypertensive drug count in patients with performing RM-APD was reduced over time (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The RM-APD provides better control of peripheral blood pressure and decrease of central haemodynamic parameters via controlling the excess body water.

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