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1.
Extremophiles ; 25(1): 77-84, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416982

RESUMO

We evaluated the fungal diversity in two lakes on the South Shetland Islands, using DNA metabarcoding through high-throughput sequencing (HTS). A microcosm experiment was deployed for two consecutive years in lakes on Deception and King George islands to capture potential decomposer freshwater fungi. Analyses of the baits revealed 258,326 DNA reads distributed in 34 fungal taxa of the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Chytridiomycota and Rozellomycota. Tetracladium marchalianum, Tetracladium sp., Rozellomycota sp., Fungal sp. 1 and Fungal sp. 2 were the most common taxa detected. However, the majority of the communities comprised intermediate and rare taxa. Both fungal communities displayed moderate indices of diversity, richness and dominance. Only six taxa were detected in both lakes, including the most dominant T. marchalianum and Tetracladium sp. The high numbers of reads of the known aquatic saprotrophic hyphomycetes T. marchalianum and Tetracladium sp. in the baits suggest that these fungi may digest organic material in Antarctic lakes, releasing available carbon and nutrients to the other aquatic organisms present in the complex lake food web. Our data confirm that the use of cotton baits together with HTS approaches can be appropriate to study the diversity of resident freshwater fungi present in Antarctic lakes.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Fungos/classificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Biodiversidade , DNA Fúngico/genética , Ilhas
2.
Yeast ; 37(12): 625-637, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161614

RESUMO

Yeast communities associated with cacti were studied in three ecosystems of Southeast, Central and North Brazil. A total of 473 yeast strains belonging to 72 species were isolated from 190 samples collected. Cactophilic yeast species were prevalent in necrotic tissues, flowers, fruits and insects of cacti collected in Southeast and North Brazil. Pichia cactophila, Candida sonorensis and species of the Sporopachydermia complex were the most prevalent cactophilic species in Southeast and Central regions. Kodamaea nitidulidarum, Candida restingae and Wickerhamiella cacticola were frequently associated with cactus flowers and fruits. The diversity of yeasts associated with the substrates studied was high. Twenty-one novel species were found. One is described here as Kluyveromyces starmeri sp. nov. based on 21 isolates obtained from necrotic tissues, flowers, fruits and associated insects of the columnar cacti Cereus saddianus, Micranthocereus dolichospermaticus and Pilosocereus arrabidae in two different ecosystems in Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences encoding the gene of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA showed that the species is related to Kluyveromyces dobzhanskii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Phylogenomic analyses based on 1264 conserved genes shared among the new species and 19 other members of the Saccharomycetaceae confirmed this phylogenetic relationship. The holotype is K. starmeri sp. nov. CBS 16103T (=UFMG-CM-Y3682T ). The Mycobank number is MB 836817.

3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(9): 717-725, Sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143426

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of mycotoxins on the performance of horses through physiological parameters, and hematology and serum biochemistry analyses. The essay lasted 40 days, with 12 days for adaptation and 28 days of experimentation. In the experimental stage, the horses were distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments with four animals each. The treatments used were 0 (control), 50 ppb and 100 ppb of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) added to a concentrate in a basal diet. The basal diet contained mycotoxins from feedstuffs naturally contaminated. The exercise test was performed over the 21th day of the experimental stage. The exercise consisted in an interval training test with a warm-up of 17 mins at a trot followed by three gallops of 450m/min. The heart rate was monitored between the gallops. Before the exercise test and immediately after the third gallop, the physiological and blood parameters were evaluated, and continued up to 48 hours after the exercise. The results of the physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and compared by the Tukey test at 5% of significance. The presence of AFB1 in the diet influenced the alkaline phosphatase activity, which presented higher values in horses fed diet with inclusion of 100 ppb AFB1, suggesting a hepatotoxic activity associated with the others mycotoxins naturally present in the feedstuffs.


RESUMO: Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar o efeito de micotoxinas no desempenho de equinos com avaliações fisiológicas e análises hematológicas e da bioquímica sérica. O ensaio durou 40 dias, com 12 dias de adaptação e 28 dias de experimentação. Na fase experimental, os equinos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em três tratamentos, com quatro animais cada. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 0 (controle), 50 ppb e 100 ppb de Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1) adicionada ao concentrado de uma dieta basal. A dieta basal continha alimentos naturalmente contaminados por micotoxinas. O teste de desempenho foi executado no 21º dia da fase experimental por meio de teste intervalado consistindo em aquecimento ao trote por 17 minutos, seguido de três galopes de 450m/min. A frequência cardíaca (FC) foi monitorada entre os galopes. Antes do exercício e imediatamente após o terceiro galope, os parâmetros fisiológicos e sanguíneos foram avaliados e continuaram sendo monitorados até 48 horas após o exercício. Os resultados dos parâmetros fisiológicos, hematológicos e bioquímicos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) e comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. A presença de AFB1 na dieta influenciou a atividade da fosfatase alcalina, que apresentou valores mais elevadas na dieta com inclusão de 100 ppb de AFB1, sugerindo uma atividade hepatotóxica associada às outras micotoxinas naturalmente presentes nos alimentos.

4.
Extremophiles ; 24(4): 637-655, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533308

RESUMO

In this study, we accessed culturable fungal assemblages present in the sediments of three lakes potentially impacted anthropogenically in the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica and identified 63 taxa. Cladosporium sp. 2, Pseudeurotium hygrophilum, and Pseudogymnoascus verrucosus were recovered from the sampled sediments of all lakes. High concentrations of metals and the lowest fungal diversity indices were detected in the sediments of the Central Lake, which can be influenced by human activities due to their proximity to research stations to those of the other two lakes, which were far from the Antarctic stations. At least one type of biological activity was demonstrated by 40 fungal extracts. Among these, P. hygrophilum, P. verrucosus, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium solitum demonstrated strong trypanocidal, herbicidal, and antifungal activities. Our results suggest that an increase of the anthropogenic activities in the region might have affected the microbial diversity and composition. In addition, the fungal diversity in these lakes may be a useful model to study the effect of anthropogenic activities in Antarctica. We isolated a diverse group of fungal taxa from Antarctic lake sediments, which have the potential to produce novel compounds for the both the medical and agriculture sectors.


Assuntos
Bioprospecção , Regiões Antárticas , Ascomicetos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Ilhas , Lagos
5.
Fungal Biol ; 124(7): 639-647, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540187

RESUMO

Yeasts associated with rotting wood from four Atlantic Rain forest sites in Brazil were investigated using a culture medium based on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. A total of 330 yeast strains were isolated. Pichia manshurica, Candida pseudolambica, and Wickerhamomyces sp. 3 were the most frequently isolated species. Fourteen novel species were obtained in this study. All isolates were tested for their ability to ferment d-xylose and to produce xylanases. In the fermentation assays using d-xylose (30 g L-1), the main ethanol producers were Scheffersomyces stipitis (14.08 g L-1), Scheffersomyces sp. (7.94 g L-1) and Spathaspora boniae (7.16 g L-1). Sc. stipitis showed the highest ethanol yield (0.42 g g-1) and the highest productivity (0.39 g L-1h-1). The fermentation results using hemicellulosic hydrolysate showed that Sc. stipitis was the best ethanol producer, achieving a yield of 0.32 g g-1, while Sp. boniae and Scheffersomyces sp. were excellent xylitol producers. The best xylanase-producing yeasts at 50 °C belonged to the species Su. xylanicola (0.487 U mg-1) and Saitozyma podzolica (0.384 U mg-1). The results showed that rotting wood collected from the Atlantic Rainforest is a valuable source of yeasts able to grow in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, including species with promising biotechnological properties.

6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4378-4383, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584748

RESUMO

Four isolates of two novel ascosporogenous species belonging to the clade Starmera were obtained from cactus tissues and rotting wood in Brazil. Results of analyses of the sequences of the ITS and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene indicated that the two isolates of the cactophilic species are related to Starmera caribaea and Starmera pilosocereana, yeasts that are associated with cacti and require an organic source of sulfur for growth. We propose the novel species Starmera foglemanii sp. nov. (CBS 16113T; MycoBank number: MB 834400) to accommodate these isolates. The other two isolates are phylogenetically related to Candida dendrica, Candida laemsonensis and Candida berthetii, also in the Starmera clade. The novel species name Starmera ilhagrandensis sp. nov. (CBS 16316T; MycoBank number: MB 834402) is proposed for this species.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Madeira/microbiologia , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(3): 1209-1218, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385836

RESUMO

Ephemeral microbial communities usually undergo priority effect and result in higher diversity with a few representatives of each species. Community structure of yeasts in bromeliad tanks was compared between two rupestrian savanna (Cerrado) areas in Brazil and to yeasts isolated from water holes in the same areas. Water samples were collected from 60 tanks of bromeliads Bromelia karatas and Encholirium sp. and rock holes at the Karstic Area of Aurora, Tocantins State and 60 tanks of Vriesea minarum (Bromeliaceae) and Paepalanthus bromelioides (Eriocaulaceae) at Serra do Cipó National Park, Minas Gerais State in Brazil. The yeast diversity comprised 90 species from which 60% are basidiomycetous yeasts usually associated with phylloplane, soils, and aquatic habitats. The species Papiliotrema laurentii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pa. nemorosus, and Pseudozyma hubeiensis were the most frequent species associated with bromeliads. Eighteen yeast species, two ascomycetous and 16 basidiomycetous, were consistently isolated from the substrates in both areas and may represent a core community in bromeliads in rupestrian fields. Singlets occurred in 38 to 69% of samples, and 32 species were isolated only once. Our findings reinforce the ephemeral nature of the yeast communities associated with tank-forming plants in which individual phytotelmata act as patches or aquatic islands prone to rapid colonization-extinction rates receiving inocula from plant and soil debris. Ephemeral rock holes also represent a transitory habitat for yeast species associated with plants and soil.

8.
Fungal Biol ; 124(6): 601-611, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448451

RESUMO

We recovered 195 fungal isolates from the sediments of different lakes in the Antarctic Peninsula, which were screened to detect bioactive compounds. Forty-two taxa belonging to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota were identified. Thelebolus globosus, Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus, Pseudogymnoascus verrucosus, Vishniacozyma victoriae, and Phenoliferia sp. were found to be the most prevalent. The fungal assemblages showed high diversity and richness, but low dominance values. However, the diversity indices and fungal distribution ranged according to the different lake sediments. Sixty fungal extracts displayed at least one biological activity against the evaluated targets. Among them, Pseudogymnoascus destructans showed selective trypanocidal activity, Cladosporium sp. 1 and Trichoderma polysporum showed antifungal activity, and Pseudogymnoascus appendiculatus and Helotiales sp. showed high herbicidal activity. We detected a rich and diverse fungal community composed of cold cosmopolitan and psychrophilic endemic taxa recognized as decomposers, symbiotics, pathogens, and potential new species, in the sediments of Antarctic lakes. The dynamics and balance of this fungal community represents an interesting aquatic web model for further ecological and evolutionary studies under extreme conditions and potential climate changes in the regions. In addition, we detected fungal taxa and isolates able to produce bioactive compounds that may represent the source of prototype molecules for applications in medicine and agriculture.

9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3374-3378, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375978

RESUMO

Kluyveromyces osmophilus, a single-strain species isolated from Mozambique sugar, has been treated a synonym of Zygosaccharomyces mellis. Analyses of D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the species belongs to the genus Zygosaccharomyces but showed it to be distinct from strains of Z. mellis. During studies of yeasts associated with stingless bees in Brazil, nine additional isolates of the species were obtained from unripe and ripe honey and pollen of Scaptotrigona cfr. bipunctata, as well as ripe honey of Tetragonisca angustula. The D1/D2 sequences of the Brazilian isolates were identical to those of the type strain of K. osmophilus CBS 5499 (=ATCC 22027), indicating that they represent the same species. Phylogenomic analyses using 4038 orthologous genes support the reinstatement of K. osmophilus as a member of the genus Zygosaccharomyces. We, therefore, propose the name Zygosaccharomyces osmophilus comb. nov. (lectotype ATCC 22027; MycoBank no. MB 833739).


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Mel/microbiologia , Kluyveromyces/classificação , Pólen/microbiologia , Zygosaccharomyces/classificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1729-1739, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328754

RESUMO

We isolated two Candida pseudointermedia strains from the Atlantic rain forest in Brazil, and analyzed cellobiose metabolization in their cells. After growth in cellobiose medium, both strains had high intracellular ß-glucosidase activity [~ 200 U (g cells)-1 for 200 mM cellobiose and ~ 100 U (g cells)-1 for 2 mM pNPßG] and negligible periplasmic cellobiase activity. During batch fermentation, the strain with the best performance consumed all the available cellobiose in the first 18 h of the assay, producing 2.7 g L-1 of ethanol. Kinetics of its cellobiase activity demonstrated a high-affinity hydrolytic system inside cells, with Km of 12.4 mM. Our data suggest that, unlike other fungal species that hydrolyze cellobiose extracellularly, both analyzed strains transport it to the cytoplasm, where it is then hydrolyzed by high-affinity intracellular ß-glucosidases. We believe this study increases the fund of knowledge regarding yeasts from Brazilian microbiomes.


Assuntos
Candida/enzimologia , Celobiose/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo , Madeira/microbiologia , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Brasil , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Cinética
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2677-2681, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207678

RESUMO

Six strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from tree bark collected in the Atlantic Forest and the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil. Analyses of the sequences of D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that the strains belong to a species in the genus Zygotorulaspora. The species differed by 5.54 % sequence divergence (25 substitutions and five indels out of 542 bp) in the D1/D2 sequences from Zygotorulaspora mrakii, its closest relative. The ITS sequence of the type strain of the novel species differs by 27-69 nucleotide substitutions/indels from the other Zygotorulaspora species. The novel species is able to grow on trehalose, maltose, l-sorbose, inulin and at 37 °C, which are negative in Z. mrakii. The name Zygotorulaspora cariocana sp. nov. is proposed. The holotype of Z. cariocana sp. nov. is CBS 16118T. The MycoBank number is MB 833702.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Floresta Úmida , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Árvores/microbiologia
12.
Yeast ; 37(3): 253-260, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017239

RESUMO

Species of the nitidulid beetle Conotelus found in flowers of Convolvulaceae and other plants across the New World and in Hawaii consistently harbour a yeast community dominated by one or more large-spored Metschnikowia species. We investigated the yeasts found in beetles and flowers of cultivated passionfruit in Rondônia state, in the Amazon biome of Brazil, where a Conotelus species damages the flowers and hinders fruit production. A sample of 46 beetles and 49 flowers yielded 86 and 83 yeast isolates, respectively. Whereas the flower community was dominated by Kodamaea ohmeri and Kurtzmaniella quercitrusa, the major yeasts recovered from beetles were Wickerhamiella occidentalis, which is commonly isolated from this community, and a novel species of large-spored Metschnikowia in the arizonensis subclade, which we describe here as Metschnikowia amazonensis sp. nov. Phylogenetic analyses based on barcode sequences (ITS-D1/D2) and a multigene alignment of 11,917 positions (genes ura2, msh6, and pmt2) agreed to place the new species as a sister to Metschnikowia arizonensis, a rare species known only from one locality in Arizona. The two form sterile asci when mated, which is typical of related members of the clade. The α pheromone of the new species is unique but typical of the subclade. The type of M. amazonensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y6309T (ex-type CBS 16156T , mating type a), and the designated allotype (mating type α) is UFMG-CM-Y6307A (CBS 16155A ). MycoBank MB 833560.

13.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(6): 753-762, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100143

RESUMO

The isolation of a single yeast strain in the clade containing Metschnikowia dekortorum, in the Amazon biome of Brazil, incited us to re-examine the species boundaries within the clade. The strain (UFMG-CM-Y6306) was difficult to position relative to neighbouring species using standard barcode sequences (ITS-D1/D2 rRNA gene region). Mating took place freely with α strains of M. bowlesiae, M. dekortorum, and M. similis, but two-spored asci, indicative of a fertile meiotic progeny, were formed abundantly only with certain strains of M. dekortorum. Accordingly, we examined mating success among every phylotype in the clade and constructed a phylogeny based on a concatenation of 100 of the largest orthologous genes annotated in draft genomes. The analyses confirmed membership of the Amazonian isolate in M. dekortorum, but also indicated that the species should be subdivided into two. As a result, we retain three original members of M. dekortorum in the species, together with the new isolate, and reassign six isolates recovered from Mesoamerican lacustrine habitats to Metschnikowia lacustris sp. nov. The type is UWOPS 12-619.2T (isotype CBS 16250T). MycoBank: MB 833751.

14.
Microorganisms ; 7(10)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614720

RESUMO

We characterized the fungal community found in the winter seasonal snow of the Antarctic Peninsula. From the samples of snow, 234 fungal isolates were obtained and could be assigned to 51 taxa of 26 genera. Eleven yeast species displayed the highest densities; among them, Phenoliferia glacialis showed a broad distribution and was detected at all sites that were sampled. Fungi known to be opportunistic in humans were subjected to antifungal minimal inhibition concentration. Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium sp. 3, and Penicillium sp. 4 displayed resistance against the antifungals benomyl and fluconazole. Among them, R. mucilaginosa isolates were able to grow at 37 °C. Our results show that the winter seasonal snow of the Antarctic Peninsula contains a diverse fungal community dominated by cosmopolitan ubiquitous fungal species previously found in tropical, temperate, and polar ecosystems. The high densities of these cosmopolitan fungi suggest that they could be present in the air that arrives at the Antarctic Peninsula by air masses from outside Antarctica. Additionally, we detected environmental fungal isolates that were resistant to agricultural and clinical antifungals and able to grow at 37 °C. Further studies will be needed to characterize the virulence potential of these fungi in humans and animals.

15.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 366(13)2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350996

RESUMO

Butanol has advantages over ethanol as a biofuel. Although butanol is naturally produced by some Clostridium species, clostridial fermentation has inherent characteristics that prevent its industrial application. Butanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains may be a solution to this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of wild-type and industrial Brazilian strains of S. cerevisiae to produce n-butanol using glycine as co-substrate and evaluate the relationship between the production of this alcohol and other metabolites in fermented broth. Of the 48 strains analyzed, 25 were able to produce n-butanol in a glycine-containing medium. Strains exhibited different profiles of n-butanol, isobutanol, ethanol, glycerol and acetic acid production. Some wild-type strains showed substantial n-butanol production capability, for instance UFMG-CM-Y267, which produced about 12.7 mg/L of butanol. Although this concentration is low, it demonstrates that wild-type S. cerevisiae can synthesize butanol, suggesting that selection and genetic modification of this microorganism could yield promising results. The findings presented here may prove useful for future studies aimed at optimizing S. cerevisiae strains for butanol production.


Assuntos
Butanóis/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica , Metabolômica/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180566, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opportunistic pathogenic yeast species are frequently associated with water habitats that have pollution sources of human or animal origin. Candida albicans has already been suggested as a faecal indicator microorganism for aquatic environments. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of C. albicans and other opportunistic yeasts in sand and seawater samples from beaches in Brazil to assess their correlation with Escherichia coli, and to characterise the pathogenic potential of the yeast isolates. METHODS: Opportunistic species (yeasts that grow at 37ºC) were isolated from sand and seawater samples from eight beaches in Brazil during the summer and the winter. Opportunistic yeast species were evaluated for their susceptibility to antifungal drugs, virulence factors, and the in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation. Strains were selected to carry out virulence tests using BALB/c mice. FINDINGS: Several water samples could be classified as inappropriate for primary contact recreation in relation to E. coli densities. C. albicans was isolated in low densities. Of the 144 opportunistic yeasts evaluated, 61% displayed resistance or dose-dependent sensitivity to at least one tested drug, and 40% produced proteinase. Strains of C. albicans and Kodamaea ohmeri exhibited the highest rates of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells. All the C. albicans strains that were tested were able to undergo morphogenesis and form a biofilm on catheter fragments in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. It was possible to confirm the pathogenic potential of three of these strains during the disseminated infection test. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The identification of opportunistic yeast species in seawater and sand samples from Brazilian beaches suggest a potential risk to the health of people who use these environments for recreational purposes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Praias/estatística & dados numéricos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Animais , Estações do Ano , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1504-1508, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856091

RESUMO

Twelve strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood, mushrooms and fruit samples in Brazil and French Guiana. Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that the novel species belongs to the Kurtzmaniella clade. The novel species differed from its closest relative, Candida natalensis, by 12 substitutions in the D1/D2 sequences. The novel species could be distinguished from C. natalensis by its inability to assimilate cellobiose and salicin, and growth at 50 % (w/w) glucose. The name Kurtzmaniella hittingeri f.a., sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species. The type strain of K. hittingeri sp. nov. is CBS 13469T (=UFMG CM-Y272T). The MycoBank number is 827183. We also propose the transfer of Candida fragi, Candida quercitrusa and Candida natalensis to the genus Kurtzmaniella as new combinations.


Assuntos
Candida/classificação , Frutas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Madeira/microbiologia , Álcoois Benzílicos , Brasil , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Celobiose , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Guiana Francesa , Glucosídeos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Extremophiles ; 23(3): 327-336, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852677

RESUMO

We studied the molecular taxonomy and diversity of cultivable rock fungi from Antarctic islands. From 50 rock samples, 386 fungal isolates were obtained and identified as 33 taxa of 20 genera. The genera Cladophialophora, Cladosporium, Cyphellophora, Eichleriella, Paracladophialophora, and Penicillium displayed the highest densities. Ecological diversity indices showed that the fungal assemblages are diverse and rich with low dominance. The genera Cladophialophora, Cladosporium, and Penicillium showed a broad distribution from rocks of the various islands. One hundred and fifty-nine fungi, grown at 37 °C, were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium sp., and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. One hundred and three fungi displayed haemolytic activity, 81 produced proteinase, 9 produced phospholipase, and 25 presented dimorphism and a spore diameter ≤ 4 µm. The Antarctic Peninsula region appears to be under the effects of global climate changes, which may expose and accelerate the rock's weathering processes, and expose and release cryptic fungi and other microbes, especially those with innate pathogenic potential, previously arrested in rocks. Consequently, these rocks and their particles may represent a vehicle for the dispersal of microbial propagules, including those able to spread pathogens, along, across, and out of Antarctica.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fungos , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Regiões Antárticas , Mudança Climática , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo
19.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 19(4): 428-438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of invasive forms of candidiasis and resistance to antifungal therapy leads us to seek new and more effective antifungal compounds. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifungal activity and toxicity as well as to evaluate the potential targets of 2- cyclohexylidenhydrazo-4-phenyl-thiazole (CPT) in Candida albicans. METHODS: The antifungal activity of CPT against the survival of C. albicans was investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans. Additionally, we determined the effect of CPT on the inhibition of C. albicans adhesion capacity to buccal epithelial cells (BECs), the toxicity of CPT in mammalian cells, and the potential targets of CPT in C. albicans. RESULTS: CPT exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.4-1.9 µg/mL. Furthermore, CPT at high concentrations (>60 x MIC) showed no or low toxicity in HepG2 cells and <1% haemolysis in human erythrocytes. In addition, CPT decreased the adhesion capacity of yeasts to the BECs and prolonged the survival of C. elegans infected with C. albicans. Analysis of CPT-treated cells showed that their cell wall was thinner than that of untreated cells, especially the glucan layer. We found that there was a significantly lower quantity of 1,3-ß-D-glucan present in CPT-treated cells than that in untreated cells. Assays performed on several mutant strains showed that the MIC value of CPT was high for its antifungal activity on yeasts with defective 1,3-ß-glucan synthase. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CPT appears to target the cell wall of C. albicans, exhibits low toxicity in mammalian cells, and prolongs the survival of C. elegans infected with C. albicans.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tiazóis/síntese química
20.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 42(1): 83-92, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264227

RESUMO

The present study evaluated 13 strains of yeast for ethanol and xylitol production from xylose. Among them, Spathaspora hagerdaliae UFMG-CM-Y303 produced ethanol yields (YP/S) of 0.25 g g- 1 and 0.39 g g- 1 under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions, respectively, from a mixture of glucose and xylose in flasks. A pH of 5.0 and an inoculum of 3.0 × 108 cells mL- 1r resulted in the highest ethanol yields. These conditions were tested in a bioreactor for fermenting a medium containing an enzymatic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse with 15.5 g L- 1 of glucose and 3 g L- 1 of xylose, and achieved a YP/S of 0.47 g g- 1, in relation to total available sugar. These results suggest that S. hagerdaliae UFMG-CM-Y303 has potential for use in second-generation ethanol studies.


Assuntos
Celulose/metabolismo , Etanol/química , Glucose/química , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Xilose/química , Bioengenharia/métodos , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Lignina/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Xilitol/química
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