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1.
J Sex Res ; : 1-20, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902238

RESUMO

Gender-based violence (GBV) against women and girls is pervasive and has negative consequences for sexual and reproductive health (SRH). In this systematic review of reviews, we aimed to synthesize research about the SRH outcomes of GBV for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). GBV exposures were child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting, child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner sexual violence. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus searches were supplemented with expert consultations, reference-list searches, and targeted organizational website searches. Reviews had to contain samples of girls and young women ages 10-24, although inclusion criteria were expanded post-hoc to capture adolescent-adult combined samples. Twenty-seven reviews were quality-rated. Study-level data were extracted from the 10 highest quality reviews (62 unique studies, 100 samples). Reviews were mostly from Africa and Asia and published between 2011 and 2015. We found consistent associations between GBV and number of sexual partners, gynecological conditions (e.g., sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), unwanted/unplanned pregnancy, and abortion. Some types of IPV also were associated with greater use of contraception/STI prevention. Addressing GBV is essential to improve SRH for girls and women in LMICs.

2.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 149, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to validate three mental health scales in a targeted sample of pregnant Arab women living in Qatar: the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. METHODS: Random split-half exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses (n = 336; n = 331), conducted separately, were used to evaluate scale dimensionality, factor loadings, and factor structure of the KUAS, the PSS, and the EPDS. RESULTS: Fit statistics for the three scales suggested adequate fit to the data and estimated factor loadings were positive, similar in magnitude, and were significant. The final CFA model for the KUAS supported a 19-item, two factor structure. CFA models also confirmed 8- and 10-item, single-factor structures for the PSS and EPDS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The validation of scales for these aspects of mental health in Arab pregnant women is critical to ensure appropriate screening, identification, and treatment to reduce the risk of sequelae in women and their children. Findings offer a useful comparison to mental-health scale validations in other Arab contexts.

3.
Sex Health ; 9(4): 299-303, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22877587

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined young women's actual timing of use of a microbicide surrogate gel (vaginal moisturiser (VM)) compared with assigned timing conditions. METHODS: Participants used a VM with coitus during 4-week cycles over a 3-year period in random timing sequences: 1h before coitus, 10 min before coitus and 10 min after coitus. Daily diaries collected information related to coital behaviours, VM use and timing, and participants' and partners' VM assessments. Descriptive and mixed-effects model analyses were conducted. RESULTS: At least three VM timing conditions were completed by 109 women aged 18-22 years old. Of 17?772 diary days collected, coitus was reported on 2128 (1252 with VM use; 59%). Median times between VM application and coitus were: 60 min before coitus (mean=68.2; s.d.=76.9) for the 1-h pre-coital group, 13.5 min before coitus (mean=44.9; s.d.=117.1) for the 10-min pre-coital group and 5 min before coitus (mean=24.5; s.d.=205.1) for the 10-min post-coital group. Women reported that the VM was very easy to use (68%), it was somewhat messy (61%), they were very wet during sex (81%), sex was very good (80%) and their partners liked using the VM (38%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the VM was rated positively. There was substantial deviation in application time across timing conditions, with significantly greater variability in the post-coital group. These findings contribute to understanding of how VMs are accepted and used, with implications for HIV prevention with microbicides requiring specific application timing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Coito , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Administração Intravaginal , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lubrificantes/administração & dosagem , Satisfação do Paciente , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Primatol ; 67(2): 199-207, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16229006

RESUMO

As early as the 1970s, it was suggested that nonhuman primates may serve as models of human reproductive senescence. In the present study, the reproductive outcomes of 1,255 pregnancies in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were examined in relation to parity and its covariate, maternal age. The results show that the percentage of positive pregnancy outcomes was negatively correlated with increasing parity. In addition, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and caesarian sections (C-sections) were positively correlated with increasing parity. Maternal age, rather than parity, was found to be the most important predictor of negative birth outcome. This study supports research demonstrating reproductive decline and termination in nonhuman primates, and is the first to quantitatively account for this phenomenon in captive female chimpanzees.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Idade Materna , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Paridade/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/veterinária , Aborto Animal , Animais , Cesárea , Feminino , Gravidez , Natimorto
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