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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534079

RESUMO

Phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) deficiency is a rare congenital disorder of glycosylation. Most of patients with autosomal recessive hypomorphic mutations in PGM3 encoding for phosphoglucomutase 3 present with eczema, skin and lung infections, elevated serum IgE, as well as neurological and skeletal features. A few PGM3-deficient patients suffer from a more severe disease with nearly absent T cells and severe skeletal dysplasia. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing on two kindred to identify the underlying genetic etiology of a severe combined immunodeficiency with developmental defect. We report here two novel homozygous missense variants (p.Gly359Asp and p.Met423Thr) in PGM3 identified in three patients from two unrelated kindreds with severe combined immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and skeletal dysplasia. Both variants segregated with the disease in the two families. They were predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. PGM3 enzymatic activity was found to be severely impaired in primary fibroblasts and Epstein-Barr virus immortalized B cells from the kindred carrying the p.Met423Thr variant. Our findings support the pathogenicity of these two novel variants in severe PGM3 deficiency.

2.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544838

RESUMO

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Interferon-alfa , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , /imunologia , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/deficiência , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/imunologia , /imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/genética , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(3): 639-657, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline heterozygous mutations of GATA2 underlie a variety of hematological and clinical phenotypes. The genetic, immunological, and clinical features of GATA2-deficient patients with mycobacterial diseases in the familial context remain largely unknown. METHODS: We enrolled 15 GATA2 index cases referred for mycobacterial disease. We describe their genetic and clinical features including their relatives. RESULTS: We identified 12 heterozygous GATA2 mutations, two of which had not been reported. Eight of these mutations were loss-of-function, and four were hypomorphic. None was dominant-negative in vitro, and the GATA2 locus was found to be subject to purifying selection, strongly suggesting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency. Three relatives of index cases had mycobacterial disease and were also heterozygous, resulting in 18 patients in total. Mycobacterial infection was the first clinical manifestation in 11 patients, at a mean age of 22.5 years (range: 12 to 42 years). Most patients also suffered from other infections, monocytopenia, or myelodysplasia. Strikingly, the clinical penetrance was incomplete (32.9% by age 40 years), as 16 heterozygous relatives aged between 6 and 78 years, including 4 older than 60 years, were completely asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Clinical penetrance for mycobacterial disease was found to be similar to other GATA2 deficiency-related manifestations. These observations suggest that other mechanisms contribute to the phenotypic expression of GATA2 deficiency. A diagnosis of autosomal dominant GATA2 deficiency should be considered in patients with mycobacterial infections and/or other GATA2 deficiency-related phenotypes at any age in life. Moreover, all direct relatives should be genotyped at the GATA2 locus.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(3)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408250

RESUMO

Genetic variants underlying life-threatening diseases, being unlikely to be transmitted to the next generation, are gradually and selectively eliminated from the population through negative selection. We study the determinants of this evolutionary process in human genes underlying monogenic diseases by comparing various negative selection scores and an integrative approach, CoNeS, at 366 loci underlying inborn errors of immunity (IEI). We find that genes underlying autosomal dominant (AD) or X-linked IEI have stronger negative selection scores than those underlying autosomal recessive (AR) IEI, whose scores are not different from those of genes not known to be disease causing. Nevertheless, genes underlying AR IEI that are lethal before reproductive maturity with complete penetrance have stronger negative selection scores than other genes underlying AR IEI. We also show that genes underlying AD IEI by loss of function have stronger negative selection scores than genes underlying AD IEI by gain of function, while genes underlying AD IEI by haploinsufficiency are under stronger negative selection than other genes underlying AD IEI. These results are replicated in 1,140 genes underlying inborn errors of neurodevelopment. Finally, we propose a supervised classifier, SCoNeS, which predicts better than state-of-the-art approaches whether a gene is more likely to underlie an AD or AR disease. The clinical outcomes of monogenic inborn errors, together with their mode and mechanisms of inheritance, determine the levels of negative selection at their corresponding loci. Integrating scores of negative selection may facilitate the prioritization of candidate genes and variants in patients suspected to carry an inborn error.

5.
Cell ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296702

RESUMO

Inborn errors of human interferon gamma (IFN-γ) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report a patient with mycobacterial disease due to inherited deficiency of the transcription factor T-bet. The patient has extremely low counts of circulating Mycobacterium-reactive natural killer (NK), invariant NKT (iNKT), mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), and Vδ2+ γδ T lymphocytes, and of Mycobacterium-non reactive classic TH1 lymphocytes, with the residual populations of these cells also producing abnormally small amounts of IFN-γ. Other lymphocyte subsets develop normally but produce low levels of IFN-γ, with the exception of CD8+ αß T and non-classic CD4+ αß TH1∗ lymphocytes, which produce IFN-γ normally in response to mycobacterial antigens. Human T-bet deficiency thus underlies mycobacterial disease by preventing the development of innate (NK) and innate-like adaptive lymphocytes (iNKT, MAIT, and Vδ2+ γδ T cells) and IFN-γ production by them, with mycobacterium-specific, IFN-γ-producing, purely adaptive CD8+ αß T, and CD4+ αß TH1∗ cells unable to compensate for this deficit.

6.
J Immunol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229441

RESUMO

High-dimensional cytometry is a powerful technique for deciphering the immunopathological factors common to multiple individuals. However, rational comparisons of multiple batches of experiments performed on different occasions or at different sites are challenging because of batch effects. In this study, we describe the integration of multibatch cytometry datasets (iMUBAC), a flexible, scalable, and robust computational framework for unsupervised cell-type identification across multiple batches of high-dimensional cytometry datasets, even without technical replicates. After overlaying cells from multiple healthy controls across batches, iMUBAC learns batch-specific cell-type classification boundaries and identifies aberrant immunophenotypes in patient samples from multiple batches in a unified manner. We illustrate unbiased and streamlined immunophenotyping using both public and in-house mass cytometry and spectral flow cytometry datasets. The method is available as the R package iMUBAC (https://github.com/casanova-lab/iMUBAC).

7.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972995

RESUMO

Clinical outcome upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from silent infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have found an enrichment in rare variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 human loci known to govern Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity to influenza virus in 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia relative to 534 subjects with asymptomatic or benign infection. By testing these and other rare variants at these 13 loci, we experimentally defined LOF variants underlying autosomal-recessive or autosomal-dominant deficiencies in 23 patients (3.5%) 17 to 77 years of age. We show that human fibroblasts with mutations affecting this circuit are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. Inborn errors of TLR3- and IRF7-dependent type I IFN immunity can underlie life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with no prior severe infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/deficiência , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/deficiência , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972996

RESUMO

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon alfa-2/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
9.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960813

RESUMO

Inborn errors of TLR3-dependent IFN-α/ß- and -λ-mediated immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) can underlie herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). The respective contributions of IFN-α/ß and -λ are unknown. We report a child homozygous for a genomic deletion of the entire coding sequence and part of the 3'UTR of the last exon of IFNAR1, who died from HSE at the age of two years. An older cousin died following vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella at 12 months of age, and another 17-year-old cousin homozygous for the same variant has had other, less severe viral illnesses. The encoded IFNAR1 protein is expressed on the cell surface but is truncated and cannot interact with the tyrosine kinase TYK2. The patient's fibroblasts and EBV-B cells did not respond to IFN-α2b or IFN-ß, in terms of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, or the genome-wide induction of IFN-stimulated genes. The patient's fibroblasts were susceptible to viruses, including HSV-1, even in the presence of exogenous IFN-α2b or IFN-ß. HSE is therefore a consequence of inherited complete IFNAR1 deficiency. This viral disease occurred in natural conditions, unlike those previously reported in other patients with IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency. This experiment of Nature indicates that IFN-α/ß are essential for anti-HSV-1 immunity in the CNS.

12.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207811

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 130(6): 3158-3171, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163377

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is characterized by a selective predisposition to clinical disease caused by the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and environmental mycobacteria. The known genetic etiologies of MSMD are inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity due to mutations of 15 genes controlling the production of or response to IFN-γ. Since the first MSMD-causing mutations were reported in 1996, biallelic mutations in the genes encoding IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) and IFN-γR2 have been reported in many patients of diverse ancestries. Surprisingly, mutations of the gene encoding the IFN-γ cytokine itself have not been reported, raising the remote possibility that there might be other agonists of the IFN-γ receptor. We describe 2 Lebanese cousins with MSMD, living in Kuwait, who are both homozygous for a small deletion within the IFNG gene (c.354_357del), causing a frameshift that generates a premature stop codon (p.T119Ifs4*). The mutant allele is loss of expression and loss of function. We also show that the patients' herpesvirus Saimiri-immortalized T lymphocytes did not produce IFN-γ, a phenotype that can be rescued by retrotransduction with WT IFNG cDNA. The blood T and NK lymphocytes from these patients also failed to produce and secrete detectable amounts of IFN-γ. Finally, we show that human IFNG has evolved under stronger negative selection than IFNGR1 or IFNGR2, suggesting that it is less tolerant to heterozygous deleterious mutations than IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. This may account for the rarity of patients with autosomal-recessive, complete IFN-γ deficiency relative to patients with complete IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 deficiencies.

14.
J Exp Med ; 217(5)2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092142

RESUMO

Type I interferonopathies are monogenic disorders characterized by enhanced type I interferon (IFN-I) cytokine activity. Inherited USP18 and ISG15 deficiencies underlie type I interferonopathies by preventing the regulation of late responses to IFN-I. Specifically, USP18, being stabilized by ISG15, sterically hinders JAK1 from binding to the IFNAR2 subunit of the IFN-I receptor. We report an infant who died of autoinflammation due to a homozygous missense mutation (R148Q) in STAT2. The variant is a gain of function (GOF) for induction of the late, but not early, response to IFN-I. Surprisingly, the mutation does not enhance the intrinsic activity of the STAT2-containing transcriptional complex responsible for IFN-I-stimulated gene induction. Rather, the STAT2 R148Q variant is a GOF because it fails to appropriately traffic USP18 to IFNAR2, thereby preventing USP18 from negatively regulating responses to IFN-I. Homozygosity for STAT2 R148Q represents a novel molecular and clinical phenocopy of inherited USP18 deficiency, which, together with inherited ISG15 deficiency, defines a group of type I interferonopathies characterized by an impaired regulation of late cellular responses to IFN-I.

16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1936, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440263

RESUMO

The complement system is crucial for defense against pathogens and the removal of dying cells or immune complexes. Thus, clinical indications for possible complete complement deficiencies include, among others, recurrent mild or serious bacterial infections as well as autoimmune diseases (AID). The diagnostic approach includes functional activity measurements of the classical (CH50) and alternative pathway (AP50) and the determination of the C3 and C4 levels, followed by the quantitative analysis of individual components or regulators. When biochemical analysis reveals the causal abnormality of the complement deficiency (CD), molecular mechanisms remains frequently undetermined. Here, using direct sequencing analysis of the coding region we report the pathogenic variants spectrum that underlie the total or subtotal complement deficiency in 212 patients. We identified 107 different hemizygous, homozygous, or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in 14 complement genes [C1Qß (n = 1), C1r (n = 3), C1s (n = 2), C2 (n = 12), C3 (n = 5), C5 (n = 12), C6 (n = 9), C7 (n = 17), C8 ß (n = 7), C9 (n = 3), CFH (n = 7), CFI (n = 18), CFP (n = 10), CFD (n = 2)]. Molecular analysis identified 17 recurrent pathogenic variants in 6 genes (C2, CFH, C5, C6, C7, and C8). More than half of the pathogenic variants identified in unrelated patients were also found in healthy controls from the same geographic area. Our study confirms the strong association of meningococcal infections with terminal pathway deficiency and highlights the risk of pneumococcal and auto-immune diseases in the classical and alternative pathways. Results from this large genetic investigation provide evidence of a restricted number of molecular mechanisms leading to complement deficiency and describe the clinical potential adverse events of anti-complement therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/deficiência , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Doenças da Deficiência Hereditária de Complemento/genética , Doenças da Deficiência Hereditária de Complemento/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ativação do Complemento/genética , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Meningocócicas/genética , Infecções Meningocócicas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Blood ; 134(1): 9-21, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940614

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare severe autoimmune disorder characterized by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. In most cases, the underlying cause is unknown. We sought to identify genetic defects in pediatric ES (pES), based on a hypothesis of strong genetic determinism. In a national, prospective cohort of 203 patients with early-onset ES (median [range] age at last follow-up: 16.3 years ([1.2-41.0 years]) initiated in 2004, 80 nonselected consecutive individuals underwent genetic testing. The clinical data were analyzed as a function of the genetic findings. Fifty-two patients (65%) received a genetic diagnosis (the M+ group): 49 carried germline mutations and 3 carried somatic variants. Thirty-two (40%) had pathogenic mutations in 1 of 9 genes known to be involved in primary immunodeficiencies (TNFRSF6, CTLA4, STAT3, PIK3CD, CBL, ADAR1, LRBA, RAG1, and KRAS), whereas 20 patients (25%) carried probable pathogenic variants in 16 genes that had not previously been reported in the context of autoimmune disease. Lastly, no genetic abnormalities were found in the remaining 28 patients (35%, the M- group). The M+ group displayed more severe disease than the M- group, with a greater frequency of additional immunopathologic manifestations and a greater median number of lines of treatment. Six patients (all from the M+ group) died during the study. In conclusion, pES was potentially genetically determined in at least 65% of cases. Systematic, wide-ranging genetic screening should be offered in pES; the genetic findings have prognostic significance and may guide the choice of a targeted treatment.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/genética , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/genética , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1363-1373, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876929

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for some inherited disorders, including selected primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In the absence of a well-matched donor, HSCT from a haploidentical family donor (HIFD) may be considered. In adult recipients high-dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is increasingly used to mitigate the risks of graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, data on the use of PTCY in children (and especially those with inherited disorders) are scarce. We reviewed the outcomes of 27 children transplanted with an HIFD and PTCY for a PID (n = 22) or osteopetrosis (n = 5) in a single center. The median age was 1.5 years (range, .2 to 17). HSCT with PTCY was a primary procedure (n = 21) or a rescue procedure after graft failure (n = 6). The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in most primary HSCTs and nonmyeloablative in rescue procedures. After a median follow-up of 25.6 months, 24 of 27 patients had engrafted. Twenty-one patients are alive and have been cured of the underlying disease. The 2-year overall survival rate was 77.7%. The cumulative incidences of acute GVHD grade ≥ II, chronic GVHD, and autoimmune disease were 45.8%, 24.2%, and 29.6%, respectively. There were 2 cases of grade III acute GVHD and no extensive cGVHD. The cumulative incidences of blood viral replication and life-threatening viral events were 58% and 15.6%, respectively. There was evidence of early T cell immune reconstitution. In the absence of an HLA-identical donor, HIFD HSCT with PTCY is a viable option for patients with life-threatening inherited disorders.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Doadores de Tecidos
20.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 97(4): 360-367, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264912

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is caused by inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity. Since 1996, disease-causing mutations have been found in 11 genes, which, through allelic heterogeneity, underlie 21 different genetic disorders. We briefly review here progress in the study of molecular, cellular and clinical aspects of MSMD since the last comprehensive review published in 2014. Highlights include the discoveries of (1) a new genetic etiology, autosomal recessive signal peptide peptidase-like 2 A deficiency, (2) TYK2-deficient patients with a clinical phenotype of MSMD, (3) an allelic form of partial recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency, and (4) two forms of syndromic MSMD: RORγ/RORγT and JAK1 deficiencies. These recent findings illustrate how genetic and immunological studies of MSMD can shed a unique light onto the mechanisms of protective immunity to mycobacteria in humans.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Geografia , Humanos , Mutação/genética
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