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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whether endometrial cancer (EC) should be considered part of the gBRCA1/2-associated Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC)-syndrome is topic of debate. We sought to assess whether ECs occurring in gBRCA carriers are enriched for clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics, thereby supporting a causal relationship. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-eight gBRCA carriers that developed EC were selected from the nationwide cohort study on Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the Netherlands (HEBON), and these were supplemented with four institutional cases. Tumor tissue was retrieved via PALGA (Dutch Pathology Registry). Nineteen morphologic features were scored and histotype was determined by three expert gynecologic pathologists, blinded for molecular analyses (UCM-OncoPlus Assay including 1213 genes). ECs with LOH of the gBRCA- wildtype allele (gBRCA/LOHpos) were defined "gBRCA -associated", those without LOH (gBRCA/LOHneg) were defined 'sporadic'. RESULTS: LOH could be assessed for 40 ECs (30 gBRCA1, 10 gBRCA2 ), of which 60% were gBRCA/LOHpos. gBRCA/LOHpos ECs were more frequently of non-endometrioid (58%, P=0.001) and grade 3 histology (79%, P<0.001). All but two were in the TP53-mutated TCGA-subgroup (91.7%, P<0.001). In contrast, gBRCA/LOHneg ECs were mainly grade 1 endometrioid EC (94%) and showed a more heterogeneous distribution of TCGA-molecular subgroups: POLE-mutated (6.3%), MSI-high (25%), NSMP (62.5%) and TP53-mutated (6.3%). CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel evidence in favour of EC being part of the gBRCA-associated HBOC-syndrome. gBRCA-associated ECs are enriched for EC subtypes associated with unfavourable clinical outcome. These findings have profound therapeutic consequences as these patients may benefit from treatment strategies such as PARP-inhibitors. Additionally, it should influence counselling and surveillance of gBRCA carriers.

2.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

4.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 63(1): 9-21, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551215

RESUMO

Background: Night-shift work has been reported to have an impact on nutrition, daylight exposure, and physical activity, which might play a role in observed health effects. Because these exposures show diurnal variation, and shift work has been related with disturbances in the circadian rhythm, the timing of assessment of these factors requires careful consideration. Our aim was to describe the changes in patterns of diet, physical activity, and daylight exposure associated with night-shift work. Methods: We conducted an observational study among female healthcare workers either regularly working night shifts or not working night shifts. We assessed physical activity and daylight exposure using continuous monitoring devices for 48 h. We logged dietary patterns (24 h) and other health- and work-associated characteristics. Two measurement sessions were conducted when participants did 'not' work night shifts, and one session was conducted during a night-shift period. Results: Our study included 69 night-shift workers and 21 day workers. On days in which they conduct work but no night work, night-shift workers had similar physical activity and 24-h caloric intake, yet higher overall daylight exposures than day workers and were more often exposed around noon instead of mainly around 1800h. Night-shift workers were less exposed to daylight during the night-shift session compared to the non-night-shift session. Total caloric intakes did not significantly differ between sessions, but we did observe a shorter maximum fasting interval, more eating moments, and a higher percentage of fat intake during the night-shift session. Conclusion: Observed differences in diet, physical activity, and exposure to daylight primarily manifested themselves through changes in exposure patterns, highlighting the importance of time-resolved measurements in night-shift-work research. Patterns in daylight exposure were primarily related to time of waking up and working schedule, whereas timing of dinner seemed primarily governed by social conventions.

5.
Br J Cancer ; : 357-363, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is rarely examined. As carriers may increasingly undergo IVF as part of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we examined the impact of ovarian stimulation for IVF on breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1550 BRCA1 and 964 BRCA2 mutation carriers, derived from the nationwide HEBON study and the nationwide PGD registry. Questionnaires, clinical records and linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used to collect data on IVF exposure, risk-reducing surgeries and cancer diagnosis, respectively. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were conducted, stratified for birth cohort and adjusted for subfertility. RESULTS: Of the 2514 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, 3% (n = 76) were exposed to ovarian stimulation for IVF. In total, 938 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (37.3%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. IVF exposure was not associated with risk of breast cancer (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.46-1.36). Similar results were found for the subgroups of subfertile women (n = 232; HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.39-1.37) and BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.60-2.09). In addition, age at and recency of first IVF treatment were not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found for an association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

6.
BMJ Open ; 8(2): e018504, 2018 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431129

RESUMO

PURPOSE: LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we describe the study design, ongoing data collection, baseline characteristics of participants and the repeatability of key questionnaire items. PARTICIPANTS: 88 466 participants were enrolled in three cohort studies in 2011-2012. Exposure information was collected by a harmonised core questionnaire, or modelled based on occupational and residential histories; domains include air pollution (eg, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5)), noise, electromagnetic fields (EMF), mobile phone use, shift work and occupational chemical exposures. Chronic and subacute health outcomes are assessed by self-report and through linkage with health registries. FINDINGS TO DATE: Participants had a median age of 51 years at baseline (range 19-87), and the majority are female (90%), with nurses being over-represented. Median exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, EMF from base stations and noise at the participants' home addresses at baseline were 22.9 µg/m3, 16.6 µg/m3, 0.003 mWm2 and 53.1 dB, respectively. Twenty-two per cent of participants reported to have started using a mobile phone more than 10 years prior to baseline. Repeatability for self-reported exposures was moderate to high (weighted kappa range: 0.69-1) for a subset of participants (n=237) who completed the questionnaire twice. FUTURE PLANS: We are actively and passively observing participants; we plan to administer a follow-up questionnaire every 4-5 years-the first follow-up will be completed in 2018-and linkage to cause-of-death and cancer registries occurs on a (bi)annual basis. This prospective cohort offers a unique, large and rich resource for research on contemporary occupational and environmental health risks and will contribute to the large international COSMOS study on mobile phone use and health.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/análise , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(6): 848-857, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483665

RESUMO

This observational study aimed to investigate whether the reported association between family history (FH) of breast cancer (BC) or ovarian cancer (OC) and OC risks in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be explained by mutation position on the gene. In total, 3310 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers participating in a nationwide prospective cohort (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the Netherlands) were included. FH was classified according to cancer occurrence in first-degree relatives (BC only, OC only, both, neither) and mutations were classified according to their position on the gene (OC cluster region (OCCR), BC cluster region, neither). The main outcome was OC occurrence. Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to investigate the association between FH and OC risks before and after adjusting for mutation position. Of all women included, 202 were diagnosed with OC. A BC-only FH tended to be associated with lower OC risks when compared with a FH without BC/OC (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.52-1.17; HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.33-1.07 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively) while an OC-only FH tended to be associated with higher risks (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.90-2.77; HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 0.70-4.37 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively). After adjusting for mutation position, association between FH and OC risks was slightly smaller in magnitude (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30; HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.34-1.21 for BC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively; HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.80-2.68; HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.44-4.02 for OC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), indicating that mutation position explains only part of the association. Considering the magnitude of the observed trend, we do not believe FH should be used to change counseling regarding OC prevention.

8.
JAMA ; 317(23): 2402-2416, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632866

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. Objectives: To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. Exposures: BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Results: Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%) for BRCA1 and 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) for BRCA2 carriers. For contralateral breast cancer, the cumulative risk 20 years after breast cancer diagnosis was 40% (95% CI, 35%-45%) for BRCA1 and 26% (95% CI, 20%-33%) for BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] for comparing BRCA2 vs BRCA1, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P=.001 for difference). Breast cancer risk increased with increasing number of first- and second-degree relatives diagnosed as having breast cancer for both BRCA1 (HR for ≥2 vs 0 affected relatives, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.82; P<.001 for trend) and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.37; P=.02 for trend). Breast cancer risk was higher if mutations were located outside vs within the regions bounded by positions c.2282-c.4071 in BRCA1 (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93; P=.007) and c.2831-c.6401 in BRCA2 (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74; P<.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide estimates of cancer risk based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status using prospective data collection and demonstrate the potential importance of family history and mutation location in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
JAMA ; 316(3): 300-12, 2016 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434442

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Previous studies of breast cancer risk after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were inconclusive due to limited follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term risk of breast cancer after ovarian stimulation for IVF. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Historical cohort (OMEGA study) with complete follow-up through December 2013 for 96% of the cohort. The cohort included 19,158 women who started IVF treatment between 1983 and 1995 (IVF group) and 5950 women starting other fertility treatments between 1980 and 1995 (non-IVF group) from all 12 IVF clinics in the Netherlands. The median age at end of follow-up was 53.8 years for the IVF group and 55.3 years for the non-IVF group. EXPOSURES: Information on ovarian stimulation for IVF, other fertility treatments, and potential confounders was collected from medical records and through mailed questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women who underwent fertility treatments was obtained through linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry (1989-2013). Breast cancer risk in the IVF group was compared with risks in the general population (standardized incidence ratios [SIRs]) and the non-IVF group (hazard ratios [HRs]). RESULTS: Among 25,108 women (mean age at baseline, 32.8 years; mean number of IVF cycles, 3.6), 839 cases of invasive breast cancer and 109 cases of in situ breast cancer occurred after a median follow-up of 21.1 years. Breast cancer risk in IVF-treated women was not significantly different from that in the general population (SIR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.93-1.09]) and from the risk in the non-IVF group (HR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.86-1.19]). The cumulative incidences of breast cancer at age 55 were 3.0% for the IVF group and 2.9% for the non-IVF group (P = .85). The SIR did not increase with longer time since treatment (≥20 years) in the IVF group (0.92 [95% CI, 0.73-1.15]) or in the non-IVF group (1.03 [95% CI, 0.82-1.29]). Risk was significantly lower for those who underwent 7 or more IVF cycles (HR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.39-0.77]) vs 1 to 2 IVF cycles and after poor response to the first IVF cycle (HR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.96] for <4 vs ≥4 collected oocytes). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among women undergoing fertility treatment in the Netherlands between 1980 and 1995, IVF treatment compared with non-IVF treatment was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer after a median follow-up of 21 years. Breast cancer risk among IVF-treated women was also not significantly different from that in the general population. These findings are consistent with absence of a significant increase in long-term risk of breast cancer among IVF-treated women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Indução da Ovulação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Menopause ; 23(8): 903-10, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27326821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment from an ongoing nationwide cohort study among members of BRCA1/2 mutated families. Information was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and Cox regression was used to assess the association between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM. Adjustments were made for birth cohort, family, smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, and parity. RESULTS: A total of 1,208 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 2,211 proven noncarriers were included. Overall, no association was found between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06 [95% CI, 0.87-1.30]). We examined if the null finding was due to informative censoring by uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Indeed, within the oldest birth cohort, in which the percentage of surgical menopause events was lowest and comparable between carriers and noncarriers, the HR for earlier natural menopause in carriers was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.94). The second oldest birth cohort, however, demonstrated a decreased HR (0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.98]), and thus no trend over birth cohorts was found. CONCLUSIONS: Various types of selection bias hamper the comparison of ANM between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers, genetically tested in the clinic.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Menopausa/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(8): 1251-8, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27277847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paternal transmission of a BRCA mutation has been reported to increase the risk of breast cancer in offspring more than when the mutation is maternally inherited. As this effect might be caused by referral bias, the aim of this study was to assess the parent-of-origin effect of the BRCA1/2 mutation on the breast cancer lifetime risk, when adjusted for referral bias. METHODS: A Dutch national cohort including 1,314 proven BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and covering 54,752 person years. Data were collected by family cancer clinics, via questionnaires and from the national Dutch Cancer Registry. The parent-of-origin effect was assessed using Cox regression analyses, both unadjusted and adjusted for referral bias. Referral bias was operationalized by number of relatives with cancer and by personal cancer history. RESULTS: The mutation was of paternal origin in 330 (42%, P < 0.001) BRCA1 and 222 (42%, P < 0.001) BRCA2 carriers. Paternal origin increased the risk of prevalent breast cancer for BRCA1 [HR, 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-2.00] and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.95-2.06). Adjusted for referral bias by several family history factors, these HRs ranged from 1.41 to 1.83 in BRCA1 carriers and 1.27 to 1.62 in BRCA2 carriers. Adjusted for referral bias by personal history, these HRs were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.25-1.71) and 1.14 (95% CI, 0.42-3.15), respectively. CONCLUSION: A parent-of-origin effect is present after correction for referral bias by family history, but correction for the personal cancer history made the effect disappear. IMPACT: There is no conclusive evidence regarding incorporating a BRCA1/2 parent-of-origin effect in breast cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(8); 1251-8. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Herança Paterna/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(11)2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 1.19) per 10cm increase in height in the meta-analysis of prospective studies. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the odds ratio of breast cancer per 10cm increase in genetically predicted height was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.13 to 1.32) in the first consortium and 1.21 (95% CI = 1.05 to 1.39) in the second consortium. The association was found in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women but restricted to hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Analyses of height-associated variants identified eight new loci associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an important role in the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Estatura , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(1): 308-16, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In this study, we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. METHODS: Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n = 3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. RESULTS: The observed P values of association ranged between 0.005 and 1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. CONCLUSION: There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. IMPACT: Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Cancer ; 136(3): 668-77, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24947112

RESUMO

Data on survival of BRCA1/2-associated primary breast cancer (PBC) patients who opt for subsequent contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (CRRM) are scarce and inconsistent. We examined the efficacy of CRRM on overall survival in mutation carriers with a history of PBC. From a Dutch multicentre cohort, we selected 583 BRCA-associated PBC patients, being diagnosed between 1980 and 2011. Over time, 242 patients (42%) underwent CRRM and 341 patients (58%) remained under surveillance. Survival analyses were performed using Cox models, with CRRM as a time-dependent covariate. The median follow-up after PBC diagnosis was 11.4 years. In the CRRM group, four patients developed contralateral breast cancer (2%), against 64 patients (19%) in the surveillance group (p < 0.001). The mortality was lower in the CRRM group than in the surveillance group (9.6 and 21.6 per 1000 person-years of observation, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.82). Survival benefit was especially seen in young PBC patients (<40 years), in patients having a PBC with differentiation grade 1/2 and/or no triple-negative phenotype, and in patients not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We conclude that CRRM is associated with improved overall survival in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with a history of PBC. Further research is warranted to develop a model based on age at diagnosis and tumour and treatment characteristics that can predict survival benefit for specific subgroups of patients, aiming at further personalized counselling and improved decision making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mastectomia , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(11): 2482-91, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25103822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify previously observed relatively high cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA2 carriers) older than 60 in the Northern Netherlands, and to analyze whether these could be explained by mutation spectrum or population background risk. METHODS: This consecutive cohort study included all known pathogenic BRCA1/2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands (N = 1,050). Carrier and general reference populations were: BRCA1/2 carriers in the rest of the Netherlands (N = 2,013) and the general population in both regions. Regional differences were assessed with HRs and ORs. HRs were adjusted for birth year and mutation spectrum. RESULTS: All BRCA1 carriers and BRCA2 carriers younger than 60 had a significantly lower breast cancer risk in the Northern Netherlands; HRs were 0.66 and 0.64, respectively. Above age 60, the breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands was higher than in the rest of the Netherlands [HR, 3.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.35]. Adjustment for mutational spectrum changed the HRs for BRCA1, BRCA2 <60, and BRCA2 ≥60 years by -3%, +32%, and +11% to 0.75, 0.50, and 2.61, respectively. There was no difference in background breast cancer incidence between the two regions (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in mutation spectrum only partly explain the regional differences in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers, and for an even smaller part in BRCA1 carriers. IMPACT: The increased risk in BRCA2 carriers older than 60 may warrant extension of intensive breast screening beyond age 60.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Países Baixos , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 47, 2014 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24475944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. METHODS/DESIGN: The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). DISCUSSION: Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Exposição Ocupacional , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
J Med Genet ; 51(2): 98-107, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24285858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations confer increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer, but risks have been found to vary across studies and populations. METHODS: We ascertained pedigree data of 582 BRCA1 and 176 BRCA2 families and studied the variation in breast and ovarian cancer risks using a modified segregation analysis model. RESULTS: The average cumulative breast cancer risk by age 70 years was estimated to be 45% (95% CI 36 to 52%) for BRCA1 and 27% (95% CI 14 to 38%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The corresponding cumulative risks for ovarian cancer were 31% (95% CI 17 to 43%) for BRCA1 and 6% (95% CI 2 to 11%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. In BRCA1 families, breast cancer relative risk (RR) increased with more recent birth cohort (p heterogeneity = 0.0006) and stronger family histories of breast cancer (p heterogeneity < 0.001). For BRCA1, our data suggest a significant association between the location of the mutation and the ratio of breast to ovarian cancer (p<0.001). By contrast, in BRCA2 families, no evidence was found for risk heterogeneity by birth cohort, family history or mutation location. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1 mutation carriers conferred lower overall breast and ovarian cancer risks than reported so far, while the estimates of BRCA2 mutations were among the lowest. The low estimates for BRCA1 might be due to older birth cohorts, a moderate family history, or founder mutations located within specific regions of the gene. These results are important for a more accurate counselling of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 31(25): 3091-9, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23918944

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer (BC) is associated with reduced contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: Analysis of pooled observational cohort data, self-reported at enrollment and at follow-up from the International BRCA1, and BRCA2 Carrier Cohort Study, Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, and Breast Cancer Family Registry. Eligible women were BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers diagnosed with unilateral BC since 1970 and no other invasive cancer or tamoxifen use before first BC. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CBC associated with tamoxifen use were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for year and age of diagnosis, country, and bilateral oophorectomy and censoring at contralateral mastectomy, death, or loss to follow-up. RESULTS: Of 1,583 BRCA1 and 881 BRCA2 mutation carriers, 383 (24%) and 454 (52%), respectively, took tamoxifen after first BC diagnosis. There were 520 CBCs over 20,104 person-years of observation. The adjusted HR estimates were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.55) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.50) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. After left truncating at recruitment to the cohort, adjusted HR estimates were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.13) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.05) based on 657 BRCA1 and 426 BRCA2 mutation carriers with 100 CBCs over 4,392 person-years of prospective follow-up. HRs did not differ by estrogen receptor status of the first BC (missing for 56% of cases). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that tamoxifen use is associated with a reduction in CBC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further follow-up of these cohorts will provide increased statistical power for future prospective analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMJ ; 345: e5660, 2012 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22956590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with diagnostic radiation in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK). SETTING: Three nationwide studies (GENEPSO, EMBRACE, HEBON) in France, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, PARTICIPANTS: 1993 female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations recruited in 2006-09. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Risk of breast cancer estimated with a weighted Cox proportional hazards model with a time dependent individually estimated cumulative breast dose, based on nominal estimates of organ dose and frequency of self reported diagnostic procedures. To correct for potential survival bias, the analysis excluded carriers who were diagnosed more than five years before completion of the study questionnaire. RESULTS: In carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations any exposure to diagnostic radiation before the age of 30 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 3.00), with a dose-response pattern. The risks by quarter of estimated cumulative dose <0.0020 Gy, ≥ 0.0020-0.0065 Gy, ≥ 0.0066-0.0173 Gy, and ≥ 0.0174 Gy were 1.63 (0.96 to 2.77), 1.78 (0.88 to 3.58), 1.75 (0.72 to 4.25), and 3.84 (1.67 to 8.79), respectively. Analyses on the different types of diagnostic procedures showed a pattern of increasing risk with increasing number of radiographs before age 20 and before age 30 compared with no exposure. A history of mammography before age 30 was also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.43, 0.85 to 2.40). Sensitivity analysis showed that this finding was not caused by confounding by indication of family history. CONCLUSION: In this large European study among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, exposure to diagnostic radiation before age 30 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer at dose levels considerably lower than those at which increases have been found in other cohorts exposed to radiation. The results of this study support the use of non-ionising radiation imaging techniques (such as magnetic resonance imaging) as the main tool for surveillance in young women with BRCA1/2 mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mamografia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/efeitos da radiação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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