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1.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4): 1509-1518, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608869

RESUMO

Stimulation of C-type lectin domain of human dectin-1 receptor by fungal ß-glucans causes conformational changes in its cytoplasmic domain which initiates various cellular responses mediated by downstream signaling components. We aimed to build the three-dimensional structures of the cytoplasmic domain as well as C-type lectin domain of human Dectin-1along with their potential ligands through homology modeling.The overall three-dimensional fold of cytoplasmic domain was found to consist of mixed ß-sheet whereas,in case of C-type lectin domain antiparallel ß-sheets flanked by α-helices were observed. Protein-protein docking strategy was utilized to monitorkey interactions between cytoplasmic domainof dectin-1 receptor and PKCδ, as a prime regulator of Dectin-1 signaling. The interface was observed to have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acid residues maintaining crucial contacts between the two proteins. The given three dimensional structural information can be implicated in structure-based drug designing to discover potential immunomodulators that can interfere with the immune responses and phagocytosis during inflammatory and infectious conditions.


Assuntos
Lectinas Tipo C/química , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Proteína Quinase C-delta/química , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
2.
J Community Health ; 44(6): 1098-1110, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267293

RESUMO

To assess the effectiveness of intervention in improving knowledge, attitude and perception regarding smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and its harmful effects and intention to quit SLT among school going adolescents. A school-based cluster randomized control trial was carried out in 18 secondary schools targeting male and female students from grades 6 to 10 in Karachi. Primary outcome was knowledge about hazards of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and secondary outcomes were attitude and Perception about hazards of SLT, and intention to quit SLT. We enrolled 738 participants in intervention group and 589 in the control group. Mean score of knowledge significantly improved in intervention as compared to control group (P value < 0.01). Intention to quit was found to be proportionately higher (33%) in the intervention group as compared to control group. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association of factors with knowledge regarding harmful effects of SLT use. Significant predictors of increase in knowledge score were found in children: who had seen any anti SLT messages on social media in the past 30 days, who were getting information regarding harmful effects of SLT use in school or textbooks and who had friends using SLT. A school-based intervention was effective in increasing knowledge regarding the harmful effects of SLT use and intention to quit SLT use among school adolescents. Introduction of such educational programmes on a regular basis in schools or as part of school curriculum can have an impact on reducing prevalence of SLT use.Trial Registration NCT03418506. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT03418506 .

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108624, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784921

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease of synovial inflammation and joint destruction. This study reports anti-arthritic potential of opuntioside-I opuntiol, and its gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) against Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritic rats. The mechanistic studies were performed targeting TLRs (TLR-2 and TLR-4) and cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α) expressions to validate their anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory response. The nano-formulations were successfully characterized employing Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. Opuntiol and opuntioside (OP and OPG: 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and opuntiol-coated silver and gold NPs (OP-AgNPs and OP-AuNPs: 0.5, 1 and 3 mg/kg) treatments in arthritic rat have shown minimal arthritic score exhibiting mild to moderate articular changes and tissue swelling in ankle joints. Radiographic examination reveals significant reduction in synovitis with improvement in joints degenarative changes in the presence of aforementioned treatments. Likewise, histology of rat ankle joints depicted comparatively lesser influx of inflammatory cells and diminished granulamatous inflammation. Moreover, treatment groups suppressed protein and mRNA expressions of TLRs (TLR-2 and TLR-4) and cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α) levels were also significantly declined in the presence of OPG, OP and its NPs comparing to arthritic control. This investigation concludes, the tested compounds and nano-formulations successfully restored the disease progression in CFA-induced arthritic rat owing to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials and can be considered for RA targeted therapy to address the utmost challenges of the disease.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Cumáricos/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Monossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/química , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Monossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Monossacarídeos/química , Ratos Wistar , Prata/química
4.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 46(sup1): 597-607, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381085

RESUMO

Nanomedicines anticipate drug delivery to inflamed tissues in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with greater efficacy and lesser side effects. This study investigates the anti-arthritic potentials of Hesperidin (HP) loaded in gum acacia (GA) stabilized green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Synthesized GA-AgNPs were characterized through UV-vis spectrophotometer, zetasizer and atomic force microscope (AFM). The HP and its loaded NPs were tested for RA in Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model. GA-AgNPs were found in nano-range size with negative charge, spherical shape and loaded increased HP amount. HP loaded GA-AgNPs showed minimal arthritic score exhibiting mild to moderate tissue swelling, reduced degenerative changes along with mild articular changes. Histopathological analysis revealed comparatively lesser influx of inflammatory cells and diminished granulamatous inflammation in ankle joints tissues in the presence of HP loaded GA-AgNPs. RT-PCR revealed that HP loaded GA-AgNPs significantly reduced the TLRs mRNA expression. Results validate GA stabilized green AgNPs as stable nano-cargos for targeted delivery of HP for restoring the progression of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Goma Arábica/química , Hesperidina/química , Hesperidina/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
5.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1817-1823, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545346

RESUMO

CONTEXT: γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is an important constituent of anti-ageing supplements. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates the anti-ageing effect of GLA in Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GLA (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 2, 10, 20 and 24 µM) was initially evaluated for its effect on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vitro. For in vivo assessment (1, 5 or 15 mg/kg), the rat model of accelerated ageing was developed using d-fructose (1000 mg/kg (i.p.) plus 10% in drinking water for 40 days). Morris water maze was used to evaluate impairment in learning and memory. The blood of treated animals was used to measure glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. The interaction of GLA with active residues of receptor of AGE (RAGE) was analyzed using AutoDock Vina. RESULTS: Our data showed that GLA inhibited the production of AGEs (IC50 = 1.12 ± 0.05 µM). However, this effect was more significant at lower tested doses. A similar pattern was also observed in in vivo experiments, where the effect of fructose was reversed by GLA only at lowest tested dose of 1 mg/kg. The HbA1c levels also revealed significant reduction at lower doses (1 and 5 mg/kg). The in silico data exhibited promising interaction of GLA with active residues (Try72, Arg77 and Gln67) of RAGE. CONCLUSION: The GLA, at lower doses, possesses therapeutic potential against glycation-induced memory decline.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido gama-Linolênico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional , Sistemas Especialistas , Frutose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Locomoção , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/sangue , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Nootrópicos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Linolênico/administração & dosagem , Ácido gama-Linolênico/química , Ácido gama-Linolênico/metabolismo
6.
J Lipid Res ; 54(2): 436-47, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23160182

RESUMO

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-induced monocyte chemotaxis is a major event in inflammatory disease. Our prior studies have demonstrated that MCP-1-dependent chemotaxis requires release of arachidonic acid (AA) by activated cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Here we investigated the involvement of AA metabolites in chemotaxis. Neither cyclooxygenase nor lipoxygenase pathways were required, whereas pharmacologic inhibitors of both the cytochrome-P450 (CYP) and the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathways blocked monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1. To verify specificity, we demonstrated that the CYP and sEH products epoxyeiscosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), respectively, restored chemotaxis in the presence of the inhibitors, indicating that sEH-derived products are essential for MCP-1-driven chemotaxis. Importantly, DHETs also rescued chemotaxis in cPLA(2)-deficient monocytes and monocytes with blocked Erk1/2 activity, because Erk controls cPLA(2) activation. The in vitro findings regarding the involvement of CYP/sEH pathways were further validated in vivo using two complementary approaches measuring MCP-1-dependent chemotaxis in mice. These observations reveal the importance of sEH in MCP-1-regulated monocyte chemotaxis and may explain the observed therapeutic value of sEH inhibitors in treatment of inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, pain, and even carcinogenesis. Their effectiveness, often attributed to increasing EET levels, is probably influenced by the impairment of DHET formation and inhibition of chemotaxis.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/biossíntese , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/enzimologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2 Citosólicas/metabolismo , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Solubilidade
7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 90(3): 599-611, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21653233

RESUMO

Zymosan, a mimic of fungal pathogens, and its opsonized form (ZOP) are potent stimulators of monocyte NADPH oxidase, resulting in the production of O(2)(.-), which is critical for host defense against fungal and bacterial pathogens and efficient immune responses; however, uncontrolled O(2)(.-) production may contribute to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Our laboratory has focused on characterizing the signal transduction pathways that regulate NADPH oxidase activity in primary human monocytes. In this study, we examined the involvement of various pattern recognition receptors and found that Dectin-1 is the primary receptor for zymosan stimulation of O(2)(.-) via NADPH oxidase in human monocytes, whereas Dectin-1 and CR3 mediate the activation by ZOP. Further studies identified Syk and Src as important signaling components downstream of Dectin-1 and additionally identified PKCδ as a novel downstream signaling component for zymosan-induced O(2)(.-) as well as phagocytosis. Our results show that Syk and Src association with Dectin-1 is dependent on PKCδ activity and expression and demonstrate direct binding between Dectin-1 and PKCδ. Finally, our data show that PKCδ and Syk but not Src are required for Dectin-1-mediated phagocytosis. Taken together, our data identify Dectin-1 as the major PRR for zymosan in primary human monocytes and identify PKCδ as a novel downstream signaling kinase for Dectin-1-mediated regulation of monocyte NADPH oxidase and zymosan phagocytosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Zimosan/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Antígeno de Macrófago 1/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose , Fosforilação , Proteína Quinase C-delta/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Quinase Syk , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 135(2): 351-8, 2011 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21419211

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco is used in various traditional medicinal system(s) for the treatment of rheumatism, painful arthritis and inflammation. Therefore, the pharmacological studies of its antinociceptive effect was undertaken to validate its traditional use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract(s) derived from Aegiceras corniculatum (stems) were studied using various nociceptive model(s) induced chemically or thermally in mice including acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and hot plate test. RESULTS: In acetic acid-induced writhing test, plant extracts dose dependently decreased the writhing numbers. The methanolic extract (1-10mg/kg, i.p. in mice) of the plant was more potent than acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid, with an IC(50) of 4.2 ± 0.99 mg/kg. Moreover, the time of nociceptive behaviors induced by intraplantar formalin injection was also suppressed during 1st and 2nd phases in the presence of ethyl acetate extract whereas, n-hexane and methanolic extracts inhibited the paw licking in mice during the 1st (IC(50) 12 ± 0.76 mg/kg) and 2nd phases (IC(50) 3.8 ± 0.55 mg/kg). Naloxone, ß-funaltrexamine, and naltrindole antagonized the n-hexane extract-induced antinociception in the first phase of formalin test indicating its non-selective analgesic response via opioid receptor(s). However, ethyl acetate extract was devoid of any opioid action. Additionally, these extracts significantly inhibited the pain stimulation in hot plate test. Withdrawal syndrome of morphine dependence was also diminished in the presence of plant extracts via potentiation of GABAergic system. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that Aegiceras corniculatum extract(s) possesses analgesic properties and acts on the central nervous system, thereby suppressing the inflammatory pain justifying its folklore use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Primulaceae/química , Animais , Camundongos , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 120(2): 248-54, 2008 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18809484

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study is designed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of Aegiceras corniculatum Linn. Blanco stems extracts and their mechanism of action against various pro-inflammatory mediators and to validate its traditional use against inflammatory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat paw edema and peritonitis models were employed for in vivo studies. For in vitro studies human platelets and rat neutrophils were stimulated with Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187 leading to the production of various pro-inflammatory metabolites, i.e., 12-HTT, 12-HETE and LTB(4) and 5-HETE which were quantified by HPLC. RESULTS: The highly polar methanol extract (100mg/kg) caused approximately 90% reduction in the carrageenan- and prostaglandin E2-induced paw edema in rats. It also caused the inhibition of cycloxygenase-1 metabolite, 12-HHT (IC(50) 41.1+/-1.5microg/ml) with a concomitant rise in 12-lipoxygenase metabolite, 12-HETE in A23187 stimulated human platelets. Conversely, the non-polar hexane extract attenuated (IC(50) 0.36+/-0.12microg/ml) 12-HETE formation with a parallel rise in 12-HHT, thereby displaying a selectivity towards 12-lipoxygenase. Non-polar hexane extract also antagonized the production of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites, i.e., leukotriene B(4) and 5-HETE in the rat neutrophils. Furthermore, ethyl acetate extract inhibited both COX and 5-LOX with a marked decline in the production of 12-HHT (IC(50) 0.08+/-0.002microg/ml) and LTB(4) (IC(50) 0.86+/-0.03microg/ml), respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts was also reflected by the diminution of carrageenan-induced cell infiltration in rat peritoneum. Additionally, plant extracts caused approximately 60% suppression in dextran-induced paw edema implying that they also ameliorate histamine and serotonin release. CONCLUSION: Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts derived from Aegiceras corniculatum possess significant anti-inflammatory activity via multiple mechanisms and validate their traditional use against inflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Primulaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/fisiopatologia , Eicosanoides/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Solventes/química
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 118(3): 514-21, 2008 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18602778

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective potential of Aegiceras corniculatum Linn. Blanco (Aegicerataceae). METHODS AND RESULTS: The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, derived from Aegiceras corniculatum stems, scavenged superoxide anions (O2*) and hydroxyl radicals (*OH) in nitro blue tetrazolium reduction and deoxyribose degradation assays, respectively. All the extracts inhibited the process of lipid peroxidation at its initiation step. Additionally, in rat liver microsomes n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts also caused termination of radical chain reaction supporting their scavenging action towards lipid peroxy radicals (LOO*). Moreover, increased production of O2* in human neutrophils, stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and/or opsonized zymosan were also suppressed (IC50 approximately 3-20 microg/mL). Thereby, revealing the ability of plant extracts to antagonize the oxidative stress via interference with NADPH oxidase metabolic pathway. These in vitro results coincide with the reduction in the glucose oxidase-induced paw edema in mice in the presence of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts (10, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.). Plant extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also significantly protected the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative tissue injury in rat liver. This was reflected by a approximately 60% decline in the levels of serum aminotransferase enzymes. CONCLUSION: Aegiceras corniculatum extracts found to possess pronounced antioxidant effect that may be at least in part related to its anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. This study provides a scientific basis for the ethnomedical claims that Aegiceras corniculatum is effective against inflammation and liver injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Primulaceae , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Feminino , Glucose Oxidase/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
11.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 28(4): 596-600, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15802793

RESUMO

Mangiferin, 2-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-9H-xanthen-9-one, obtained directly from methanolic extracts of Bombax ceiba leaves in substantial amounts demonstrated strong antioxidant activity (EC(50) 5.8+/-0.96 mug/ml or 13.74 muM) using DPPH assay comparable to rutin, commonly used as antioxidant for medical purposes. The acetyl and cinnamoyl derivatives were found to be less active than mangiferin whereas, methyl and 3,6,7-trimethylether tetraacetate derivatives were inactive implying that for antioxidant activity, free hydroxyl groups and catechol moiety are essential. Moreover, mangiferin showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury further supporting the free radical scavenging property in the in vivo system. Additionally, plant extracts and mangiferin failed to exhibit acute anti-inflammatory activity whereas, it displayed significant analgesic effect in acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice. Using naloxone, it was revealed that plant extracts induced analgesia was independent of opioid receptor, whereas, mangiferin demonstrated significant interaction with it at peripheral site with a slight contribution at the neuronal level.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Bombax/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Morfina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantonas/química
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