Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
1.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
4.
J Crit Care ; 56: 1-5, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Half of the patients experience pain during their ICU stay which is known to influence their outcomes. Nurses and physicians encounter organizational barriers towards pain assessment and treatment. We aimed to evaluate the association between adequate pain management and nurse to patient ratio, bed occupancy rate, and fulltime presence of an intensivist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed unadjusted and case-mix adjusted mixed-effect logistic regression modeling on data from thirteen Dutch ICUs to investigate the association between ICU organizational characteristics and adequate pain management, i.e. patient-shift observations in which patients' pain was measured and acceptable, or unacceptable and normalized within 1 h. All ICU patients admitted between December 2017 and June 2018 were included, excluding patients who were delirious, comatose or had a Glasgow coma score < 8 at the first day of ICU admission. RESULTS: Case-mix adjusted nurse to patient ratios of 0.70 to 0.80 and over 0.80 were significantly associated with adequate pain management (OR [95% confidence interval] of respectively 1.14 [1.07-1.21] and 1.16 [1.08-1.24]). Bed occupancy rate and intensivist presence showed no association. CONCLUSION: Higher nurse to patient ratios increase the percentage of patients with adequate pain management especially in medical and mechanically ventilated patients.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

6.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 90, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) is more effective if it facilitates action planning, but little is known about how best to do this. We developed an electronic A&F intervention with an action implementation toolbox to improve pain management in intensive care units (ICUs); the toolbox contained suggested actions for improvement. A head-to-head randomised trial demonstrated that the toolbox moderately increased the intervention's effectiveness when compared with A&F only. OBJECTIVE: To understand the mechanisms through which A&F with action implementation toolbox facilitates action planning by ICUs to increase A&F effectiveness. METHODS: We extracted all individual actions from action plans developed by ICUs that received A&F with (n = 10) and without (n = 11) toolbox for 6 months and classified them using Clinical Performance Feedback Intervention Theory. We held semi-structured interviews with participants during the trial. We compared the number and type of planned and completed actions between study groups and explored barriers and facilitators to effective action planning. RESULTS: ICUs with toolbox planned more actions directly aimed at improving practice (p = 0.037) and targeted a wider range of practice determinants compared to ICUs without toolbox. ICUs with toolbox also completed more actions during the study period, but not significantly (p = 0.142). ICUs without toolbox reported more difficulties in identifying what actions they could take. Regardless of the toolbox, all ICUs still experienced barriers relating to the feedback (low controllability, accuracy) and organisational context (competing priorities, resources, cost). CONCLUSIONS: The toolbox helped health professionals to broaden their mindset about actions they could take to change clinical practice. Without the toolbox, professionals tended to focus more on feedback verification and exploring solutions without developing intentions for actual change. All feedback recipients experienced organisational barriers that inhibited eventual completion of actions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02922101 . Registered on 26 September 2016.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Conhecimento Psicológico de Resultados , Auditoria Médica/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Processos Grupais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Auditoria Médica/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde
7.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 28(12): 1007-1015, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) enjoys widespread use, but often achieves only marginal improvements in care. Providing recipients of A&F with suggested actions to overcome barriers (action implementation toolbox) may increase effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of adding an action implementation toolbox to an electronic A&F intervention targeting quality of pain management in intensive care units (ICUs). TRIAL DESIGN: Two-armed cluster-randomised controlled trial. Randomisation was computer generated, with allocation concealment by a researcher, unaffiliated with the study. Investigators were not blinded to the group assignment of an ICU. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one Dutch ICUs and patients eligible for pain measurement. INTERVENTIONS: Feedback-only versus feedback with action implementation toolbox. OUTCOME: Proportion of patient-shift observations where pain management was adequate; composed by two process (measuring pain at least once per patient in each shift; re-measuring unacceptable pain scores within 1 hour) and two outcome indicators (acceptable pain scores; unacceptable pain scores normalised within 1 hour). RESULTS: 21 ICUs (feedback-only n=11; feedback-with-toolbox n=10) with a total of 253 530 patient-shift observations were analysed. We found absolute improvement on adequate pain management in the feedback-with-toolbox group (14.8%; 95% CI 14.0% to 15.5%) and the feedback-only group (4.8%; 95% CI 4.2% to 5.5%). Improvement was limited to the two process indicators. The feedback-with-toolbox group achieved larger effects than the feedback-only group both on the composite adequate pain management (p<0.05) and on measuring pain each shift (p<0.001). No important adverse effects have occurred. CONCLUSION: Feedback with toolbox improved the number of shifts where patients received adequate pain management compared with feedback alone, but only in process and not outcome indicators. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02922101.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Auditoria Médica , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Países Baixos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Dor , Melhoria de Qualidade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Crit Care ; 49: 136-142, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of pain assessment in Dutch ICUs and its room for improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a modified RAND method to develop pain assessment indicators. We measured performance on the indicators using retrospectively collected pain measurement data from Dutch ICUs, which are all mixed medical - surgical, of three months within October 2016-May 2017. We assessed the room for improvement, feasibility of data collection, and reliability of the indicators. RESULTS: We defined four pain assessment indicators. We analyzed 45,688 patient-shift observations from 15 ICUs. In 69.2% (IQR 58.7-84.9) of the patient-shifts pain was measured at least once (indicator 1); in 56.7% (IQR 49.6-73.5) pain scores were acceptable (indicator 2); in 11.7% (IQR 5.6-26.4) pain measurements with unacceptable scores were repeated within 1 h (indicator 3); and in 10.9% (IQR 5.1-20.1) unacceptable scores normalized within 1 h (indicator 4). We found data collection feasible because data were available for >79.3% of the admissions, and all indicators reliable as they produced consistent performance scores. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variation in pain assessment across Dutch ICUs, and ample room for improvement. With this study we took a first step towards quality assurance of pain assessment in Dutch ICUs.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/normas , Estado Terminal/terapia , Medição da Dor/normas , Dor/prevenção & controle , Coleta de Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207991, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extensive antibiotic use makes the intensive care unit (ICU) an important focus for antibiotic stewardship programs. The aim of this study was to develop a set of actionable quality indicators for appropriate antibiotic use at ICUs and an implementation toolbox, which can be used to assess and improve the appropriateness of antibiotic use in the treatment of adult patients at an ICU. METHODS: A four round modified-RAND Delphi procedure was used. Potential indicators were identified by a multidisciplinary panel of 15 Dutch experts, from international literature and guidelines. Using an online survey, the identified indicators were rated on three criteria: relevance, actionability and feasibility. Experts discussed and rated the indicators for the second time during a face-to-face consensus meeting. During a final consensus meeting the toolbox was developed, containing potential barriers and improvement strategies which were identified using a validated checklist by Flottorp et al., and if available also containing supporting material. RESULTS: The first round resulted in 24 potential indicators. After the final meeting a set of three process indicators, one structure indicator and one quantity metric remained: 1) perform at least two sets of blood cultures before start of empirical systemic therapy; 2) perform therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated with vancomycin or aminoglycosides; 3) perform surveillance cultures if selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination is applied at the ICU; 4) biannual face-to-face meetings between ICU and microbiology staff in which local resistance rates are discussed; and 5) quantitative antibiotic use at the ICU expressed in days of therapy (DOT). The toolbox contains 24 unique barriers and 37 improvement strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a set of four actionable quality indicators and one quantity metric, together with an implementation toolbox, to improve appropriate antibiotic use at ICUs.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Países Baixos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Implement Sci ; 13(1): 33, 2018 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback aims to guide health professionals in improving aspects of their practice that need it most. Evidence suggests that feedback fails to increase accuracy of professional perceptions about clinical performance, which likely reduces audit and feedback effectiveness. This study investigates health professionals' perceptions about their clinical performance and the influence of feedback on their intentions to change practice. METHODS: We conducted an online laboratory experiment guided by Control Theory with 72 intensive care professionals from 21 units. For each of four new pain management indicators, we collected professionals' perceptions about their clinical performance; peer performance; targets; and improvement intentions before and after receiving first-time feedback. An electronic audit and feedback dashboard provided ICU's own performance, median and top 10% peer performance, and improvement recommendations. The experiment took place approximately 1 month before units enrolled into a cluster-randomised trial assessing the impact of adding a toolbox with suggested actions and materials to improve intensive care pain management. During the experiment, the toolbox was inaccessible; all participants accessed the same version of the dashboard. RESULTS: We analysed 288 observations. In 53.8%, intensive care professionals overestimated their clinical performance; but in only 13.5%, they underestimated it. On average, performance was overestimated by 22.9% (on a 0-100% scale). Professionals similarly overestimated peer performance, and set targets 20.3% higher than the top performance benchmarks. In 68.4% of cases, intentions to improve practice were consistent with actual gaps in performance, even before professionals had received feedback; which increased to 79.9% after receiving feedback (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.78). However, in 56.3% of cases, professionals still wanted to improve care aspects at which they were already top performers. Alternatively, in 8.3% of cases, they lacked improvement intentions because they did not consider indicators important; did not trust the data; or deemed benchmarks unrealistic. CONCLUSIONS: Audit and feedback helps health professionals to work on aspects for which improvement is recommended. Given the abundance of professionals' prior good improvement intentions, the limited effects typically found by audit and feedback studies are likely predominantly caused by barriers to translation of intentions into actual change in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02922101 . Registered 26 September 2016.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Intenção , Auditoria Médica , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Dor
11.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(4): pky078, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873510

RESUMO

Background: Full-term pregnancy (FTP) is associated with a reduced breast cancer (BC) risk over time, but women are at increased BC risk in the immediate years following an FTP. No large prospective studies, however, have examined whether the number and timing of pregnancies are associated with BC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: Using weighted and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models, we investigated whether reproductive events are associated with BC risk for mutation carriers using a retrospective cohort (5707 BRCA1 and 3525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and a prospective cohort (2276 BRCA1 and 1610 BRCA2 mutation carriers), separately for each cohort and the combined prospective and retrospective cohort. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was no overall association with parity compared with nulliparity (combined hazard ratio [HRc] = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.18). Relative to being uniparous, an increased number of FTPs was associated with decreased BC risk (HRc = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.91; HRc = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.82; HRc = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.63, for 2, 3, and ≥4 FTPs, respectively, P trend < .0001) and increasing duration of breastfeeding was associated with decreased BC risk (combined cohort P trend = .0003). Relative to being nulliparous, uniparous BRCA1 mutation carriers were at increased BC risk in the prospective analysis (prospective hazard ration [HRp] = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.62). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, being parous was associated with a 30% increase in BC risk (HRc = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.69), and there was no apparent decrease in risk associated with multiparity except for having at least 4 FTPs vs. 1 FTP (HRc = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98). Conclusions: These findings suggest differential associations with parity between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with higher risk for uniparous BRCA1 carriers and parous BRCA2 carriers.

12.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(2): pky023, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360853

RESUMO

Background: For BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the association between oral contraceptive preparation (OCP) use and breast cancer (BC) risk is still unclear. Methods: Breast camcer risk associations were estimated from OCP data on 6030 BRCA1 and 3809 BRCA2 mutation carriers using age-dependent Cox regression, stratified by study and birth cohort. Prospective, left-truncated retrospective and full-cohort retrospective analyses were performed. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, OCP use was not associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.56), but in the left-truncated and full-cohort retrospective analyses, risks were increased by 26% (95% CI = 6% to 51%) and 39% (95% CI = 23% to 58%), respectively. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, OCP use was associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (HR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.97), but retrospective analyses were inconsistent (left-truncated: HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.33; full cohort: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.81). There was evidence of increasing risk with duration of use, especially before the first full-term pregnancy (BRCA1: both retrospective analyses, P < .001 and P = .001, respectively; BRCA2: full retrospective analysis, P = .002). Conclusions: Prospective analyses did not show that past use of OCP is associated with an increased BC risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers in young middle-aged women (40-50 years). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, a causal association is also not likely at those ages. Findings between retrospective and prospective analyses were inconsistent and could be due to survival bias or a true association for younger women who were underrepresented in the prospective cohort. Given the uncertain safety of long-term OCP use for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, indications other than contraception should be avoided and nonhormonal contraceptive methods should be discussed.

13.
JAMA ; 317(23): 2402-2416, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632866

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. Objectives: To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. Exposures: BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Results: Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%) for BRCA1 and 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) for BRCA2 carriers. For contralateral breast cancer, the cumulative risk 20 years after breast cancer diagnosis was 40% (95% CI, 35%-45%) for BRCA1 and 26% (95% CI, 20%-33%) for BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] for comparing BRCA2 vs BRCA1, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P=.001 for difference). Breast cancer risk increased with increasing number of first- and second-degree relatives diagnosed as having breast cancer for both BRCA1 (HR for ≥2 vs 0 affected relatives, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.82; P<.001 for trend) and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.37; P=.02 for trend). Breast cancer risk was higher if mutations were located outside vs within the regions bounded by positions c.2282-c.4071 in BRCA1 (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93; P=.007) and c.2831-c.6401 in BRCA2 (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74; P<.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide estimates of cancer risk based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status using prospective data collection and demonstrate the potential importance of family history and mutation location in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Implement Sci ; 12(1): 68, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback is often used as a strategy to improve quality of care, however, its effects are variable and often marginal. In order to learn how to design and deliver effective feedback, we need to understand their mechanisms of action. This theory-informed study will investigate how electronic audit and feedback affects improvement intentions (i.e. information-intention gap), and whether an action implementation toolbox with suggested actions and materials helps translating those intentions into action (i.e. intention-behaviour gap). The study will be executed in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs) and will be focused on pain management. METHODS AND DESIGN: We will conduct a laboratory experiment with individual ICU professionals to assess the impact of feedback on their intentions to improve practice. Next, we will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial with ICUs allocated to feedback without or feedback with action implementation toolbox group. Participants will not be told explicitly what aspect of the intervention is randomised; they will only be aware that there are two variations of providing feedback. ICUs are eligible for participation if they submit indicator data to the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE) quality registry and agree to allocate a quality improvement team that spends 4 h per month on the intervention. All participating ICUs will receive access to an online quality dashboard that provides two functionalities: gaining insight into clinical performance on pain management indicators and developing action plans. ICUs with access to the toolbox can develop their action plans guided by a list of potential barriers in the care process, associated suggested actions, and supporting materials to facilitate implementation of the actions. The primary outcome measure for the laboratory experiment is the proportion of improvement intentions set by participants that are consistent with recommendations based on peer comparisons; for the randomised trial it is the proportion of patient shifts during which pain has been adequately managed. We will also conduct a process evaluation to understand how the intervention is implemented and used in clinical practice, and how implementation and use affect the intervention's impact. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will inform care providers and managers in ICU and other clinical settings how to use indicator-based performance feedback in conjunction with an action implementation toolbox to improve quality of care. Within the ICU context, this study will produce concrete and directly applicable knowledge with respect to what is or is not effective for improving pain management, and under which circumstances. The results will further guide future research that aims to understand the mechanisms behind audit and feedback and contribute to identifying the active ingredients of successful interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02922101 . Registered 26 September 2016.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/normas , Retroalimentação , Auditoria Médica/normas , Manejo da Dor/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Países Baixos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 235: 584-588, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28423860

RESUMO

Audit and feedback (A&F) is a common strategy to improve quality of care. Meta-analyses have indicated that A&F may be more effective in realizing desired change when baseline performance is low, it is delivered by a supervisor or colleague, it is provided frequently and in a timely manner, it is delivered in both verbal and written formats, and it includes specific targets and an action plan. However, there is little information to guide operationalization of these factors. Researchers have consequently called for A&F interventions featuring well-described and carefully justified components, with their theoretical rationale made explicit. This paper describes the rationale and development of a quality dashboard including an improvement toolbox for four previous developed pain indicators, guided by Control Theory.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Manejo da Dor , Melhoria de Qualidade , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Internet , Países Baixos
17.
Crit Care ; 19: 348, 2015 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26415731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arterial concentrations of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) during admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may substantially affect organ perfusion and outcome after cardiac arrest. Our aim was to investigate the independent and synergistic effects of both parameters on hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a cohort study using data from mechanically ventilated cardiac arrest patients in the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE) registry between 2007 and 2012. PaCO2 and PaO2 levels from arterial blood gas analyses corresponding to the worst oxygenation in the first 24 h of ICU stay were retrieved for analyses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between hospital mortality and both categorized groups and a spline-based transformation of the continuous values of PaCO2 and PaO2. RESULTS: In total, 5,258 cardiac arrest patients admitted to 82 ICUs in the Netherlands were included. In the first 24 h of ICU admission, hypocapnia was encountered in 22 %, and hypercapnia in 35 % of included cases. Hypoxia and hyperoxia were observed in 8 % and 3 % of the patients, respectively. Both PaCO2 and PaO2 had an independent U-shaped relationship with hospital mortality and after adjustment for confounders, hypocapnia and hypoxia were significant predictors of hospital mortality: OR 1.37 (95 % CI 1.17-1.61) and OR 1.34 (95 % CI 1.08-1.66). A synergistic effect of concurrent derangements of PaCO2 and PaO2 was not observed (P = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: The effects of aberrant arterial carbon dioxide and arterial oxygen concentrations were independently but not synergistically associated with hospital mortality after cardiac arrest.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Oxigênio/sangue , Ressuscitação/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/sangue , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipercapnia/etiologia , Hipercapnia/mortalidade , Hiperóxia/etiologia , Hiperóxia/mortalidade , Hipocapnia/etiologia , Hipocapnia/mortalidade , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 210: 429-33, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25991180

RESUMO

Previously developed quality indicators (QIs) for the intensive care did not give clues for quality improvement. We will improve this by developing new QIs that are actionable, reliable, valid and easy to register. Using a modified RAND technique we developed in three rounds new QIs for blood use at Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). The final set of QIs will be part of the National Intensive Care Evaluation quality registry and evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. In addition, a web-based feedback tool containing strategies for quality improvement will be developed. With the results of this project we hope to improve and maintain good quality of care at the Dutch ICUs .


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/classificação , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Países Baixos
19.
Crit Care Med ; 43(7): 1508-19, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25855899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oxygen is vital during critical illness, but hyperoxia may harm patients. Our aim was to systematically evaluate the methodology and findings of cohort studies investigating the effects of hyperoxia in critically ill adults. DATA SOURCE: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of cohort studies published between 2008 and 2015 was conducted. Electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were systematically searched for the keywords hyperoxia and mortality or outcome. STUDY SELECTION: Publications assessing the effect of arterial hyperoxia on outcome in critically ill adults (≥ 18 yr) admitted to critical care units were eligible. We excluded studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, extracorporeal life support or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and animal studies. Due to a lack of data, no studies dedicated to patients with acute lung injury, sepsis, shock, or multiple trauma could be included. DATA EXTRACTION: Studies were included independent of admission diagnosis and definition of hyperoxia. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality, and results were stratified for relevant subgroups (cardiac arrest, traumatic brain injury, stroke, post-cardiac surgery, and any mechanical ventilation). The effects of arterial oxygenation on functional outcome, long-term mortality, and discharge variables were studied as secondary outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-four studies were included of which five studies were only for a subset of the analyses. Nineteen studies were pooled for meta-analyses and showed that arterial hyperoxia during admission increases hospital mortality: adjusted odds ratio, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.08-1.37) (p = 0.001). Functional outcome measures were diverse and generally showed a more favorable outcome for normoxia. CONCLUSIONS: In various subsets of critically ill patients, arterial hyperoxia was associated with poor hospital outcome. Considering the substantial heterogeneity of included studies and the lack of a clinical definition, more evidence is needed to provide optimal oxygen targets to critical care physicians.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Hiperóxia/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Prognóstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...