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1.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 22 Suppl 1: 207-212, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074157

RESUMO

There is ample evidence from heritability studies, genetic syndromes and experimental animal models that facial morphology is strongly influenced by genes. In this brief review, we present an up-to-date overview of the efforts to identify genes associated with the size and shape of human facial features. We discuss recent methodological advances that have led to breakthroughs, but also the multitude of challenges facing the field. We offer perspective on possible applications of this line of research, particularly in the context of the precision genomics movement.

2.
Front Genet ; 9: 497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405702

RESUMO

Many factors influence human facial morphology, including genetics, age, nutrition, biomechanical forces, and endocrine factors. Moreover, facial features clearly differ between males and females, and these differences are driven primarily by the influence of sex hormones during growth and development. Specific genetic variants are known to influence circulating sex hormone levels in humans, which we hypothesize, in turn, affect facial features. In this study, we investigated the effects of testosterone-related genetic variants on facial morphology. We tested 32 genetic variants across 22 candidate genes related to levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in three cohorts of healthy individuals for which 3D facial surface images were available (Pittsburgh 3DFN, Penn State and ALSPAC cohorts; total n = 7418). Facial shape was described using a recently developed extension of the dense-surface correspondence approach, in which the 3D facial surface was partitioned into a set of 63 hierarchically organized modules. Each variant was tested against each of the facial surface modules in a multivariate genetic association-testing framework and meta-analyzed. Additionally, the association between these candidate SNPs and five facial ratios was investigated in the Pittsburgh 3DFN cohort. Two significant associations involving intronic variants of SHBG were found: both rs12150660 (p = 1.07E-07) and rs1799941 (p = 6.15E-06) showed an effect on mandible shape. Rs8023580 (an intronic variant of NR2F2-AS1) showed an association with the total and upper facial width to height ratios (p = 9.61E-04 and p = 7.35E-04, respectively). These results indicate that testosterone-related genetic variants affect normal-range facial morphology, and in particular, facial features known to exhibit strong sexual dimorphism in humans.

3.
Front Genet ; 9: 502, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410503

RESUMO

Objectives: Orofacial clefting is one of the most prevalent craniofacial malformations. Previous research has demonstrated that unaffected relatives of patients with non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P) show distinctive facial features, which can be an expression of underlying NSCL/P susceptibility genes. These results support the hypothesis that genes involved in the occurrence of a cleft also play a role in normal craniofacial development. In this study, we investigated the influence of genetic variants associated with NSCL/P on normal-range variation in facial shape. Methods: A literature review of genome wide association studies (GWAS) investigating the genetic etiology of NSCL/P was performed, resulting in a list of 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 38 genetic loci. Genotype data were available for 65 of these selected SNPs in three datasets with a combined sample size of 7,418 participants of European ancestry, whose 3D facial images were also available. The effect of each SNP was tested using a multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA) against 63 hierarchically-constructed facial segments in each of the three datasets and meta-analyzed. This allowed for the investigation of associations between SNPs known to be involved in NSCL/P and normal-range facial shape variations in a global-to-local perspective, without preselecting specific facial shape features or characteristics. Results: Six NSCL/P SNPs showed significant associations with variation in normal-range facial morphology. rs6740960 showed significant effects in the chin area (p = 3.71 × 10-28). This SNP lies in a non-coding area. Another SNP, rs227731 near the NOG gene, showed a significant effect in the philtrum area (p = 1.96 × 10-16). Three SNPs showed significant effects on the shape of the nose. rs742071 (p = 8.71 × 10-14), rs34246903 (p = 6.87 × 10-12), and rs10512248 (p = 8.4 × 10-9). Respectively, these SNPs are annotated to PAX7, MSX1, and PTCH1. Finally, rs7590268, an intron variant of THADA, showed an effect in the shape of the supraorbital ridge (p = 3.84 × 10-7). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence NSCL/P-associated genetic variants influence normal-range craniofacial morphology, with significant effects observed for the chin, the nose, the supraorbital ridges and the philtrum area.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345654

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic orofacial clefting is one of the most frequently occurring congenital conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and nature of reduced olfactory function in patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCL/P) and their unaffected first-degree relatives. Olfactory function was tested using the Sniffin' Sticks identification test in patients with NSCL/P, in their unaffected relatives, and in control subjects. MR imaging was performed to measure olfactory bulb (OB) volumes and olfactory sulcus (OS) depths. A reduced olfactory function was seen in significantly more patients with NSCL/P (p = .002) than in control subjects, regardless of the cleft type. Strikingly, unaffected relatives of patients with NSCL/P also had a higher rate of hyposmia (p = .001). In hyposmic patients, the OB volumes (left: p = .01 and right: p = .003) and the depth of the left OS (p = .02) were significantly smaller than in controls. In hyposmic relatives, both OS depths (left: p = .02 and right: p = .03) were significantly smaller. Patients with NSCL/P and their unaffected relatives have an increased prevalence of reduced olfactory function, associated with changes in the central olfactory structures.

5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8470, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855589

RESUMO

Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) occurs when the muscular soft palate (velum) and lateral pharyngeal walls are physically unable to separate the oral and nasal cavities during speech production leading to hypernasality and abnormal speech reduction. Because VPD is often associated with overt or submucous cleft palate, it could be present as a subclinical phenotype in families with a history of orofacial clefting. A key assumption to this model is that the overt and subclinical manifestations of the orofacial cleft phenotype exist on a continuum and therefore share common etiological factors. We performed a genome-wide association study in 976 unaffected relatives of isolated CP probands, 54 of whom had VPD. Five loci were significantly (p < 5 × 10-8) associated with VPD: 3q29, 9p21.1, 12q21.31, 16p12.3 and 16p13.3. An additional 15 loci showing suggestive evidence of association with VPD were observed. Several genes known to be involved in orofacial clefting and craniofacial development are located in these regions, such as TFRC, PCYT1A, BNC2 and FREM1. Although further research is necessary, this could be an indication for a potential shared genetic architecture between VPD and cleft palate, and supporting the hypothesis that VPD is a subclinical phenotype of orofacial clefting.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196148, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698431

RESUMO

The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the genetic basis of normal vault shape in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on three vault measures (maximum cranial width [MCW], maximum cranial length [MCL], and cephalic index [CI]) in a sample of 4419 healthy individuals of European ancestry. All measures were adjusted by sex, age, and body size, then tested for association with genetic variants spanning the genome. GWAS results for the two cohorts were combined via meta-analysis. Significant associations were observed at two loci: 15p11.2 (lead SNP rs2924767, p = 2.107 × 10-8) for MCW and 17q11.2 (lead SNP rs72841279, p = 5.29 × 10-9) for MCL. Additionally, 32 suggestive loci (p < 5x10-6) were observed. Several candidate genes were located in these loci, such as NLK, MEF2A, SOX9 and SOX11. Genome-wide linkage analysis of cranial vault shape in mice (N = 433) was performed to follow-up the associated candidate loci identified in the human GWAS. Two loci, 17q11.2 (c11.loc44 in mice) and 17q25.1 (c11.loc74 in mice), associated with cranial vault size in humans, were also linked with cranial vault size in mice (LOD scores: 3.37 and 3.79 respectively). These results provide further insight into genetic pathways and mechanisms underlying normal variation in human craniofacial morphology.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Crânio/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1296-1303, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663709

RESUMO

The biological relatives of offspring with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have been shown to exhibit distinctive facial features, including excess asymmetry, which are hypothesized to indicate the presence of genetic risk factors. The significance of excess soft tissue nasal asymmetry in at-risk relatives is unclear and was examined in the present study. Our sample included 164 unaffected parents from families with a history of orofacial clefting and 243 adult controls. Geometric morphometric methods were used to analyze the coordinates of 15 nasal landmarks collected from three-dimensional facial surface images. Following generalized Procrustes analysis, Procrustes ANOVA and MANOVA tests were applied to determine the type and magnitude of nasal asymmetry present in each group. Group differences in mean nasal asymmetry were also assessed via permutation testing. We found that nasal asymmetry in both parents and controls was directional in nature, although the magnitude of the asymmetry was greater in parents. This was confirmed with permutation testing, where the mean nasal asymmetry was significantly different (p < .0001) between parents and controls. The asymmetry was greatest for midline structures and the nostrils. When subsets of parents were subsequently analyzed and compared (parents with bilateral vs. unilateral offspring; parents with left vs. right unilateral offspring), each group showed a similar pattern of asymmetry and could not be distinguished statistically. Thus, the side of the unilateral cleft (right vs. left) in offspring was not associated with the direction of the nasal asymmetry in parents.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 414-423, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459680

RESUMO

Genome-wide association scans of complex multipartite traits like the human face typically use preselected phenotypic measures. Here we report a data-driven approach to phenotyping facial shape at multiple levels of organization, allowing for an open-ended description of facial variation while preserving statistical power. In a sample of 2,329 persons of European ancestry, we identified 38 loci, 15 of which replicated in an independent European sample (n = 1,719). Four loci were completely new. For the others, additional support (n = 9) or pleiotropic effects (n = 2) were found in the literature, but the results reported here were further refined. All 15 replicated loci highlighted distinctive patterns of global-to-local genetic effects on facial shape and showed enrichment for active chromatin elements in human cranial neural crest cells, suggesting an early developmental origin of the facial variation captured. These results have implications for studies of facial genetics and other complex morphological traits.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 913-924, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198719

RESUMO

The genetic basis of earlobe attachment has been a matter of debate since the early 20th century, such that geneticists argue both for and against polygenic inheritance. Recent genetic studies have identified a few loci associated with the trait, but large-scale analyses are still lacking. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of lobe attachment in a multiethnic sample of 74,660 individuals from four cohorts (three with the trait scored by an expert rater and one with the trait self-reported). Meta-analysis of the three expert-rater-scored cohorts revealed six associated loci harboring numerous candidate genes, including EDAR, SP5, MRPS22, ADGRG6 (GPR126), KIAA1217, and PAX9. The large self-reported 23andMe cohort recapitulated each of these six loci. Moreover, meta-analysis across all four cohorts revealed a total of 49 significant (p < 5 × 10-8) loci. Annotation and enrichment analyses of these 49 loci showed strong evidence of genes involved in ear development and syndromes with auricular phenotypes. RNA sequencing data from both human fetal ear and mouse second branchial arch tissue confirmed that genes located among associated loci showed evidence of expression. These results provide strong evidence for the polygenic nature of earlobe attachment and offer insights into the biological basis of normal and abnormal ear development.


Assuntos
Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Região Branquial/anatomia & histologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor Edar/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(11): 2886-2892, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884971

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are complex traits characterized by multifactorial inheritance and wide phenotypic variability. Numerous studies have shown subtle differences in the faces of unaffected relatives from cleft families compared to controls, the implication being that such outward differences are an incomplete expression reflecting an underlying genetic predisposition. Twins discordant for OFCs provide a unique opportunity to further test this idea, as the unaffected co-twin shares on average 50% (for dizygotic twins) and 100% (for monozygotic twins) of the genetic risk factors as the affected twin. We used 3D surface imaging and spatially-dense morphometry to compare facial shape in a sample of 44 unaffected co-twins and age- and sex-matched unaffected controls (n = 241). Unaffected co-twins showed statistically significant differences in the midface, lateral upper face, and forehead regions, compared to controls. Furthermore, co-twins were characterized by a distinct pattern of midfacial retrusion, broader upper faces, and greater protrusion of the mandible and brow ridges. This same general facial pattern was shown in both unaffected monozygotic and dizygotic co-twin subsets. These results provide additional support that altered facial shape is a phenotypic marker for OFC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Face/fisiopatologia , Mandíbula/anormalidades , Nariz/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cefalometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/anormalidades , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 106(8): 675-84, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27150573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research regarding the etiology of birth defects and childhood cancer is essential to develop preventive measures, but often requires large study populations. Therefore, we established the AGORA data- and biobank in the Netherlands. In this study, we describe its rationale, design, and ongoing data collection. METHODS: Children diagnosed with and/or treated for a structural birth defect or childhood cancer and their parents are invited to participate in the AGORA data- and biobank. Controls are recruited through random sampling from municipal registries. The parents receive questionnaires about demographics, family and pregnancy history, health status, prescribed medication, lifestyle, and occupational exposures before and during the index pregnancy. In addition, blood or saliva is collected from children and parents, while medical records are reviewed for diagnostic information. RESULTS: So far, we have collected data from over 6,860 families (3,747 birth defects, 905 childhood cancers, and 2,208 controls). The types of birth defects vary widely and comprise malformations of the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as facial, cardiovascular, kidney, skeletal, and central nervous system anomalies. The most frequently occurring childhood cancer types are acute lymphatic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilms' tumor, and brain and spinal cord tumors. Our genetic and/or epidemiologic studies have been focused on hypospadias, anorectal malformations, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), and orofacial clefts. CONCLUSION: The large AGORA data- and biobank offers great opportunities for investigating genetic and nongenetic risk factors for disorders in children and is open to collaborative initiatives. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:675-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/classificação , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/classificação , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Genet Med ; 18(11): 1158-1162, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26963285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to identify a novel genetic cause of tooth agenesis (TA) and/or orofacial clefting (OFC) by combining whole-exome sequencing (WES) and targeted resequencing in a large cohort of TA and OFC patients. METHODS: WES was performed in two unrelated patients: one with severe TA and OFC and another with severe TA only. After deleterious mutations were identified in a gene encoding low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), all its exons were resequenced with molecular inversion probes in 67 patients with TA, 1,072 patients with OFC, and 706 controls. RESULTS: We identified a frameshift (c.4594delG, p.Cys1532fs) and a canonical splice-site mutation (c.3398-2A>C, p.?) in LRP6, respectively, in the patient with TA and OFC and in the patient with severe TA only. The targeted resequencing showed significant enrichment of unique LRP6 variants in TA patients but not in nonsyndromic OFC patients. Of the five variants in patients with TA, two affected the canonical splice site and three were missense variants; all variants segregated with the dominant phenotype, and in one case the missense mutation occurred de novo. CONCLUSION: Mutations in LRP6 cause TA in humans.Genet Med 18 11, 1158-1162.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína-6 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Adolescente , Anodontia/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 3054578, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053980

RESUMO

The craniofacial complex is the billboard of sorts containing information about sex, health, ancestry, kinship, genes, and environment. A thorough knowledge of the genes underlying craniofacial morphology is fundamental to understanding craniofacial biology and evolution. These genes can also provide an important foundation for practical efforts like predicting faces from DNA and phenotype-based facial diagnostics. In this work, we focus on the various sources of knowledge regarding the genes that affect patterns of craniofacial development. Although tremendous successes recently have been made using these sources in both methodology and biology, many challenges remain. Primary among these are precise phenotyping techniques and efficient modeling methods.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Genética Populacional , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Morfogênese/genética , Genótipo , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Fenótipo
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 134(6): 1285-92, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25415095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging facial plastic procedures. Although patient satisfaction is the real outcome parameter in rhinoplasty, most authors have studied objective outcomes evaluated by professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine patient satisfaction after rhinoplasty in patients born with a cleft lip compared with outcome assessment by professionals, and to assess the impact of the procedure on appearance-related distress and generic quality of life. METHODS: Patient evaluation of the nose was performed before and 1 year after secondary cleft rhinoplasty (n = 33) using a visual analogue scale for nasal function and shape, and the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation. General sinonasal complaints were evaluated using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. Appearance-related psychological distress was measured using the Derriford Appearance Scale. The Sheehan Disability Scale evaluated quality of life. Aesthetic outcome was evaluated by scoring of preoperative and postoperative photographs by two independent surgeons. RESULTS: One year postoperatively, patients showed significantly higher visual analogue scale scores for nasal shape (p < 0.0001) and function (p = 0.005) and higher Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (p < 0.0001) scores. Correspondingly, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores were lower (p = 0.006). The appearance-related psychological distress was lower (p < 0.0001), and the generic quality of life was increased after rhinoplasty (p = 0.01). No correlation was found between patient outcome evaluation and surgeons' scores. CONCLUSION: There is high patient satisfaction at 12 months after secondary cleft rhinoplasty, resulting in a significant improvement of self-esteem and generic quality of life.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/complicações , Nariz/anormalidades , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Rinoplastia/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Fenda Labial/psicologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinoplastia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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