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1.
Science ; 373(6554): 541-547, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326236

RESUMO

Repurposing drugs as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drawn much attention. Beginning with sigma receptor ligands and expanding to other drugs from screening in the field, we became concerned that phospholipidosis was a shared mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of many repurposed drugs. For all of the 23 cationic amphiphilic drugs we tested, including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, amiodarone, and four others already in clinical trials, phospholipidosis was monotonically correlated with antiviral efficacy. Conversely, drugs active against the same targets that did not induce phospholipidosis were not antiviral. Phospholipidosis depends on the physicochemical properties of drugs and does not reflect specific target-based activities-rather, it may be considered a toxic confound in early drug discovery. Early detection of phospholipidosis could eliminate these artifacts, enabling a focus on molecules with therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Lipidoses/induzido quimicamente , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/toxicidade , COVID-19/virologia , Cátions , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12310, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112877

RESUMO

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and has few effective treatments. We applied a computational drug repositioning pipeline to SARS-CoV-2 differential gene expression signatures derived from publicly available data. We utilized three independent published studies to acquire or generate lists of differentially expressed genes between control and SARS-CoV-2-infected samples. Using a rank-based pattern matching strategy based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Statistic, the signatures were queried against drug profiles from Connectivity Map (CMap). We validated 16 of our top predicted hits in live SARS-CoV-2 antiviral assays in either Calu-3 or 293T-ACE2 cells. Validation experiments in human cell lines showed that 11 of the 16 compounds tested to date (including clofazimine, haloperidol and others) had measurable antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. These initial results are encouraging as we continue to work towards a further analysis of these predicted drugs as potential therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
3.
Cell Rep ; 35(7): 109133, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984267

RESUMO

Effective control of COVID-19 requires antivirals directed against SARS-CoV-2. We assessed 10 hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease-inhibitor drugs as potential SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. There is a striking structural similarity of the substrate binding clefts of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) and HCV NS3/4A protease. Virtual docking experiments show that these HCV drugs can potentially bind into the Mpro substrate-binding cleft. We show that seven HCV drugs inhibit both SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protease activity and SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in Vero and/or human cells. However, their Mpro inhibiting activities did not correlate with their antiviral activities. This conundrum is resolved by demonstrating that four HCV protease inhibitor drugs, simeprevir, vaniprevir, paritaprevir, and grazoprevir inhibit the SARS CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). HCV drugs that inhibit PLpro synergize with the viral polymerase inhibitor remdesivir to inhibit virus replication, increasing remdesivir's antiviral activity as much as 10-fold, while those that only inhibit Mpro do not synergize with remdesivir.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , COVID-19/virologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501437

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in millions of deaths worldwide and massive societal and economic burden. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2, known as B.1.1.7, was first detected in the United Kingdom and is spreading in several other countries, heightening public health concern and raising questions as to the resulting effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutic interventions. We and others previously identified host-directed therapies with antiviral efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Less prone to the development of therapy resistance, host-directed drugs represent promising therapeutic options to combat emerging viral variants as host genes possess a lower propensity to mutate compared to viral genes. Here, in the first study of the full-length B.1.1.7 variant virus , we find two host-directed drugs, plitidepsin (aplidin; inhibits translation elongation factor eEF1A) and ralimetinib (inhibits p38 MAP kinase cascade), as well as remdesivir, to possess similar antiviral activity against both the early-lineage SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.1.7 variant, evaluated in both human gastrointestinal and lung epithelial cell lines. We find that plitidepsin is over an order of magnitude more potent than remdesivir against both viruses. These results highlight the importance of continued development of host-directed therapeutics to combat current and future coronavirus variant outbreaks.

5.
Science ; 371(6532): 926-931, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495306

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins interact with the eukaryotic translation machinery, and inhibitors of translation have potent antiviral effects. We found that the drug plitidepsin (aplidin), which has limited clinical approval, possesses antiviral activity (90% inhibitory concentration = 0.88 nM) that is more potent than remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by a factor of 27.5, with limited toxicity in cell culture. Through the use of a drug-resistant mutant, we show that the antiviral activity of plitidepsin against SARS-CoV-2 is mediated through inhibition of the known target eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A). We demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of plitidepsin treatment in two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a reduction of viral replication in the lungs by two orders of magnitude using prophylactic treatment. Our results indicate that plitidepsin is a promising therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/biossíntese , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas/biossíntese , Fosfoproteínas/genética , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 357, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasites can exert selection pressure on their hosts through effects on survival, on reproductive success, on sexually selected ornament, with important ecological and evolutionary consequences, such as changes in population viability. Consequently, hemoparasites have become the focus of recent avian studies. Infection varies significantly among taxa. Various factors might explain the differences in infection among taxa, including habitat, climate, host density, the presence of vectors, life history and immune defence. Feeding behaviour can also be relevant both through increased exposure to vectors and consumption of secondary metabolites with preventative or therapeutic effects that can reduce parasite load. However, the latter has been little investigated. Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are a good model to investigate these topics, as they are known to use biological control against ectoparasites and to feed on toxic food. We investigated the presence of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium), intracellular haemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon), unicellular flagellate protozoans (Trypanosoma) and microfilariae in 19 Psittaciformes species from a range of habitats in the Indo-Malayan, Australasian and Neotropical regions. We gathered additional data on hemoparasites in wild Psittaciformes from the literature. We considered factors that may control the presence of hemoparasites in the Psittaciformes, compiling information on diet, habitat, and climate. Furthermore, we investigated the role of diet in providing antiparasitic secondary metabolites that could be used as self-medication to reduce parasite load. RESULTS: We found hemoparasites in only two of 19 species sampled. Among them, all species that consume at least one food item known for its secondary metabolites with antimalarial, trypanocidal or general antiparasitic properties, were free from hemoparasites. In contrast, the infected parrots do not consume food items with antimalarial or even general antiparasitic properties. We found that the two infected species in this study consumed omnivorous diets. When we combined our data with data from studies previously investigating blood parasites in wild parrots, the positive relationship between omnivorous diets and hemoparasite infestation was confirmed. Individuals from open habitats were less infected than those from forests. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of food items known for their secondary metabolites with antimalarial, trypanocidal or general antiparasitic properties, as well as the higher proportion of infected species among omnivorous parrots, could explain the low prevalence of hemoparasites reported in many vertebrates.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Antiparasitários/análise , Australásia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Clima , Ecossistema , Feminino , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium/fisiologia , Prevalência , Psittaciformes/sangue , Psittaciformes/classificação , Psittaciformes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
7.
Virus Res ; 245: 17-28, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269104

RESUMO

The role of Ca2+ during dengue virus (DENV) replication is unknown; thus, changes in Ca2+ homeostasis in DENV infected human hepatic HepG2 and Huh-7 cells were analyzed. Infected HepG2 cells, but not Huh-7 cells, showed a significant increase in plasma membrane permeability to Ca2+, while both cell lines showed marked reduced levels of Ca2+ stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. While the expression levels of STIM1 and ORAI1 showed no changes, STIM1 and ORAI1 were shown to co-localized in infected cells, indicating activation of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) pathway. Finally, manipulation in the infected cells of the intra and extracellular Ca2+ levels by chelators (BAPTA-AM and EGTA), SOC inhibitor (SKF96365), IP3 Receptor antagonist (2APB) or increase of extracellular [Ca2+], significantly reduced DENV yield, but not vesicular stomatitis virus yield, used as a control. These results show that DENV infection alters cell Ca2+ homeostasis and that such changes favor viral replication.


Assuntos
Quelantes de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Membrana Celular/virologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Ácido Egtázico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Egtázico/farmacologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Retículo Endoplasmático/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteína ORAI1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína ORAI1/genética , Proteína ORAI1/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/antagonistas & inibidores , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/genética , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/metabolismo , Células Vero , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 196(1-2): 37-43, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23582233

RESUMO

The focus of this study was the detection of equine piroplasmosis in Distrito Capital, Miranda, Aragua, Guárico and Apure States from Venezuela, using two methods: Competitive-Inhibition ELISA and multiplex PCR and the analysis of the possible differences in occurrence in relation to the primary purpose of the horses, which is related to varied degrees of exposure to tick. Antibody levels to Babesia caballi and Theileria equi were assessed in 694 equine serum samples using Competitive-Inhibition ELISA, while PCR assays were performed in 136 horses, using two sets of oligonucleotides to establish the presence of T. equi, B. caballi or both. The overall seroprevalence of equine piroplasmosis was 50.2%, antibodies to B. caballi were found in 161 horses (23.2%), whereas 97 (14.0%) were seropositive to T. equi and 90 (13.0%) were positives to both parasites (mixed infections). PCR determinations (n=136) showed a prevalence of 66.2%, distributed in 84 (61.8% positives) for T. equi and, 6 (4.4%) were positive to both parasites. The cELISA showed higher levels of prevalence of B. caballi and mixed infections, as compared to the PCR method. This discrepancy can be explained by the different parameters that are evaluated by each technique, PCR detect the parasite itself, while cELISA detects antibodies to the parasite. By PCR, the highest prevalence was found in Apure state, where 92.3% of the samples were positive to T. equi infections. In this locality, free grazing animals are used for livestock management. This high prevalence may be linked to the tick species present in that area. More epidemiological studies will be necessary to assess the epidemiological status of equine piroplasmosis in Venezuela.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/diagnóstico , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Prevalência , Theileria/classificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Venezuela/epidemiologia
9.
Parasitol Int ; 62(2): 95-9, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23111094

RESUMO

Trypanosoma evansi is a mammal generalist protozoon which causes negative effects on health and productivity in bovine and equine herds in South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. By molecular methods, we screened the presence of that parasite together with other trypanosome species in 105 bats of 10 species collected in arid zones of northern Venezuela. The first molecular approach was fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which relies on amplification of relative small regions of rRNA genes (four loci) and fluorescence detection. By FFLB, 17 samples showed patterns of possible trypanosomatid infections. These samples were used to test presence of trypanosomes by PCR using the following DNA markers: V7-V8 SSU rRNA, gGAPDH and kDNA minicircle regions. Only in one individual of the nectar-feeding bat, Leptonycteris curasoae, we were able to amplify 1000bp of the trypanosome kDNA minicircle. That PCR product was sequenced and the parasite species was determined by NCBI-BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Both analyses showed that the minicircle sequence corresponds to Trypanosoma evansi. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequence obtained in this study clustered with a T. evansi sequence obtained in a Venezuelan capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, and distant of others two T. evansi sequences obtained in a Colombian capybara and horse. This result supports the hypothesis of multiple origins of T. evansi in South America.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , DNA de Cinetoplasto/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia , Venezuela
10.
Avian Dis ; 56(3): 583-8, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23050478

RESUMO

Avian hemosporidian parasites of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are transmitted by different dipteran vectors. In the present work, we looked for the presence of these parasites in 47 birds from 12 families, which were sampled in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuelo, located at the Henri Pittier National Park, Venezuela. The presence of the parasites was evidenced by amplification of a region of 471 bp of their cytochrome b gene. This region of the marker presents enough polymorphism to identify most of the mitochondrial lineages. Therefore, the obtained amplicons were sequenced, not only to identify the genus of the parasites sampled, but also to analyze their genetic diversity in the study area. The overall parasite prevalence was low (11%). We reported, for the first time, Plasmodium in birds of the species Formicarius analis and Chamaeza campanisona (Formicariidae) and Haemoproteus in Geotrygon linearis (Columbidae). A phylogenetic tree was generated using the Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon sequences obtained in this study, together with representative sequences from previous studies. The highest genetic diversities between the two Haemoproteus lineages (11.70%) and among the three Plasmodium lineages (7.86%) found in this study are also similar to those found when lineages reported in the literature were used. These results indicate that in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuleo, representative parasite lineages are found, making this location an attractive location for future studies.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Venezuela/epidemiologia
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