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1.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(12): 1392-1401, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647580

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity has consistently been shown to improve cardiovascular health and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. However, only small and heterogeneous studies have investigated the effect of exercise on high-density lipoprotein functions. Our aim is to evaluate, in the largest observational study to date, the association between leisure time physical activity and a range of high-density lipoprotein functional traits. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 296 Spanish adults at high cardiovascular risk. Usual leisure time physical activity and eight measures of high-density lipoprotein functionality were averaged over two measurements, one year apart. Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the association between leisure time physical activity (exposure) and each high-density lipoprotein functional trait (outcome), adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Higher levels of leisure time physical activity were positively and linearly associated with average levels over one year of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity, high-density lipoprotein capacity to esterify cholesterol and cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals free of type 2 diabetes only. The increased cholesterol esterification index with increasing leisure time physical activity reached a plateau at around 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day. In individuals with diabetes, the relationship with cholesteryl ester transfer protein followed a U-shape, with a decreased cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity from 0 to 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day, but increasing from there onwards. Increasing levels of leisure time physical activity were associated with poorer high-density lipoprotein vasodilatory capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In a high cardiovascular risk population, leisure time physical activity was associated not only with greater circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but also with better markers of high-density lipoprotein functionality, namely cholesterol efflux capacity, the capacity of high-density lipoprotein to esterify cholesterol and paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity in individuals free of diabetes and lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

2.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 24(6): 511-520, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596061

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological findings and results of randomized clinical trials in the last two decades have identified diet as a modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline, a predementia stage that is increasing worldwide as population ages. The literature on this critical association is expanding, making this review relevant and timely. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from 15 trials and several systematic reviews/meta-analyses indicate that, in healthy older adults, isolated nutrients or antioxidant-rich foods usually fail to improve cognition. However, studies targeting populations at risk of cognitive decline tend to have positive results. There is ample epidemiological evidence of cognitive benefit from plant-based dietary patterns (i.e., Mediterranean diet), but more clinical trials are needed. Long-term multicomponent trials, simultaneously targeting several risk factors in patients with early dementia stages, offer promising evidence. A long-term multinutrient intervention in patients at risk for dementia appears as a sound preventive strategy. SUMMARY: This review summarizes the latest evidence on nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as tools to improve cognition and promote brain health. Dietary changes are important to help delay cognitive decline, particularly in populations more at risk. Large-scale strategies based on healthy diets combined with other health-promoting lifestyle changes should be a public health priority.

3.
J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell membrane fatty acid composition has been related to inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Dysregulation of HDL functionis also considered a cardiovascular risk factor. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether the content of cell membrane fatty acids and HDL functionality are linked to each other as well as to inflammation. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis involved 259 participants (67.9 y) with overweight/obesity (body mass index 29.5 kg/m2) from a coronary heart disease case-control study nested within the PREDIMED trial for which HDL functional parameters (Apolipoproteins (Apo) A-1, A-IV and C-III, cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), HDL oxidative inflammatory index (HOII), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), serum amyloid A (SAA) and complement-3 (C3) protein) were quantified. We also assessed 22 fatty acids in blood cell membranes using gas chromatography and inflammatory markers (interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukins (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in serum. Associations of HDL-related variables with cell membrane fatty acids and with inflammatory markers were assessed using multivariable linear regression analyses with elastic net penalty. RESULTS: ApoA-1, ApoC-III, CEC, HOII, S1P, and SAA, but not ApoA-IV and C3 protein, were associated with membrane fatty acids. S1P and SAA were directly associated with IL-6, while ApoA-1 and C3 protein showed inverse association with IL-6. Specific fatty acids including 14:0 and long chain n-6 fatty acids being negatively and positively, respectively, associated with IL-8 were also found to be positively associated with SAA. CONCLUSION: This study suggests interrelationships between indicators of inflammation and both blood cell membrane fatty acid composition and HDL structure/functional parameters in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579146

RESUMO

Common nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are energy-dense foods that nature has gifted with a complex matrix of beneficial nutrients and bioactives, including monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, high-quality protein, fiber, non-sodium minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and antioxidant phenolics. These nut components synergize to favorably influence metabolic and vascular physiology pathways, ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors and improve cardiovascular prognosis. There is increasing evidence that nuts positively impact myriad other health outcomes as well. Nut consumption is correlated with lower cancer incidence and cancer mortality, and decreased all-cause mortality. Favorable effects on cognitive function and depression have also been reported. Randomized controlled trials consistently show nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect. Nut consumption also confers modest improvements on glycemic control, blood pressure (BP), endothelial function, and inflammation. Although nuts are energy-dense foods, they do not predispose to obesity, and in fact may even help in weight loss. Tree nuts and peanuts, but not peanut butter, generally produce similar positive effects on outcomes. First level evidence from the PREDIMED trial shows that, in the context of a Mediterranean diet, consumption of 30 g/d of nuts (walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts) significantly lowered the risk of a composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular disease) by ≈30% after intervention for 5 y. Impressively, the nut-supplemented diet reduced stroke risk by 45%. As they are rich in salutary bioactive compounds and beneficially impact various health outcomes, nuts can be considered natural pleiotropic nutraceuticals.

5.
Am J Med ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509452

RESUMO

Each year, patients are bombarded with diverging and even contradictory reports concerning the impact of certain additives, foods, and nutrients on cardiovascular health and its risk factors. Accordingly, this third review of nutrition controversies examines the impact of artificial sweeteners, cacao, soy, plant-based meats, nitrates, and meats from grass compared to grain-fed animals on cardiovascular and other health outcomes with the goal of optimizing clinician-led diet counseling.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet, adequate levels of physical activity, and energy-restricted lifestyle interventions have been individually associated with improvements in HDL functions. Evidence of intensive interventions with calorie restriction and physical activity is, however, scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention with an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity enhanced HDL function compared to a non-hypocaloric Mediterranean eating pattern without physical activity. METHODS: In 391 older adults with metabolic syndrome (mean age, 65 years; mean BMI, 33.3 kg/m2) from 1 of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea-Plus trial centers, we evaluated the impact of a 6-month intervention with an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity (intensive lifestyle; n = 190) relative to a nonrestrictive Mediterranean diet without physical activity (control; n = 201) on a set of HDL functional traits. These included cholesterol efflux capacity, HDL oxidative/inflammatory index, HDL oxidation, and levels of complement component 3, serum amyloid A, sphingosine-1-phosphate, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, C-III, and E in apoB-depleted plasma. RESULTS: The intensive-lifestyle intervention participants displayed greater 6-month weight reductions (-3.83 kg; 95% CI: -4.57 to -3.09 kg) but no changes in HDL cholesterol compared with control-diet participants. Regarding HDL functional traits, the intensive lifestyle decreased triglyceride levels (-0.15 mg/g protein; 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.014 mg/g protein) and apoC-III (-0.11 mg/g protein; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.026 mg/g protein) compared to the control diet, with weight loss being the essential mediator (proportions of mediation were 77.4% and 72.1% for triglycerides and apoC-III levels in HDL, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults with metabolic syndrome, an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity improved the HDL triglyceride metabolism compared with a nonrestrictive Mediterranean diet without physical activity. This trial is registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN89898870.

7.
Clin Nutr ; 40(10): 5269-5277, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between intake of simple sugars and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality in a prospective cohort study based on the PREDIMED trial conducted from 2003 to 2010. METHODS: Participants were older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Exposures were total sugar, glucose and fructose from solid or liquid sources, and fructose from fruit and 100% fruit juice. Cancer incidence was the primary outcome; cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were secondary outcomes. Multivariable-adjusted, time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used. RESULTS: Of 7447 individuals enrolled, 7056 (94.7%) were included (57.6% women, aged 67.0 ± 6.2 years). 534 incident cancers with 152 cancer deaths and 409 all-cause deaths were recorded after a median follow-up of 6 years. Intake of simple sugars in solid form was unrelated to outcomes. Higher cancer incidence was found per 5 g/day increase in intake of liquid sugars, with multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13) for total liquid sugar, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07-1.31) for liquid glucose, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.23) for liquid fructose, and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.10-1.74) for fructose from fruit juice. Cancer and all-cause mortality increased to a similar extent with intake of all sugars in liquid form. In categorical models, cancer risk was dose-related for all liquid sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Simple sugar intake in drinks and fruit juice was associated with an increased risk of overall cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality. This suggests that sugary beverages are a modifiable risk factor for cancer and all-cause mortality.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371982

RESUMO

The association between ultra-processed food (UPF) and risk of cardiometabolic disorders is an ongoing concern. Different food processing-based classification systems have originated discrepancies in the conclusions among studies. To test whether the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers changes with the classification system, we used baseline data from 5636 participants (48.5% female and 51.5% male, mean age 65.1 ± 4.9) of the PREDIMED-Plus ("PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet") trial. Subjects presented with overweight or obesity and met at least three metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria. Food consumption was classified using a 143-item food frequency questionnaire according to four food processing-based classifications: NOVA, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), International Food Information Council (IFIC) and University of North Carolina (UNC). Mean changes in nutritional and cardiometabolic markers were assessed according to quintiles of UPF consumption for each system. The association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers was assessed using linear regression analysis. The concordance of the different classifications was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC3, overall = 0.51). The highest UPF consumption was obtained with the IARC classification (45.9%) and the lowest with NOVA (7.9%). Subjects with high UPF consumption showed a poor dietary profile. We detected a direct association between UPF consumption and BMI (p = 0.001) when using the NOVA system, and with systolic (p = 0.018) and diastolic (p = 0.042) blood pressure when using the UNC system. Food classification methodologies markedly influenced the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic risk markers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/classificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/classificação , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/classificação , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Clin Nutr ; 40(8): 4971-4979, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short dietary assessment tools can be useful to estimate food intake and diet quality in large-scale epidemiological studies with time constraints. OBJECTIVE: To determine the concurrent validity of the 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean Adherence Screener (er-MEDAS) used in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea)-Plus trial and to analyse its capacity to detect 1-year changes in diet and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Validation study nested in the PREDIMED-Plus (n = 6760, 55-75 years). Dietary data were collected by the 17-item er-MEDAS and a 143-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. Cardiometabolic risk markers were measured at both time points. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) score was derived from both instruments. Concurrent validity was evaluated by Pearson and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing 1-year changes in FFQ-reported dietary intake and cardiometabolic profile changes in relation to changes in er-MEDAS. RESULTS: A moderate to good correlation between the MedDiet score calculated by both measurement instruments was found: r = 0.61 and ICC = 0.60 (both p < 0.001). Agreement of each of the er-MEDAS items ranged from 55.4% to 85.0% with a moderate mean concordance (kappa = 0.41). Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, energy intake measured by the FFQ decreased by 242 kcal, while Mediterranean food consumption increased in participants with the highest increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score. An increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score ratings was associated with a decrease in BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.001 for all), and with an increase in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The er-MEDAS shows a modest to good concurrent validity compared with FFQ data. It shows acceptable construct validity, as a greater er-MEDAS score was associated with more favourable dietary and cardiometabolic profiles over time. TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN89898870; registration date, 24 July 2014. https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870.

10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(10): 2870-2886, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess 1-year changes of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behavior, and diet quality according to MetS severity in older population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective analysis of 55-75-year-old 4359 overweight/obese participants with MetS (PREDIMED-Plus trial) categorized in tertiles according to 1-year changes of a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, triglycerides and glucose index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, dietary inflammatory index, and depression symptoms were measured. Diet quality was assessed by 17-item MD questionnaire. PAs were self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire and 30-s chair stand test. Sedentary behaviors were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire. After 1-year follow-up, decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grain cereals, white fish, and bluefish and low intake of refined cereals, red and processed meat, cookies/sweets, and snacks/ready-to-eat-meals. It resulted in high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamins B1, B6, B9, C, D, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus and low glycemic index and saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and carbohydrates intake. Regarding PA and sedentary behavior, decreasing MetSSS was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, chair stand test, and decreased sedentary and TV-viewing time. CONCLUSION: Decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high LTPA, high MD adherence, low sedentary time, and low depression risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445043

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 µg/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 µg/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 µg/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/urina , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Tartaratos/urina , Vinho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is linked to inflammation. We hypothesize that metabolites implicated in this pathway may be associated with the risk of heart failure (HF) or atrial fibrillation (AF) in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively analyze the associations of kynurenine-related metabolites with the risk of HF and AF and to analyze a potential effect modification by the randomized interventions of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). METHODS: Two case-control studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were designed. We selected 324 incident HF cases and 502 incident AF cases individually matched with ≤3 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted. Interactions with the intervention were tested for each of the baseline plasma metabolites measured by LC-tandem MS. RESULTS: Higher baseline kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (OR for 1 SD: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.43) and higher levels of kynurenic acid (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40) were associated with HF. Quinolinic acid was associated with AF (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and HF (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49). The MedDiet intervention modified the positive associations of kynurenine (Pinteraction = 0.006), kynurenic acid (Pinteraction = 0.008), and quinolinic acid (Pinteraction = 0.033) with HF and the association between kynurenic acid and AF (Pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found that tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites were prospectively associated with higher HF risk and to a lesser extent with AF risk. Moreover, an effect modification by MedDiet was observed for the association between plasma baseline kynurenine-related metabolites and the risk of HF, showing that the positive association of increased levels of these metabolites and HF was restricted to the control group.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064328

RESUMO

Clinical data on the direct health effects of energy deficit or surplus beyond its impact on body weight are scarce. We aimed to assess the association with all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality of (1) sustained energy deficit or surplus, calculated according to each individual's en-ergy intake (EI) and theoretical energy expenditure (TEE), and (2) mid-term change in total EI in a prospective study. In 7119 participants in the PREDIMED Study (PREvención con DIeta MEDi-terránea) with a mean age of 67 years, energy intake was derived from a 137-item food frequency questionnaire. TEE was calculated as a function of age, sex, height, body weight and physical ac-tivity. The main exposure was the proportion of energy requirement covered by energy intake, cumulative throughout the follow-up. The secondary exposure was the change in energy intake from baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% con-fidence intervals for all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Over a median follow-up of 4.8 years, there were 239 deaths (excluding the first 2 years). An energy intake exceeding energy needs was associated with an increase in mortality risk (continuous HR10% over energy needs = 1.10; 95% CI 1.02, 1.18), driven by cardiovascular death (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.11, 1.43). However, consum-ing energy below estimated needs was not associated with a lower risk. Increments over time in energy intake were associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR10% increase = 1.09; 95% CI 1.02, 1.17). However, there was no evidence that a substantial negative change in energy intake would reduce mortality risk. To conclude, in an older Mediterranean cohort, energy surplus or increase over a 5-year period was associated with greater risk of mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality. Energy deficit, or reduction in energy intake over time were not associated with mortal-ity risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2825-2836, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Portfolio and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk factors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the Portfolio diet has only been assessed in RCTs of hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, to assess the Portfolio diet in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we conducted a longitudinal analysis of one-year data of changes in the Portfolio and DASH diet scores and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors in Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial. METHODS: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing clinical trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN89898) conducted in Spain that includes 6874 older participants (mean age 65 y, 48% women) with overweight/obesity fulfilling at least three criteria for MetS. Data for this analysis were collected at baseline, six months and one year. Adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diet scores were derived from a validated 143-item food frequency questionnaire. We used linear mixed models to examine the associations of 1-SD increase and quartile changes in the diet scores with concomitant changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for several potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in the Portfolio diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (ß [95% CI]: -0.02% [-0.02, -0.01], P < 0.001), fasting glucose (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.83, -0.11], P = 0.01), triglycerides (-1.29 mg/dL [-2.31, -0.28], P = 0.01), waist circumference (WC) (-0.51 cm [-0.59, -0.43], P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (-0.17 kg/m2 [-0.19, -0.15], P < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in the DASH diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (-0.03% [-0.04, -0.02], P < 0.001), glucose (-0.84 mg/dL [-1.18, -0.51], P < 0.001), triglycerides (-3.38 mg/dL [-4.37, -2.38], P < 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.91, -0.04], P = 0.03), WC (-0.69 cm [-0.76, -0.60 cm], P < 0.001), BMI (-0.25 kg/m2 [-0.28, -0.26 kg/m2], P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (-0.57 mmHg [-0.81, -0.32 mmHg], P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-0.15 mmHg [-0.29, -0.01 mmHg], P = 0.03), and with higher HDL-cholesterol (0.21 mg/dL [0.09, 0.34 mg/dL, P = 0.001]). Similar associations were seen when both diet scores were assessed as quartiles, comparing extreme categories of adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults at high cardiovascular risk with MetS, greater adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diets showed significant favourable prospective associations with several clinically relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. Both diets are likely beneficial for cardiometabolic risk reduction.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Neurosci Res ; 99(9): 2188-2200, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047384

RESUMO

The combination of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide original data to investigate age-related brain changes. We examined neural activity modulations induced by two multifocal tDCS procedures based on two distinct montages fitting two N-back task-based fMRI patterns ("compensatory" and "maintenance") related to high working memory (WM) in a previous publication (Fernández-Cabello et al. Neurobiol Aging (2016);48:23-33). We included 24 participants classified as stable or decliners according to their 4-year WM trajectories following a retrospective longitudinal approach. Then, we studied longitudinal fMRI differences between groups (stable and decliners) and across multifocal tDCS montages ("compensatory" and "maintenance") applied using a single-blind sham-controlled cross-over design. Decliners evidenced over-activation of non-related WM areas after 4 years of follow-up. Focusing on tDCS effects, among the decliner group, the "compensatory"-tDCS montage reduced the activity over the posterior regions where these subjects showed longitudinal hyperactivation. These results reinforce the notion that tDCS effects are characterized by an activity reduction and might be more noticeable in compromised systems. Importantly, the data provide novel evidence that cognitive trajectories predict tDCS effects in older adults.

17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated whether the intake of dietary vitamin D is associated with the incidence of both colorectal cancer (CRC) and colon cancer in the framework of the PREDIMED cohort of older adults at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analyzed data from 7216 men and women (55-80 years) without CRC at baseline from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Baseline consumption of vitamin D was assessed using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) of CRC and colon cancer incidence were estimated for quartiles and per 1-SD of baseline vitamin D intake. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6 years, we documented 97 incident CRC cases after the exclusion of subjects with no baseline dietary data and/or outliers of energy intake. A non-significant HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC for the comparison of extreme quartiles (4th vs 1st) of vitamin D intake were observed [0.55 (0.30-1.00), P for trend = 0.072], whereas it was significant for colon cancer incidence alone [0.44 (0.22-0.90), P for trend = 0.032]. However, this association became significant in CRC and colon cancer incidence, after excluding 391 subjects consuming baseline vitamin D and/or calcium medication or prescribed supplements [0.52 (0.28-0.96) and 0.41 (0.12-0.85), respectively]. CONCLUSION: A higher dietary intake of vitamin D was significantly associated with a reduced CRC risk in individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

18.
Atherosclerosis ; 325: 99-109, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Task Force provides practical guidance for combination therapy for elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) in high-risk and very-high-risk patients. METHODS: Evidence-based review. RESULTS: Statin-ezetimibe combination treatment is the first choice for managing elevated LDL-C and should be given upfront in very-high-risk patients with high LDL-C unlikely to reach goal with a statin, and in primary prevention familial hypercholesterolaemia patients. A proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor may be added if LDL-C levels remain high. In high and very-high-risk patients with mild to moderately elevated TG levels (>2.3 and < 5.6 mmol/L [>200 and < 500 mg/dL) on a statin, treatment with either a fibrate or high-dose omega-3 fatty acids (icosapent ethyl) may be considered, weighing the benefit versus risks. Combination with fenofibrate may be considered for both macro- and microvascular benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: This guidance aims to improve real-world use of guideline-recommended combination lipid modifying treatment.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(6): 1702-1713, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Total fruit consumption is important for cardiovascular disease prevention, but also the variety and form in which is consumed. The aim of the study was to assess the associations between total fruit, subgroups of fruits based on their color and fruit juices consumption with different cardiometabolic parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 6633 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study were included in this analysis. Fruit and fruit juice consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between exposure variables (total fruit, subgroups based on the color, and fruit juices) and different cardiometabolic risk factors. Individuals in the highest category of total fruit consumption (≥3 servings/d) had lower waist circumference (WC) (ß = -1.04 cm; 95%CI:-1.81, -0.26), fasting glucose levels (ß = -2.41 mg/dL; 95%CI(-4.19, -0.63) and LDL-cholesterol (ß = -4.11 mg/dL; 95%CI:-6.93, -1.36), but, unexpectedly, higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (ß = 1.84 mmHg; 95%CI: 0.37, 3.30) and diastolic BP (ß = 1.69 mmHg; 95%CI:0.83, 2.56) when compared to those in the lowest category of consumption (<1 servings/d). Participants consuming ≥1 serving/day of total fruit juice had lower WC (ß = -0.92 cm; 95%CI:-1.56, -0.27) and glucose levels (ß = -1.59 mg/dL; 95%CI:-2.95, -0.23) than those consuming <1 serving/month. The associations with cardiometabolic risk factors differed according to the color of fruits. CONCLUSION: Fruit consumption is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors in Mediterranean elders with metabolic syndrome. The associations regarding BP levels could be attributed, at least partially, to reverse causality bias inherent to the cross-sectional design of the study.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frutas , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cor , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Circunferência da Cintura
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