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3.
J Exp Med ; 216(6): 1311-1327, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040185

RESUMO

Interleukin-2, which conveys essential signals for immunity, operates through a heterotrimeric receptor. Here we identify human interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) ß chain (IL2RB) gene defects as a cause of life-threatening immune dysregulation. We report three homozygous mutations in the IL2RB gene of eight individuals from four consanguineous families that cause disease by distinct mechanisms. Nearly all patients presented with autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, bowel inflammation, dermatological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and cytomegalovirus disease. Patient T lymphocytes lacked surface expression of IL-2Rß and were unable to respond to IL-2 stimulation. By contrast, natural killer cells retained partial IL-2Rß expression and function. IL-2Rß loss of function was recapitulated in a recombinant system in which IL2RB mutations caused reduced surface expression and IL-2 binding. Stem cell transplant ameliorated clinical symptoms in one patient; forced expression of wild-type IL-2Rß also increased the IL-2 responsiveness of patient T lymphocytes in vitro. Insights from these patients can inform the development of IL-2-based therapeutics for immunological diseases and cancer.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1136, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850590

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9 is a promising technology for genome editing. Here we use Cas9 nuclease-induced double-strand break DNA (DSB) at the UROS locus to model and correct congenital erythropoietic porphyria. We demonstrate that homology-directed repair is rare compared with NHEJ pathway leading to on-target indels and causing unwanted dysfunctional protein. Moreover, we describe unexpected chromosomal truncations resulting from only one Cas9 nuclease-induced DSB in cell lines and primary cells by a p53-dependent mechanism. Altogether, these side effects may limit the promising perspectives of the CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease system for disease modeling and gene therapy. We show that the single nickase approach could be safer since it prevents on- and off-target indels and chromosomal truncations. These results demonstrate that the single nickase and not the nuclease approach is preferable, not only for modeling disease but also and more importantly for the safe management of future CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene therapies.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Desoxirribonuclease I/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Uroporfirinogênio III Sintetase/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Deleção Cromossômica , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Células HEK293 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Células K562 , Modelos Biológicos , Porfiria Eritropoética/genética , Porfiria Eritropoética/metabolismo , Porfiria Eritropoética/patologia , Porfiria Eritropoética/terapia , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Uroporfirinogênio III Sintetase/metabolismo
5.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(6): 464-470, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) may be isolated or associated with other malformations. The use of chromosome microarray (CMA) can increase the genetic diagnostic yield for CHDs by between 4% and 10%. The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of CMA after the prenatal diagnosis of an isolated CHD. METHODS: In a retrospective, nationwide study performed in France, we collected data on all cases of isolated CHD that had been explored using CMAs in 2015. RESULTS: A total of 239 fetuses were included and 33 copy number variations (CNVs) were reported; 19 were considered to be pathogenic, six were variants of unknown significance, and eight were benign variants. The anomaly detection rate was 10.4% overall but ranged from 0% to 16.7% as a function of the isolated CHD in question. The known CNVs were 22q11.21 deletions (n = 10), 22q11.21 duplications (n = 2), 8p23 deletions (n = 2), an Alagille syndrome (n = 1), and a Kleefstra syndrome (n = 1). CONCLUSION: The additional diagnostic yield was clinically significant (3.1%), even when anomalies in the 22q11.21 region were not taken into account. Hence, patients with a suspected isolated CHD and a normal karyotype must be screened for chromosome anomalies other than 22q11.21 duplications and deletions.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1030-1033, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903679

RESUMO

PUM1 has been very recently reported as responsible for a new form of developmental disorder named PADDAS syndrome. We describe here an additional patient with early onset developmental delay, epilepsy, microcephaly, and hair dysplasia, with a de novo heterozygous missense variant of PUM1: c.3439C > T, p.(Arg1147Trp). This variant was absent from databases and predicted deleterious by multiple softwares. The same missense variant has been reported by Gennarino et al., in a girl with much more severe epilepsy. Our report is in favor of a variable expressivity of PADDAS syndrome, and broadens the phenotypic spectrum with the description of hair dysplasia.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17492, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504818

RESUMO

Syndromes that display craniofacial anomalies comprise a major class of birth defects. Both genetic and environmental factors, including prenatal retinoic acid (RA) exposure, have been associated with these syndromes. While next generation sequencing has allowed the discovery of new genes implicated in these syndromes, some are still poorly characterized such as Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum (OAVS). Due to the lack of clear diagnosis for patients, developing new strategies to identify novel genes involved in these syndromes is warranted. Thus, our study aimed to explore the link between genetic and environmental factors. Owing to a similar phenotype of OAVS reported after gestational RA exposures in humans and animals, we explored RA targets in a craniofacial developmental context to reveal new candidate genes for these related disorders. Using a proteomics approach, we detected 553 dysregulated proteins in the head region of mouse embryos following their exposure to prenatal RA treatment. This novel proteomic approach implicates changes in proteins that are critical for cell survival/apoptosis and cellular metabolism which could ultimately lead to the observed phenotype. We also identified potential molecular links between three major environmental factors known to contribute to craniofacial defects including maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxia and RA exposure. Understanding these links could help reveal common key pathogenic mechanisms leading to craniofacial disorders. Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, this work identified two new RA targets, Gnai3 and Eftud2, proteins known to be involved in craniofacial disorders, highlighting the power of this proteomic approach to uncover new genes whose dysregulation leads to craniofacial defects.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374058

RESUMO

The organization of mammalian genomes into sub-megabase sized Topologically Associated Domains (TADs) has recently been revealed by techniques derived from Chromosome Conformation Capture (3 C), such as High Chromosome Contact map (Hi-C). Disruption of this organization by structural variations can lead to ectopic interactions between enhancers and promoters, and to alteration of genes expression patterns. This mechanism has already been described as the main pathophysiological mechanism in several syndromes with congenital malformations. We describe here the case of a fetus with a severe multiple congenital anomalies syndrome, including extensive polydactyly of the four limbs. This fetus carries a de novo deletion next to the IHH gene, encompassing a TAD boundary. Such an IHH TAD boundary deletion has already been described in the Dbf mouse model, which shows a quite similar, but less severe phenotype. We hypothesize that the deletion harbored by this fetus results in the same pathophysiological mechanisms as those of the Dbf model. The description of this case expands the spectrum of the disruption of chromatin architecture of WNT6/IHH/EPHA4/PAX3 locus, and could help to understand the mechanisms of chromatin interactions at this locus.

9.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 11(10): e006059, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias are frequent in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF), but their origin and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the involvement of left ventricular (LV) electrical and structural remodeling was assessed in an animal model mimicking rTOF sequelae. METHODS: Piglets underwent a tetralogy of Fallot repair-like surgery (n=6) or were sham operated (Sham, n=5). Twenty-three weeks post-surgery, cardiac function was assessed in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. Electrophysiological properties were characterized by optical mapping. LV fibrosis and connexin-43 localization were assessed on histological sections and protein expression assessed by Western Blot. RESULTS: Right ventricular dysfunction was evident, whereas LV function remained unaltered in rTOF pigs. Optical mapping showed longer action potential duration on the rTOF LV epicardium and endocardium. Epicardial conduction velocity was significantly reduced in the longitudinal direction in rTOF LVs but not in the transverse direction compared with Sham. An elevated collagen content was found in LV basal and apical sections from rTOF pigs. Moreover, a trend for connexin-43 lateralization with no change in protein expression was found in the LV of rTOFs. Finally, rTOF LVs had a lower threshold for arrhythmia induction using incremental pacing protocols. CONCLUSIONS: We found an arrhythmogenic substrate with prolonged heterogeneous action potential duration and reduced conduction velocity in the LV of rTOF pigs. This remodeling precedes LV dysfunction and is likely to contribute to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients with rTOF.

10.
Prenat Diagn ; 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of prenatal diagnosis using the chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for fetuses presenting with isolated or associated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHOD: We retrospectively included all fetuses with IUGR referred for prenatal testing and studied by rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), karyotype, and CMA. RESULTS: Among the 162 IUGR fetuses (78 associated and 84 isolated IUGR) included, 15 had an abnormal FISH result: 10 associated and five isolated fetal IUGRs. Among the 143 fetuses studied by CMA, 10 (7%) presented pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). All 10 were in the associated fetal IUGR group (10/65 or 15.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.4%-26.2%) versus 0/78 in the isolated fetal IUGR group (95% CI: 0%-5.6%). Six fetuses (4.2%) carried variants of unknown significance (VOUS) (three associated and three isolated fetal IUGRs). CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the added value of CMA in the case of associated fetal IUGR with an incremental yield of 6.1% (4/65) over karyotyping. No pathogenic CNVs were reported in the isolated fetal IUGR group. More studies must be conducted to determine when and whether CMA would be wisely indicated in this population.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate and evaluate an integrated protocol for non-invasive prenatal genetic screening (NIPS) for common fetal aneuploidies in a clinical setting, using the semiconductor sequencing technology, Ion Proton. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 2505 pregnant women from seven academic genetic laboratories (695 high risk pregnancies in a validation study and 1810 pregnancies with a risk higher than 1/250 without ultrasound anomalies, in a real NIPS clinical setting). Cell free DNA from plasma samples was sequenced using Ion Proton sequencer, and sequencing data were analyzed using the open-access software WISECONDOR. Performance metrics for detection of trisomies 21, 18 and 13, were calculated based on either fetal karyotype result or clinical data collected at birth. We also evaluated the failure rate and compared three methods of fetal fraction quantification (RASSF1A assay, DEFRAG and SANEFALCON software). RESULTS: Sensitivities and specificities were: 98.3% (95%CI: 93.5 - 99.7) and 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4 - 100) for T21, 96.7% (95%CI: 80.9 - 99.8) and 100% (95%CI: 99.6 - 100) for T18, 94.1% (95%CI: 69.2 - 99.7) and 100% (95%CI: 99.6 - 100) for T13. Our failure rate was 1.2% at first and as low as 0.6% after re-testing some of the failed samples. Fetal fraction estimation by RASSF1A assay was consistent with DEFRAG results, both of which are adequate for routine diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe one of the largest studies evaluating the Ion Proton based NIPS and the first clinical study reporting pregnancy outcome in a large set of patients. We demonstrate that this platform is highly efficient in detecting the three most common trisomies. Our protocol is robust and can be easily implemented in any medical genetics laboratory. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 34(7): 1091-1098, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488042

RESUMO

To evaluate the severity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) according to global, regional, and multi-layer longitudinal strain (LS) analysis using speckle-tracking echocardiography. From February 2007 to November 2014, we prospectively evaluated 375 consecutive HCM patients referred to our specialized cardiomyopathy center. Demographics, clinical, and rest and exercise echocardiographic parameters were collected according to a completely standardized protocol. Global, regional, and multilayer strain analyses were performed. Correlations between LS and other characteristics were evaluated, and we assessed their prognostic value to predict sudden cardiac death (SCD) or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks during follow-up, using Cox proportional hazards analyses. We finally included 217 patients (50.1 ± 15.6 years, 67% male) but only 179 (82%) had LS analysis of sufficient quality. An inverse relation was observed between the mean basal left ventricular (LV) LS and diastolic parameters [E/Ea (r = - 0.30) and left atrium indexed volume (r = - 0.23)], as well as between the resting LV outflow-tract maximal gradient (r = - 0.26) or during peak exercise (r = - 0.20). Mean LS in the LV hypertrophic area was particularly related with maximal wall thickness (r = - 0.47) and transmural global LS with the degree of myocardial fibrosis in cardiac magnetic resonance (r = - 0.32). During a median follow-up of 2.8 ± 1.5 years, mean transmural LS in the hypertrophic area was predictor of SCD and appropriate ICD shock (10 events/179 patients, hazard ratio = 0.83 [95% CI 0.72-0.95], p = 0.01). Basal LS and hypertrophic area LS are valuable parameters to evaluate HCM severity. Mean hypertrophic area LS particularly seems predictive of SCD occurrence and appropriate ICD shocks.

13.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 31(4): 466-474, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345414

RESUMO

Albinism is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by variable degrees of hypopigmentation and by nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia, and chiasmatic misrouting of the optic nerves. The wide phenotypic heterogeneity impedes the establishment of phenotype-genotype correlations. To obtain a precise diagnosis, we screened the 19 known albinism genes in 990 index patients using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. A molecular diagnosis was obtained in 72.32% of patients. A total of 243 new pathogenic variants were identified. Intragenic rearrangements represented 10.8% of all pathogenic alleles. NGS panel analysis allowed establishing a diagnosis for the rarest forms of the disease, which could not be diagnosed otherwise. Because of the clinical overlap between the different forms of the disease, diagnosis nowadays clearly relies on molecular grounds.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 85-93, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184170

RESUMO

Syndromes caused by copy number variations are described as reciprocal when they result from deletions or duplications of the same chromosomal region. When comparing the phenotypes of these syndromes, various clinical features could be described as reversed, probably due to the opposite effect of these imbalances on the expression of genes located at this locus. The NFIX gene codes for a transcription factor implicated in neurogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation. Microdeletions and loss of function variants of NFIX are responsible for Sotos syndrome-2 (also described as Malan syndrome), a syndromic form of intellectual disability associated with overgrowth and macrocephaly. Here, we report a cohort of nine patients harboring microduplications encompassing NFIX. These patients exhibit variable intellectual disability, short stature and small head circumference, which can be described as a reversed Sotos syndrome-2 phenotype. Strikingly, such a reversed phenotype has already been described in patients harboring microduplications encompassing NSD1, the gene whose deletions and loss-of-function variants are responsible for classical Sotos syndrome. Even though the type/contre-type concept has been criticized, this model seems to give a plausible explanation for the pathogenicity of 19p13 microduplications, and the common phenotype observed in our cohort.

15.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 19(1): 31-38, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28329285

RESUMO

Aims: Recent findings regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) haemodynamics emphasized the relationship between symptoms, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), and the preload condition as the venous return level. As various types of exercises have different effects on peripheral vascular beds, this study sought to compare upright treadmill exercise echocardiography (EE) to semi-supine bicycle EE in maximum provoked LVOTO in HCM patients. Methods and results: Semi-supine bicycle and upright treadmill EE were prospectively performed in HCM patients with New York Heart Association functional Class II. Maximal LVOT gradient at rest in the supine and standing position, and during Valsalva manoeuvre, LVOT gradients of both semi-supine bicycle and treadmill exercise at peak and post-exercise, maximal exercise levels, and blood pressure adaptation were recorded. One patient was excluded for not sufficient image quality during treadmill. We studied 22/23 patients (mean age: 54.9 ± 12.3 yrs; 55% male). The supine position at rest displayed a mean maximal LVOT gradient of 46.1 ± 44.8 mmHg, which increased to 51.6 ± 41.2 mmHg during Valsalva (P = 0.066), and to 55.1 ± 37.8 mmHg in the standing position (P = 0.053). Mean maximal peak exercise LVOT gradient with semi-supine bicycle was significantly lower than in treadmill EE (54.6 ± 38.2 mmHg vs. 87.5 ± 42.1 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01). Among these patients, 41% exhibited LVOT gradient ≥ 30 mmHg at rest. Moreover, 41% exhibited LVOT gradient ≥ 50 mmHg during Valsalva, 55% in resting standing position, 41% at peak semi-supine bicycle exercise, 91% at peak treadmill exercise, and 95% in standing position during treadmill recovery period. Conclusion: This pilot study may suggest treadmill's greater value compared to semi-supine bicycle EE for determining maximum LVOT gradient in HCM.

16.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(11): 605-609, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811189

RESUMO

Koolen-de Vries syndrome (MIM#610443) is a rare microdeletion syndrome involving the 17q21.31 region, which was first described by Koolen in 2006. Clinical and behavioral characteristics have been extensively reported from more than 100 postnatal cases including infants, children and young adults. The syndrome is highly clinically heterogeneous, but the main features associate characteristic cranio-facial dysmorphism, heart defects, limb, skeletal, genito-urinary anomalies, along with intellectual disability with early childhood epilepsy and behavioral disturbances. Central nervous system malformations usually consist in hydrocephalus and thin corpus callosum. We report herein an early fetal case with an apparently isolated abnormal corpus callosum diagnosed by ultrasonography, for which a medical termination of the pregnancy was achieved at 22 weeks of gestation. Postmortem examination displayed facial dysmorphism consisting of hypertelorism, short philtrum and flat and broad nose, cleft palate and left duplex ureter. Neuropathological examination revealed a mega corpus callosum that has never been reported so far in this syndrome. Array-CGH performed on thymic DNA tissue revealed a 17q21.31 microdeletion, which allowed for the confirmation of early occurring Koolen-de Vries syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adulto , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(9): 1083-1086, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612832

RESUMO

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a developmental disorder characterized by hemifacial microsomia associated with ear, eyes and vertebrae malformations showing highly variable expressivity. Recently, MYT1, encoding the myelin transcription factor 1, was reported as the first gene involved in OAVS, within the retinoic acid (RA) pathway. Fifty-seven OAVS patients originating from Brazil were screened for MYT1 variants. A novel de novo missense variant affecting function, c.323C>T (p.(Ser108Leu)), was identified in MYT1, in a patient presenting with a severe form of OAVS. Functional studies showed that MYT1 overexpression downregulated all RA receptors genes (RARA, RARB, RARG), involved in RA-mediated transcription, whereas no effect was observed on CYP26A1 expression, the major enzyme involved in RA degradation, Moreover, MYT1 variants impacted significantly the expression of these genes, further supporting their pathogenicity. In conclusion, a third variant affecting function in MYT1 was identified as a cause of OAVS. Furthermore, we confirmed MYT1 connection to RA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome de Goldenhar/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Síndrome de Goldenhar/diagnóstico , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/genética , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/genética , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(8): 930-934, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612834

RESUMO

Sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) is a group of conditions in which individuals have an abnormal number of sex chromosomes. SCA, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, XYY syndrome, and Triple X syndrome are associated with a large range of neurological outcome. Another genetic event such as another cytogenetic abnormality may explain a part of this variable expressivity. In this study, we have recruited fourteen patients with intellectual disability or developmental delay carrying SCA associated with a copy-number variant (CNV). In our cohort (four patients 47,XXY, four patients 47,XXX, and six patients 47,XYY), seven patients were carrying a pathogenic CNV, two a likely pathogenic CNV and five a variant of uncertain significance. Our analysis suggests that CNV might be considered as an additional independent genetic factor for intellectual disability and developmental delay for patients with SCA and neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Trissomia/genética , Cariótipo XYY/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Cariótipo XYY/diagnóstico
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