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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established CV disease or at high CV risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalisation and CV death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of T2DM.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909376

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly prevalent in the general population and especially in patients with heart failure (HF). It is not only a risk factor for incident HF, but is also associated with worse outcomes in prevalent HF. Therefore, antihyperglycaemic management in patients at risk of or with established HF is of importance to reduce morbidity/mortality. Following revision of the drug approval process in 2008 by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, several cardiovascular outcome trials on antihyperglycaemic drugs have recently investigated HF endpoints. Signals of harm in terms of increased risk of HF have been identified for thiazolidinediones and the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor saxagliptin, and therefore, these drugs are not currently recommended in HF. Sulfonylureas also have an unfavourable safety profile and should be avoided in patients at increased risk of/with HF. Observational studies have assessed the use of metformin in patients with HF, showing potential safety and potential survival/morbidity benefits. Overall use of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists has not been linked with any clear benefit in terms of HF outcomes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have consistently shown to reduce risk of HF-related outcomes in T2DM with and without HF and are thus currently recommended to lower risk of HF hospitalization in T2DM. Recent findings from the DAPA-HF trial support the use of dapagliflozin in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and, should ongoing trials with empagliflozin, sotagliflozin, and canagliflozin prove efficacy, will pave the way for SGLT2i as HF treatment regardless of T2DM.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618139

RESUMO

AIMS: In hospitalized patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the aims of this study were (i) to assess the proportion meeting the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) HFpEF criteria and (ii) to compare patients with restrictive/pseudonormal mitral inflow pattern (MIP) vs. patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included hospitalized participants of the ESC-Heart Failure Association (HFA) EURObservational Research Programme (EORP) HF Long-Term Registry who had echocardiogram with ejection fraction (EF) ≥ 50% during index hospitalization. As no data on e', E/e' and left ventricular (LV) mass index were gathered in the registry, the 2016 ESC HFpEF definition was modified as follows: elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (≥100 pg/mL for acute HF) and/or N-terminal pro-BNP (≥300 pg/mL) and at least one of the echocardiographic criteria: (i) presence of LV hypertrophy (yes/no), (ii) left atrial volume index (LAVI) of >34 mL/m2 ), or (iii) restrictive/pseudonormal MIP. Next, all patients were divided into four groups: (i) patients with restrictive/pseudonormal MIP on echocardiography [i.e. with presumably elevated left atrial (LA) pressure], (ii) patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (i.e. with presumably normal LA pressure), (iii) atrial fibrillation (AF) group, and (iv) 'grey area' (no consistent description of MIP despite no report of AF). Of 6365 hospitalized patients, 1848 (29%) had EF ≥ 50%. Natriuretic peptides were assessed in 28%, LV hypertrophy in 92%, LAVI in 13%, and MIP in 67%. The 2016 ESC HFpEF criteria could be assessed in 27% of the 1848 patients and, if assessed, were met in 52%. Of the 1848 patients, 19% had restrictive/pseudonormal MIP, 43% had MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal, 18% had AF and 20% were grey area. There were no differences in long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause hospitalizations or HF rehospitalizations between the four groups. Despite fewer non-cardiac comorbidities reported at baseline, patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (i.e. with presumably normal LA pressure) had more non-cardiovascular (14.0 vs. 6.7 per 100 patient-years, P < 0.001) and cardiovascular non-HF (13.2 vs. 8.0 per 100 patient-years, P = 0.016) hospitalizations in long-term follow-up than patients with restrictive/pseudonormal MIP. CONCLUSIONS: Acute HFpEF diagnosis could be assessed (based on the 2016 ESC criteria) in only a quarter of patients and confirmed in half of these. When assessed, only one in three patients had restrictive/pseudonormal MIP suggestive of elevated LA pressure. Patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (suggestive of normal LA pressure) could have been misdiagnosed with acute HFpEF or had echocardiography performed after normalization of LA pressure. They were more often hospitalized for non-HF reasons during follow-up. Symptoms suggestive of acute HFpEF may in some patients represent non-HF comorbidities.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 41(22): 2109-2117, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526858

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has important implications for the safety of participants in clinical trials and the research staff caring for them and, consequently, for the trials themselves. Patients with heart failure may be at greater risk of infection with COVID-19 and the consequences might also be more serious, but they are also at risk of adverse outcomes if their clinical care is compromised. As physicians and clinical trialists, it is our responsibility to ensure safe and effective care is delivered to trial participants without affecting the integrity of the trial. The social contract with our patients demands no less. Many regulatory authorities from different world regions have issued guidance statements regarding the conduct of clinical trials during this COVID-19 crisis. However, international trials may benefit from expert guidance from a global panel of experts to supplement local advice and regulations, thereby enhancing the safety of participants and the integrity of the trial. Accordingly, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology on 21 and 22 March 2020 conducted web-based meetings with expert clinical trialists in Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and Asia. The main objectives of this Expert Position Paper are to highlight the challenges that this pandemic poses for the conduct of clinical trials in heart failure and to offer advice on how they might be overcome, with some practical examples. While this panel of experts are focused on heart failure clinical trials, these discussions and recommendations may apply to clinical trials in other therapeutic areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes/ética
9.
Eur Heart J ; 41(22): 2109-2117, 2020 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498081

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has important implications for the safety of participants in clinical trials and the research staff caring for them and, consequently, for the trials themselves. Patients with heart failure may be at greater risk of infection with COVID-19 and the consequences might also be more serious, but they are also at risk of adverse outcomes if their clinical care is compromised. As physicians and clinical trialists, it is our responsibility to ensure safe and effective care is delivered to trial participants without affecting the integrity of the trial. The social contract with our patients demands no less. Many regulatory authorities from different world regions have issued guidance statements regarding the conduct of clinical trials during this COVID-19 crisis. However, international trials may benefit from expert guidance from a global panel of experts to supplement local advice and regulations, thereby enhancing the safety of participants and the integrity of the trial. Accordingly, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology on 21 and 22 March 2020 conducted web-based meetings with expert clinical trialists in Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and Asia. The main objectives of this Expert Position Paper are to highlight the challenges that this pandemic poses for the conduct of clinical trials in heart failure and to offer advice on how they might be overcome, with some practical examples. While this panel of experts are focused on heart failure clinical trials, these discussions and recommendations may apply to clinical trials in other therapeutic areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes/ética
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243669

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed the interplay between hyperkalaemia (HK) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) use, dose and discontinuation, and their association with all-cause or cardiovascular death in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that HK-associated increased death may be related to RAASi withdrawal. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ESC-HFA-EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry was used. Among 9222 outpatients (HF with reduced ejection fraction: 60.6%, HF with mid-range ejection fraction: 22.9%, HF with preserved ejection fraction: 16.5%) from 31 countries, 16.6% had HK (≥5.0 mmol/L) at baseline. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) was used in 88.3%, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) in 58.7%, or a combination in 53.2%; of these, at ≥50% of target dose in ACEi: 61.8%; ARB: 64.7%; and MRA: 90.3%. At a median follow-up of 12.2 months, there were 789 deaths (8.6%). Both hypokalaemia and HK were independently associated with higher mortality, and ACEi/ARB prescription at baseline with lower mortality. MRA prescription was not retained in the model. In multivariable analyses, HK at baseline was independently associated with MRA non-prescription at baseline and subsequent discontinuation. When considering subsequent discontinuation of RAASi (instead of baseline use), HK was no longer found associated with all-cause deaths. Importantly, all RAASi (ACEi, ARB, or MRA) discontinuations were strongly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In HF, hyper- and hypokalaemia were associated with mortality. However, when adjusting for RAASi discontinuation, HK was no longer associated with mortality, suggesting that HK may be a risk marker for RAASi discontinuation rather than a risk factor for worse outcomes.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237110

RESUMO

AIMS: Guidelines recommend down-titration of loop diuretics (LD) once euvolaemia is achieved. In outpatients with heart failure (HF), we investigated LD dose changes in daily cardiology practice, agreement with guideline recommendations, predictors of successful LD down-titration and association between dose changes and outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 8130 HF patients from the ESC-EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. Among patients who had dose decreased, successful decrease was defined as the decrease not followed by death, HF hospitalization, New York Heart Association class deterioration, or subsequent increase in LD dose. Mean age was 66 ± 13 years, 71% men, 62% HF with reduced ejection fraction, 19% HF with mid-range ejection fraction, 19% HF with preserved ejection fraction. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] LD dose was 40 (25-80) mg. LD dose was increased in 16%, decreased in 8.3% and unchanged in 76%. Median (IQR) follow-up was 372 (363-419) days. Diuretic dose increase (vs. no change) was associated with HF death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.08; P = 0.008] and nominally with cardiovascular death (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.96-1.63; P = 0.103). Decrease of diuretic dose (vs. no change) was associated with nominally lower HF (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33-1.07; P = 0.083) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38-1.00; P = 0.052). Among patients who had LD dose decreased, systolic blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.11 per 10 mmHg increase, 95% CI 1.01-1.22; P = 0.032], and absence of (i) sleep apnoea (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.69; P = 0.008), (ii) peripheral congestion (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80; P = 0.005), and (iii) moderate/severe mitral regurgitation (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.87; P = 0.008) were independently associated with successful decrease. CONCLUSION: Diuretic dose was unchanged in 76% and decreased in 8.3% of outpatients with chronic HF. LD dose increase was associated with worse outcomes, while the LD dose decrease group showed a trend for better outcomes compared with the no-change group. Higher systolic blood pressure, and absence of (i) sleep apnoea, (ii) peripheral congestion, and (iii) moderate/severe mitral regurgitation were independently associated with successful dose decrease.

14.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(5): 377-382, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205502

RESUMO

AIMS: There is evidence that stable angina patients may suffer from emotional disorders that further impair their quality of life. However, the emotional experience of living with stable angina from the patient's perspective still has to be explored. Thus, the main aim of this study was to explore patients' emotional experience of having stable angina and their reported needs during the pathway from the first symptoms, through the process of diagnosis, to management and related lifestyle changes. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 75 chronic ischemic heart disease patients with angina (Brazil, China, Romania, Russia, and Turkey) using a 75-min, face-to-face in-depth interview. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Patients' responses highlighted the need to increase individuals' awareness on the first signs and symptoms of the disease. The survey also showed that chronic stable angina patients need constant emotional support to overcome stress, anxiety, and depression. Finally, this study suggests the need to offer greater space for dialogue with healthcare professionals to get more comprehensive and 'patient-friendly' information.

15.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 6(2): 97-103, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298686

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are important and the Gold Standard for drugs in modern cardiovascular (CV) therapy. The cornerstone of RCTs is the recording of hard clinical endpoints instead of surrogates. It is important to select an appropriate endpoint. Efficacy endpoints must be clinically relevant and can be hierarchically divided. A very interesting innovation in endpoint acquisition is the total event paradigm.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 113-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822042

RESUMO

AIMS: Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on non-thromboembolic outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) is insufficiently explored. This prospective cohort study of AF patients aimed (i) to analyse the association between T2DM and heart failure (HF) events (including new-onset HF), and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, (ii) to assess the impact of baseline T2DM treatment on outcomes, and (iii) to explore characteristics of new-onset HF phenotypes in relation to T2DM status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 1803 AF patients (515/1288, with/without prior HF), 389 (22%) had T2DM at baseline. After 5 years of median follow-up, T2DM patients had an 85% greater risk of HF events [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-2.28; P < 0.001], including a 45% increased risk for new-onset HF (1.45; 1.17-2.28; P = 0.015). T2DM conferred a 56% higher all-cause (1.56, 1.22-2.01; P = 0.003) and a 48% higher cardiovascular mortality (1.48; 1.34-1.93; P = 0.007). Fine-Gray analysis, with mortality as a competing risk, confirmed greater HF risk among T2DM patients. All risks were highest among insulin-treated patients. The prevalence of new-onset HF phenotypes was as follows: 67% preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), 20% mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and 13% reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). On time-dependent Cox regression, adjusted for baseline characteristics and an interim acute coronary event, T2DM increased aHRs for new-onset HFpEF (2.38; 1.30-4.58; P <0.001) and the combined HFmrEF/HFrEF (1.77; 1.11-3.62; P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation patients with T2DM have independently increased risk of new-onset/recurrent HF events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, particularly when insulin-treated. The prevailing phenotype of new-onset HF was HFpEF; T2DM conferred higher risk of both HFpEF and HFmrEF/HFrEF.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 196-213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816162

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have recently occurred in the treatment of T2DM, with evidence of several new glucose-lowering medications showing either neutral or beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, some of these agents have safety characteristics with strong practical implications in HF [i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors]. Regarding safety of DPP-4 inhibitors, saxagliptin is not recommended in HF because of a greater risk of HF hospitalisation. There is no compelling evidence of excess HF risk with the other DPP-4 inhibitors. GLP-1 RAs have an overall neutral effect on HF outcomes. However, a signal of harm suggested in two small trials of liraglutide in patients with reduced ejection fraction indicates that their role remains to be defined in established HF. SGLT-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) have shown a consistent reduction in the risk of HF hospitalisation regardless of baseline cardiovascular risk or history of HF. Accordingly, SGLT-2 inhibitors could be recommended to prevent HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease or with multiple risk factors. The recently completed trial with dapagliflozin has shown a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and HF events in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, with or without T2DM. Several ongoing trials will assess whether the results observed with dapagliflozin could be extended to other SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence of T2DM. This position paper aims to summarise relevant clinical trial evidence concerning the role and safety of new glucose-lowering therapies in patients with HF.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 92-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863522

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess age- and sex-related differences in management and 1-year risk for all-cause mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 16 354 patients included in the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, 9428 chronic HF patients were analysed [median age: 66 years; 28.5% women; mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 37%]. Rates of use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) were high (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: 85.7%, 88.7% and 58.8%, respectively). Crude GDMT utilization rates were lower in women than in men (all differences: P ≤ 0.001), and GDMT use became lower with ageing in both sexes, at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT prescription; however, age >75 years was a significant predictor of GDMT underutilization. Rates of all-cause mortality were lower in women than in men (7.1% vs. 8.7%; P = 0.015), as were rates of all-cause hospitalization (21.9% vs. 27.3%; P < 0.001) and there were no differences in causes of death. All-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization increased with greater age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality (restricted to patients with LVEF ≤45%). Mortality risk was significantly lower in patients of younger age, compared to patients aged >75 years. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decline in GDMT use with advanced age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT or adverse outcomes. However, age >75 years independently predicted lower GDMT use and higher all-cause mortality in patients with LVEF ≤45%.

19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 6(2): 115-121, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873726

RESUMO

Benefits and safety on statins have been well-established over 20 years of research. Despite this, the vast majority of patients are not adequately treated and do not achieve the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target levels. This is mainly due to poor adherence, which is associated with dangerous and sometimes fatal outcomes. To increase adherence and prevent worse outcomes, a combination therapy with lower dosage of statins and new lipid-lowering drugs may be used. However, the implementation of new lipid-lowering drugs in European countries is still at the beginning. For these reasons, the aim of this position paper is to give an up-to-date indication from the European Society of Cardiology in order to discuss the barriers towards statins adherence and new lipid-lowering drugs implementation in Europe.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Regulação para Baixo , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Ezetimiba/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1299-1305, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646718

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and frailty are two distinct yet commonly associated conditions. The interplay between the two conditions is complex, due to overlaps in underlying mechanisms, symptoms and prognosis. The assessment of frailty in patients with HF is crucial, as it is associated with both unfavourable outcomes and reduced access and tolerance to treatments. However, to date a consensus definition of frailty in patients with HF remains lacking and the need for a validated assessment score, for identifying those HF patients with frailty, is high and timely. This position paper proposes a new definition of frailty for use by healthcare professionals in the setting of HF and creates a foundation for the design of a tailored and validated score for this common condition.

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