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1.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52152

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar las principales categorías de análisis en los trabajos de conclusión de curso de los médicos egresados de la especialización en Salud de la Familia del Programa Mais Médicos. Métodos. Estudio de carácter bibliométrico de los 3021 trabajos de conclusión del curso disponibles en la base de datos del Acervo de Recursos Educativos en Salud, Universidad Abierta del Sistema Único de Salud, entre los años de 2016 y 2019. Para analizar los principales temas abordados se realizó un análisis por grupos, en dos etapas, de los descriptores referentes a cada trabajo. Resultados. De los 3021 trabajos de conclusión de curso, se analizaron 2750 con datos completos. En cuanto al perfil de los autores, hay una predominancia del sexo femenino, origen cubano y grupo etario de 31 a 40 años. Los resultados también evidencian una concentración de los núcleos de formación de los profesionales, así como de algunos conceptos alineados a los preceptos trabajados con mayor frecuencia relacionados al objeto de la atención primaria de salud. Conclusiones. El análisis del perfil de los trabajos de conclusión de curso destacó que los conceptos trabajados a lo largo del proceso de formación de los profesionales del Programa Mais Médicos se orientaron sobre todo a fortalecer la comprensión de las directrices estructurantes de la atención primaria. También logra el objetivo de acercar la capacitación médica sobre los problemas más relevantes en cada región del país.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Identify the main categories of analysis in the end-of-course projects completed by physicians who graduated in the family health specialization in the Mais Médicos Program. Methods. Bibliometric study of the 3,021 end-of-course projects found in the database of the Health Education Resources Collection (Open University of the Unified Health System) for the years 2016 to 2019. In order to analyze the main topics addressed in the projects, a two-step cluster analysis was conducted of the descriptors for each project. Results. Of the 3,021 end-of-course projects, 2,750 with complete data were analyzed. The profile of the authors was predominantly female, Cuban, and in the 31-40 years age group. The results show that professional training was concentrated in specific topics, most of them closely related to the goals of primary health care. Conclusions. The analysis of the profile of the end-of-course projects showed that the topics studied throughout the process of training the professionals in the Mais Médicos Program were focused mainly on greater understanding of the structural directives of primary care. Furthermore, the objective of focusing medical training on the most relevant problems in each region of the country was achieved.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar as principais categorias de análise nos trabalhos de conclusão de curso realizados por médicos formados na especialização em saúde da família do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM). Métodos. Realizou-se um estudo bibliométrico que incluiu 3 021 trabalhos de conclusão identificados na base de dados da Coleção de Recursos Educativos em Saúde da Universidade Aberta do Sistema Único de Saúde (UMA-SUS) para os anos de 2016 a 2019. Os principais tópicos abordados nos projetos foram estudados a partir da análise em duas etapas dos descritores. Resultados. Dos 3 021 trabalhos de conclusão, 2 750 com dados completos foram analisados. Os autores foram predominantemente do sexo feminino, cubanos e na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos. Os resultados mostram uma concentração em temas específicos, a maioria intimamente relacionada com os objetivos da atenção primária à saúde. Conclusões. A análise do perfil dos trabalhos de conclusão mostrou que os temas estudados ao longo do processo de formação dos profissionais do PMM enfocaram principalmente a maior compreensão das diretrizes estruturais da atenção primária. Além disso, foi alcançado o objetivo de direcionar a formação médica aos problemas mais relevantes em cada região do país.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Educação Continuada , Capacitação de Recursos Humanos em Saúde , Brasil , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Educação Continuada , Capacitação de Recursos Humanos em Saúde , Brasil , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Educação Continuada , Capacitação de Recursos Humanos em Saúde
2.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51559

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Comparar as tendências temporais de acesso e utilização de serviços para controle de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e diabetes mellitus (DM) em equipes com e sem a participação de profissionais do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM). Métodos. Utilizou-se um delineamento analítico-descritivo, com comparação entre equipes participantes do PMM (intervenção) e não participantes, em uma abordagem quase-experimental em série temporal. Comparouse o desempenho de uma amostra de 30 000 equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família em 2012 e 20 000 equipes em 2015. Os padrões nos dois grupos foram analisados pela técnica de diferença-em-diferença com estratificação por região geopolítica, porte populacional e perfil municipal. A média semestral de atendimentos foi estimada pela divisão do número total de consultas de DM e HAS realizadas por médicos e enfermeiros em determinada equipe de saúde pelo total de usuários com DM/HAS cadastrados no mesmo local e período. Uma média de consultas/usuário maior do que 14,2 para DM e 10,8 para HAS foi considerada como outlier, sendo as equipes com essas médias excluídas das análises. Resultados. A análise de diferença-em-diferença indicou melhor desempenho na oferta de consulta para DM (P < 0,001) e HAS (P < 0,001) entre as equipes com PMM em comparação àquelas sem o programa. O efeito foi mais pronunciado nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, em municípios com mais de 20% da população em extrema pobreza e em municípios de todos os portes populacionais. Conclusões. Os resultados mostram que o PMM amplia o acesso e a utilização dos serviços de saúde.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To compare temporal trends in access and utilization of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) services provided by teams with or without physicians from the More Doctors Program (PMM). Method. An analytical-descriptive design was used, with comparison of teams that joined the PMM (intervention) vs. non-participants, using a quasi-experimental time series approach. The study compared the performance of a sample of 30 000 Family Health Strategy teams in 2012 and 20 000 teams in 2015. The patterns in both groups were analyzed using the difference-in-difference technique with stratification according to geopolitical region, population size, and municipal profile. The mean number of consultations per semester was estimated by dividing the total number of DM and HAS consultations provided by physicians and nurses in a given health care team by the total number of users with DM/HAS registered in the same location and period. A mean number of consultations/user > 14.2 for DM and > 10.8 for HAS was considered as an outlier, and thus the teams with these means were excluded from the analyses. Results. The difference-in-difference analysis indicated better performance in the provision of DM (P < 0.001) and SAH (P < 0.001) services among PMM teams vs. non-PMM teams. The effect was more pronounced in the North and Northeast regions, in municipalities with more than 20% of the population living in extreme poverty, and in municipalities of all population sizes. Conclusions. The results show that the PMM increased access and utilization of health care services.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Comparar las tendencias temporales del acceso y de la utilización de los servicios para el control de la hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS) y la diabetes mellitus (DM) realizado por los equipos de salud de la familia que trabajan solos y por los que cuentan con la participación de profesionales del Programa Mais Médicos (PMM). Métodos. Se utilizó un diseño analítico y descriptivo, con comparación entre los equipos con participantes del PMM (intervención) y sin ellos, con un método cuasiexperimental de series temporales. Se comparó el desempeño de una muestra de 30 000 equipos que trabajaron dentro del marco de la estrategia de salud de la familia en el 2012 y de 20 000 equipos en el 2015. Se analizaron los patrones observados en ambos grupos con la técnica de doble diferencia con estratificación por zona geopolítica, tamaño de la población y perfil municipal. Se estimó la media semestral de casos atendidos con la división del número total de consultas por DM y HAS a cargo de médicos y miembros del personal de enfermería de un determinado equipo de salud por el total de usuarios con DM y HAS registrados en el mismo lugar y período. Se consideró que una media de consultas por DM por usuario mayor de 14,2 y por HAS mayor de 10,8 era un valor atípico y, por lo tanto, los equipos con esas medias se excluyeron de los análisis. Resultados. El análisis de doble diferencia indicó un mejor desempeño en la atención de consultas por DM (P < 0,001) y por HAS (P < 0,001) a cargo de los equipos con participantes del PMM en comparación con los que trabajaron sin ese programa. El efecto fue más pronunciado en las regiones norte y nordeste, en los municipios con más de 20% de la población en condiciones de extrema pobreza y en municipios de todos los tamaños de población. Conclusiones. Los resultados muestran que el PMM amplía el acceso y la utilización de los servicios de salud.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hipertensão , Brasil , Diabetes Mellitus , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hipertensão , Brasil , Hipertensão , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
3.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51075

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever as representações de ser mulher das usuárias do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM), com perspectiva de gênero e raça, e as mudanças que o PMM trouxe quanto ao empoderamento e cuidado da saúde. Métodos. Trata-se de um estudo de caso descritivo, de corte transversal. O trabalho de campo foi realizado mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas, aplicação de uma técnica evocativa de associação de palavras e grupos focais em municípios com médicos cubanos, com amostras de tipo nominal para escolha dos municípios e de tipo intencional para a escolha de participantes. O tamanho das amostras foi definido em campo com base na técnica da saturação teórica. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de conteúdo e análise prototípica. Resultados. A cobertura da atenção básica foi fortalecida com os aportes do programa, segundo os quatro gestores entrevistados. As mulheres (103 na técnica evocativa e 120 nos grupos focais) relataram mudanças no modelo de atendimento, que se tornou mais humanizado, com impacto sobre sua percepção sobre os serviços de saúde, sobre a consulta médica, sobre os médicos e sobre a imagem de si mesmas e, em menor medida, sobre as práticas de cuidado da saúde. Conclusões. O PMM trouxe ganhos no empoderamento individual das mulheres, com reflexos potencialmente positivos para os comportamentos em saúde.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe the representations of being a woman by users of the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM) in Brazil, exploring the perspectives of gender and race, and the changes produced by PMM in terms of empowerment and health care. Methods. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The field work was performed using semi-structured interviews, with application of an evocative word technique and focal groups in municipalities with Cuban physicians, with nominal selection of municipalities and intentional selection of participants. The size of the sample was defined in the field based on saturation. The data were analyzed by content and prototypical analyses. Results. Primary health care coverage was strengthened by the PMM, according to the four municipal health secretaries interviewed. Participants (103 in the evocative technique and 120 from focal groups) reported changes in the model of care, which became more humanized, with impact on their perception of health care services, medical consultations, and physicians, on the image they had of themselves and, to a lesser extent, on their health care practices. Conclusions. PMM produced individual empowerment gains for study participants, with potentially positive impacts on health care behaviors.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir las representaciones de la condición de ser mujer hechas por las usuarias del programa Mais Médicos, con una perspectiva de género y raza, y los cambios producidos por este programa en materia de empoderamiento y cuidado de la salud. Métodos. Se trata de un estudio de caso descriptivo y transversal. El trabajo de campo se realizó mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, con aplicación de una técnica evocadora de asociación de palabras y grupos focales en municipios con presencia de médicos cubanos, con muestras de tipo nominal para la selección de los municipios y de tipo intencional para la selección de las participantes. El tamaño de las muestras se definió sobre el terreno con base en la técnica de la saturación teórica. Los datos se sometieron a análisis prototípico y de contenido. Resultados. Los aportes del programa fortalecieron la cobertura de la atención básica, según lo expresado por los cuatro gestores entrevistados. Las mujeres (103 de las entrevistadas con la técnica evocadora y 120 de los grupos focales) relataron cambios en los modelos de atención que hicieron que la atención se torne más humanizada y que incidieron en su percepción de los servicios de salud, las consultas médicas, los médicos, la imagen de sí mismas y, en menor grado, las prácticas de cuidado de la salud. Conclusiones. El programa Mais Médicos implicó adelantos en materia de empoderamiento individual de las mujeres, con repercusiones potencialmente favorables en los patrones de comportamiento relacionados con la salud.


Assuntos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Direitos da Mulher , Políticas Públicas Antidiscriminatórias , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Direitos da Mulher , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Políticas Públicas Antidiscriminatórias , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Políticas Públicas Antidiscriminatórias , Direitos da Mulher , Assistência Integral à Saúde
4.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51944

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. O presente artigo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) nas taxas de internação por condições sensíveis à atenção primária (ICSAP) por faixa etária no Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo longitudinal com abordagem em painel dinâmico. A unidade de análise foi o município, considerando os 5 570 municípios brasileiros no período de 2008 a 2016. Para avaliar o efeito do PMM, considerou-se a exposição do município ao programa. Identificaram-se os municípios em que pelo menos 50% dos médicos da atenção primária eram do PMM. Testes de robustez com exposições alternativas ao programa (30%, 40%, 60% e 70%) foram realizados. Um conjunto de variáveis de vulnerabilidade foi incluído como controle: número de médicos da APS e de enfermeiros/técnicos de enfermagem/auxiliares de enfermagem da Estratégia Saúde da Família por 10 000 habitantes; número de leitos hospitalares por 10 000 habitantes; índice de desenvolvimento municipal de educação e de renda e emprego; percentual da população com plano de saúde; e percentual de domicílios com rede de esgoto. Detectou-se um efeito consistente do PMM na redução das ICSAP. Esse resultado foi encontrado para todas as faixas etárias, apresentando maior efeito entre crianças (0 a 4 anos), com redução correspondente a 3,7% nas taxas de ICSAP. Em adultos (20 a 64 anos), a redução foi de 3,1%. Além disso, verificou-se que quanto maior a exposição do município ao PMM, maior o efeito na redução das ICSAP. Os municípios mais expostos ao PMM foram os municípios em maior condição de vulnerabilidade. Em conclusão, o PMM contribuiu para a melhoria da saúde da população, principalmente em áreas de alta vulnerabilidade.


[ABSTRACT]. The present article aimed at evaluating the effect of the More Doctors Program (PMM) on primary care sensitive conditions (PCSC) by age group in Brazil. A longitudinal study was performed using a dynamic panel data approach. Municipalities were considered as the unit of analysis; the 5 570 Brazilian municipalities existing in Brazil from 2008 to 2016 were analyzed. The effect of the PMM was evaluated according to the exposure of municipalities to the program. For that, the municipalities in which at least 50% of primary care physicians were linked to the PMM were identified. Robustness tests with alternative exposures to the program (30%, 40%, 60% and 70%) were performed. A set of vulnerability variables was included for control: number or primary care physicians, number of Family Health Strategy nurses/nursing technicians or assistants per 10 000 population; number of hospital beds per 10 000 population; municipal education development and income/employment indices; percentage of population with health insurance plans; and percentage of households with sewer lines. A consistent effect of the PMM on PCSC reduction was detected. This result was observed for all age groups, with greater impact on the 0 to 4 year-old group, in which a 3.7% reduction in PCSC rates was recorded. In adults (20 to 64 years), a 3.1% reduction was recorded. The results show that the higher the exposure to the PMM, the stronger the effect on PCSC reduction. Also, the municipalities with higher exposure to the PMM were the most vulnerable. In conclusion, the PMM contributed to improve the health of the population, especially in high vulnerability areas.


[RESUMEN]. El objetivo de este artículo fue evaluar el efecto del Programa Más Médicos (PMM) en las tasas de hospitalización por enfermedades que podrían tratarse en la atención primaria por grupo etario en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio longitudinal con un método basado en una cohorte dinámica. Con el municipio como unidad de análisis, el estudio se extendió a los 5 570 municipios brasileños en el período 2008-2016. Para evaluar el efecto del PMM, se consideró la exposición de cada municipio al programa. Se identificaron los municipios donde al menos 50% de los médicos de atención primaria pertenecían al PMM. Se realizaron pruebas de robustez con diferentes grados de exposición al programa (30%, 40%, 60% y 70%). Se empleó como testigo un conjunto de variables de vulnerabilidad, a saber, el número de médicos de atención primaria de salud y de miembros del personal profesional, técnico y auxiliar de enfermería de la estrategia de salud de la familia por 10 000 habitantes; el número de camas hospitalarias por 10 000 habitantes; el índice de desarrollo municipal en materia de educación, ingresos y empleo; el porcentaje de la población con planes de atención de salud y el porcentaje de domicilios con red de alcantarillado. Se observó un marcado efecto del PMM en la reducción de la tasa de hospitalización por enfermedades que podrían tratarse en la atención primaria. Ese resultado se obtuvo en todos los grupos etarios, con un mayor efecto en los niños (de 0 a 4 años) cuyas tasas de hospitalización disminuyeron 3,7%. En adultos (de 20 a 64 años), la reducción fue de 3,1%. Además, se verificó que cuanto mayor era la exposición del municipio al PMM, más intenso era el efecto del programa en la reducción de dichas tasas. Los municipios más expuestos al PMM fueron los más vulnerables. En conclusión, el PMM contribuyó a mejorar la salud de la población, principalmente en las zonas con un alto índice de vulnerabilidad.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização , Brasil , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização , Brasil , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização
5.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202340

RESUMO

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood. From the circulation, they are quickly mobilized to sites of inflammation and/or infection. At the affected tissues, neutrophils display an impressive array of antimicrobial functions, including degranulation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytosis, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Because neutrophils are the first type of leukocytes to arrive at affected tissues and display potent microbicidal functions, they have been classically viewed as the first line of defense. In this view, neutrophils only destroy invading pathogens and then quietly die at the site of infection. However, in the last decade it has become increasingly evident that neutrophils are much more complex cells having not only effector functions in the innate immune response, but also the capacity of modulating the adaptive immune response, via direct interaction with, or by producing cytokines that affect dendritic cells and lymphocytes. In addition, neutrophil heterogeneity with clear different functional phenotypes has been recently described particularly in cancer and inflammation. This review provides an overview on the life of a neutrophil describing its beginnings, lifespan, and their principal functions in innate and adaptive immunity. Also, neutrophil heterogeneity and our current understanding of neutrophil contributions to health and disease are discussed.

6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(6): e001827, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798991

RESUMO

Background: Brazil faces huge health inequality challenges since not all municipalities have access to primary care physicians. The More Doctors Programme (MDP), which started in 2013, was born out of this recognition, providing more than 18 000 doctors in the first few years. However, the programme faced a restructuring at the end of 2018. Methods: We construct a panel municipality-level data between 2008 and 2017 for 5570 municipalities in Brazil. We employ a difference-in-differences empirical approach, combined with propensity score matching, to study the impacts of the programme on hospitalisations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and its costs. We explore heterogeneous impacts by age of the patients, type of admissions, and municipalities that were given priority. Findings: The MDP reduced ambulatory admissions by 2.9 per cent (p value <0.10) and the costs by 3.7 per cent (p value <0.01) over the mean. The reduction was driven by infectious gastroenteritis, bacterial pneumonias, asthma, kidney and urinary infections, and pelvic inflammatory disease. The results held on the subsample of municipalities targeted by the programme. By comparing the benefits of the programme from the reduction in the costs of ambulatory admissions to the total financial costs of the MDP, the impacts allowed the government to save at least BRL 27.88 (US$ 6.9 million) between 2014 and 2017. Conclusion: Addressing inequalities in the distribution of the medical workforce remains a global challenge. Our results inform the discussion on the current strategy adopted in Brazil to increase access to primary healthcare in underserved areas.

7.
IDCases ; 18: e00618, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440450

RESUMO

Fusarium keratomycosis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and produces a poor outcome, which can affect healthy patients. Keratomycoses are rare and can be underdiagnosed, thus, direct microscopic examination and culture are essential for an early specific diagnosis and must be taken into consideration to establish the most effective treatment and avoid severe complications. Herein, we present a case of a healthy patient, who was diagnosed with Fusarium solani keratitis. He developed a corneal infection without an obvious history of trauma, and any comorbidity but with a history of contact with juice of herbs during an indigenous healing practice, which was the most likely cause for the development of the fungal infection. He was treated with intrastromal voriconazole and systemic itraconazole, with a good clinical course, however with sequelae of decreased visual acuity.

8.
IDCases ; 17: e00564, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193733

RESUMO

Acute transverse myelitis is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder characterized by relatively acute onset of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a very rare cause of transverse myelitis. We present a patient with tuberculosis presenting with meningitis and transverse myelitis who had marked clinical improvement and neurologic recovery after treatment of tuberculosis and intravenous steroid pulses.

9.
J Leukoc Biol ; 105(6): 1167-1181, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913315

RESUMO

Amoebiasis is an infection of global importance, caused by the eukaryotic parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Pathogenic E. histolytica is associated worldwide with over a million cases of amoebic dysentery, colitis, and amoebic liver abscess. In contrast, the nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar does not cause these diseases, although it is commonly found in the same areas as pathogenic amoeba. Entamoeba histolytica infection is usually associated with infiltrating neutrophils. These neutrophils appear to play a defensive role against this parasite, by mechanisms not completely understood. Recently, our group reported that neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) are produced in response to E. histolytica trophozoites. But, there is no information on whether nonpathogenic E. dispar can also induce NET formation. In this report, we explored the possibility that E. dispar leads to NET formation. Neutrophils were stimulated by E. histolytica trophozoites or by E. dispar trophozoites, and NET formation was assessed by video microscopy. NET induced by E. histolytica were important for trapping and killing amoebas. In contrast, E. dispar did not induce NET formation in any condition. Also E. dispar did not induce neutrophil degranulation or reactive oxygen species production. In addition, E. histolytica-induced NET formation required alive amoebas and it was inhibited by galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and lactose. These data show that only alive pathogenic E. histolytica activates neutrophils to produce NET, and suggest that recognition of the parasite involves a carbohydrate with an axial HO- group at carbon 4 of a hexose.

10.
J Neuroimmunol ; 327: 22-35, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683425

RESUMO

The expression of elements of the cholinergic system has been demonstrated in non-neuronal cells, such as immune cells, where acetylcholine modulates innate and adaptive responses. However, the study of the non-neuronal cholinergic system has focused on lymphocyte cholinergic mechanisms, with less attention to its role of innate cells. Considering this background, the aims of this review are 1) to review information regarding the cholinergic components of innate immune system cells; 2) to discuss the effect of cholinergic stimuli on cell functions; 3) and to describe the importance of cholinergic stimuli on host immunocompetence, in order to set the base for the design of intervention strategies in the biomedical field.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(3): 718-728, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biannual ultrasound (US) is recommended as the clinical screening tool for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The effectiveness of surveillance according to the place where US is performed has not been previously reported. AIMS: To compare the effectiveness of US performed in the center responsible for follow-up as opposed to US proceeding from centers other than that of follow-up. METHODS: This is a multicenter cohort study from Argentina. The last US was categorized as done in the same center or done in a different center from the institution of the patient's follow-up. Surveillance failure was defined as HCC diagnosis not meeting Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages 0-A or when no nodules were observed at HCC diagnosis. RESULTS: From 533 patients with HCC, 62.4% were under routine surveillance with a surveillance failure of 38.8%. After adjusting for a propensity score matching, BCLC stage and lead-time survival bias, surveillance was associated with a significant survival benefit [HR of 0.51 (CI 0.38; 0.69)]. Among patients under routine surveillance (n = 345), last US was performed in the same center in 51.6% and in a different center in 48.4%. Similar rates of surveillance failure were observed between US done in the same or in a different center (32% vs. 26.3%; P = 0.25). Survival was not significantly different between both surveillance modalities [HR 0.79 (CI 0.53; 1.20)]. CONCLUSIONS: Routine surveillance for HCC in the daily practice improved survival either when performed in the same center or in a different center from that of patient's follow-up.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Idoso , Argentina , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49564

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Apesar de decorridos 40 anos da divulgação dos princípios de Alma-Ata, ainda persistem desafios para a consolidação da atenção primária à saúde (APS) como eixo norteador dos sistemas de saúde ao redor do globo. Dentre os desafios ainda presentes, merecem destaque as questões associadas à iniquidade na distribuição de recursos humanos em saúde. A experiência do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) no Brasil é um exemplo de proposta voltada para a abordagem dessa agenda inconclusa de Alma-Ata. Ao modificar aspectos centrais da formação, provimento e alocação de profissionais médicos, o PMM mostrou-se uma saída viável para minimizar os desafios de escassez de profissionais. As avaliações do PMM, embora incipientes, produziram evidências positivas quanto a ampliação do acesso e melhoria da qualidade da APS no Brasil, um país de médio desenvolvimento econômico. Apesar disso, é premente a geração de evidências mais sólidas a respeito do impacto do PMM sobre indicadores de desempenho da APS. O debate apresentado ao longo deste trabalho discute a necessidade de se viabilizar estudos quase-experimentais capazes de mensurar o impacto do PMM junto à saúde da população. O artigo propõe, então, um conjunto de diretrizes que pode se configurar como um modelo aplicável para abordar desafios associados à escassez de profissionais em países de médio e baixo desenvolvimento econômico.


[ABSTRACT]. Despite the 40 years elapsed since the Alma-Ata principles were first launched, a series of challenges still persists for the consolidation of primary health care (PHC) as the backbone of health care systems around the world. Among these challenges, especially noteworthy are the issues associated with the inequality in the allocation of human resources. The experience of the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM) in Brazil is an example of initiatives that tackle this inconclusive Alma-Ata agenda. By changing key aspects of physician training, provision, and allocation, PMM was shown to be a feasible alternative to minimize the challenge of physician shortage. Assessments of PMM, even though preliminary, have produced positive evidence showing increase in access and improvement of PHC quality in Brazil, a middle income country. Nevertheless, the generation of more robust evidence regarding the impact of PMM on PHC performance indicators is urgent. The discussion proposed in the present article emphasizes the need to prioritize quasi-experimental studies to measure the impact of PMM on population health. The article thus introduces a set of guidelines that may become a useful model to approach challenges associated with the shortage of health care professionals in low and middle income countries.


[RESUMEN]. A pesar de que han transcurrido 40 años desde la proclamación de los principios de Alma-Ata, aún persisten desafíos para la consolidación de la atención primaria de salud (APS) como columna vertebral de los sistemas de atención de salud en todo el mundo. Entre estos desafíos, se destacan los problemas asociados con la desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos. La experiencia del Programa Más Médicos (PMM) en Brasil es un ejemplo de las iniciativas que abordan esta agenda inconclusa de Alma-Ata. Al cambiar aspectos clave de la capacitación, la provisión y la asignación de médicos, el PMM demostró ser una alternativa viable para minimizar el desafío de la escasez de profesionales. Las evaluaciones del PMM, aunque preliminares, han producido evidencias positivas que muestran un aumento en el acceso y mejora de la calidad de la APS en Brasil, un país de ingresos medios. Sin embargo, urge generar evidencia más sólida sobre el impacto del PMM en los indicadores de desempeño de la APS. La discusión propuesta en este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de priorizar estudios cuasiexperimentales para medir el impacto del PMM en la salud de la población. El artículo propone un conjunto de directrices que pueden convertirse en un modelo útil para abordar los desafíos asociados con la escasez de profesionales de la salud en países de ingresos bajos y medios.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos , Recursos Humanos , Assistência à Saúde , Distribuição de Médicos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Distribuição de Médicos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Distribuição de Médicos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023352

RESUMO

Amoebiasis, the disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica is the third leading cause of human deaths among parasite infections. E. histolytica was reported associated with around 100 million cases of amoebic dysentery, colitis and amoebic liver abscess that lead to almost 50,000 fatalities worldwide in 2010. E. histolytica infection is associated with the induction of inflammation characterized by a large number of infiltrating neutrophils. These neutrophils have been implicated in defense against this parasite, by mechanisms not completely described. The neutrophil antimicrobial mechanisms include phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Recently, our group reported that NETs are also produced in response to E. histolytica trophozoites. But, the mechanism for NETs induction remains unknown. In this report we explored the possibility that E. histolytica leads to NETs formation via a signaling pathway similar to the pathways activated by PMA or the Fc receptor FcγRIIIb. Neutrophils were stimulated by E. histolytica trophozoites and the effect of various pharmacological inhibitors on amoeba-induced NETs formation was assessed. Selective inhibitors of Raf, MEK, and NF-κB prevented E. histolytica-induced NET formation. In contrast, inhibitors of PKC, TAK1, and NADPH-oxidase did not block E. histolytica-induced NETs formation. E. histolytica induced phosphorylation of ERK in a Raf and MEK dependent manner. These data show that E. histolytica activates a signaling pathway to induce NETs formation, that involves Raf/MEK/ERK, but it is independent of PKC, TAK1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, amoebas activate neutrophils via a different pathway from the pathways activated by PMA or the IgG receptor FcγRIIIb.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica/imunologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Quinases raf/metabolismo , Humanos , Trofozoítos/imunologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922599

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA fibers decorated with histones and antimicrobial proteins from cytoplasmic granules released into the extracellular space in a process denominated NETosis. The molecular pathways involved in NETosis have not been completely understood. Classical NETosis mechanisms involve the neutrophil elastase (NE) translocation to nucleus due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (NOX2) or the peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) activation in response to an increase in extracellular calcium influx; both mechanisms result in DNA decondensation. Previously, we reported that trophozoites and lipopeptidophosphoglycan from Entamoeba histolytica trigger NET release in human neutrophils. Here, we demonstrated in a quantitative manner that NETs were rapidly form upon treatment with amoebic trophozoites and involved both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NETs formation depended on amoeba viability as heat-inactivated or paraformaldehyde-fixed amoebas were not able to induce NETs. Interestingly, ROS were not detected in neutrophils during their interaction with amoebas, which could explain why NOX2 inhibition using apocynin did not affect this NETosis. Surprisingly, whereas calcium chelation reduced NET release induced by amoebas, PAD4 inhibition by GSK484 failed to block DNA extrusion but, as expected, abolished NETosis induced by the calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, NE translocation to the nucleus and serine-protease activity were necessary for NET release caused by amoeba. These data support the idea that E. histolytica trophozoites trigger NETosis by a rapid non-classical mechanism and that different mechanisms of NETs release exist depending on the stimuli used.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica/metabolismo , Entamebíase/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trofozoítos/metabolismo , Acetofenonas/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose , Cálcio/metabolismo , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/parasitologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/efeitos dos fármacos , Necrose , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/parasitologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/metabolismo , Trofozoítos/genética
15.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 34(9): 1429-1437, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721664

RESUMO

The present study aimed to compare echocardiography measurements of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and other risk factors regarding their ability to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Outcomes of 107 patients (86 males, 21 females, mean age 63.6 years old) submitted to diagnostic echocardiography and coronary angiography were prospectively analyzed. EAT (measures over the right ventricle, interventricular groove and complete bulk of EAT) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed by echocardiography. Coronary complexity was evaluated by Syntax score. Primary endpoints were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE's), composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, intra-stent re-stenosis and episodes of decompensate heart failure requiring hospital attention during a mean follow up of 15.94 ± 3.6 months. Mean EAT thickness was 4.6 ± 1.9 mm; and correlated with Syntax score and body mass index; negatively correlated with LVEF. Twenty-three cases of MACE's were recorded during follow up, who showed higher EAT. Diagnostic ability of EAT to discriminate MACE's was comparable to LVEF (AUROC > 0.5); but higher than Syntax score. Quartile comparison of EAT revealed that measurement of the complete bulk of EAT provided a better discrimination range for MACE's, and higher, more significant adjusted risk (cutoff 4.6 mm, RR = 3.91; 95% CI 1.01-15.08; p = 0.04) than the other risk factors. We concluded that echocardiographic measurement of EAT showed higher predicting ability for MACE's than the other markers tested, in patients with CAD. Whether location for echocardiographic measurement of EAT impacts the diagnostic performance of this method deserves further study.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 77: 131-138, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605503

RESUMO

In crustaceans, lectins and hemocytes of the innate immune system provide the first line of defense. Although evidence points to the potential role of lectins in regulating hemocyte activity, the processes underlying the lectin activation have not been evaluated. In the present study, the receptor for CqL, a humoral lectin from Cherax quadricarinatus specific for galactose/sialic acid, was identified in a granular subset of hemocytes. The CqL receptor (CqLR) is a 490-kDa glycoprotein, composed of four identical 120-kDa subunits. As shown by immunohistochemistry, CqL at 7.5 µg/mL as optimal dose, after 2 min, induced, specifically on granular hemocytes, increased phosphorylation of serine (152%), threonine (192%), and tyrosine (242%) as compared with non-treated hemocytes; moreover, CqL induced increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Specific kinase inhibitors showed inhibition (P < 0.001) of ROS production induced by CqL. These results strongly suggest that CqL actively participated in the generation of ROS through kinases induced by a CqLR in a subset of granular hemocytes of the crayfish C. quadricarinatus. The results provide strong evidence that CqL activates, through specific granular hemocytes, receptors that modulate cellular functions in C. quadricarinatus.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/sangue , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Hemócitos/imunologia , Lectinas/sangue , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Front Physiol ; 9: 113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515456

RESUMO

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in the circulation, and have been regarded as first line of defense in the innate arm of the immune system. They capture and destroy invading microorganisms, through phagocytosis and intracellular degradation, release of granules, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps after detecting pathogens. Neutrophils also participate as mediators of inflammation. The classical view for these leukocytes is that neutrophils constitute a homogenous population of terminally differentiated cells with a unique function. However, evidence accumulated in recent years, has revealed that neutrophils present a large phenotypic heterogeneity and functional versatility, which place neutrophils as important modulators of both inflammation and immune responses. Indeed, the roles played by neutrophils in homeostatic conditions as well as in pathological inflammation and immune processes are the focus of a renovated interest in neutrophil biology. In this review, I present the concept of neutrophil phenotypic and functional heterogeneity and describe several neutrophil subpopulations reported to date. I also discuss the role these subpopulations seem to play in homeostasis and disease.

18.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 30(4): 376-383, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Adherence to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging algorithm for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma is challenging in the daily practice. We aimed to analyze adherence to BCLC along with its effect on patient survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in 14 hospitals from Argentina including patients with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (2009-2016). Adherence was considered when the first treatment was the one recommended by the BCLC. RESULTS: Overall, 708 patients were included. At diagnosis, BCLC stages were as follows: stage 0 4%, A 43%, B 22%, C 9% and D 22%. Overall, 53% of the patients were treated according to BCLC, 24% were undertreated, and 23% overtreated. Adherence to BCLC increased to 63% in subsequent treatments. Independent factors associated with adherence to BCLC were the presence of portal hypertension [odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.39] and BCLC stage C (odds ratio: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12-0.72). In a multivariable model adjusting for portal hypertension and BCLC stages, adherence to BCLC showed improved survival (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.87). CONCLUSION: Adherence to BCLC represents a challenge in the daily practice, with almost half of the patients being treated accordingly, showing that the decision-making process should be tailored to each individual patient.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Idoso , Algoritmos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
World J Hepatol ; 10(1): 41-50, 2018 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399277

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate any changing trends in the etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Argentina during the last years. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted by 14 regional hospitals starting in 2009 through 2016. All adult patients with newly diagnosed HCC either with pathology or imaging criteria were included. Patients were classified as presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) either by histology or clinically, provided that all other etiologies of liver disease were ruled out, fatty liver was present on abdominal ultrasound and alcohol consumption was excluded. Complete follow-up was assessed in all included subjects since the date of HCC diagnosis until death or last medical visit. RESULTS: A total of 708 consecutive adults with HCC were included. Six out of 14 hospitals were liver transplant centers (n = 484). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 27.7%. Overall, HCV was the main cause of liver disease related with HCC (37%) including cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, followed by alcoholic liver disease 20.8%, NAFLD 11.4%, cryptogenic 9.6%, HBV 5.4% infection, cholestatic disease and autoimmune hepatitis 2.2%, and other causes 9.9%. A 6-fold increase in the percentage corresponding to NAFLD-HCC was detected when the starting year, i.e., 2009 was compared to the last one, i.e., 2015 (4.3% vs 25.6%; P < 0.0001). Accordingly, a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus was present in NAFLD-HCC group 61.7% when compared to other than NAFLD-HCC 23.3% (P < 0.0001). Lower median AFP values at HCC diagnosis were observed between NAFLD-HCC and non-NAFLD groups (6.6 ng/mL vs 26 ng/mL; P = 0.02). Neither NAFLD nor other HCC etiologies were associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: The growing incidence of NAFLD-HCC documented in the United States and Europe is also observed in Argentina, a confirmation with important Public Health implications.

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