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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

3.
Circulation ; 138(2): 141-149, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of statin therapy and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibition markedly lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduces cardiovascular event rates. Whether residual inflammatory risk as measured by on-treatment high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) remains an important clinical issue in such patients is uncertain. METHODS: We evaluated residual inflammatory risk among 9738 patients participating in the SPIRE-1 and SPIRE-2 cardiovascular outcomes trials (Studies of PCSK9 Inhibition and the Reduction in Vascular Events), who were receiving both statin therapy and bococizumab, according to on-treatment levels of hsCRP (hsCRPOT) and LDL-COT measured 14 weeks after drug initiation. The primary end point was nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina requiring urgent revascularization, or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: At 14 weeks, the mean percentage change in LDL-C among statin-treated patients who additionally received bococizumab was -60.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], -61.2 to -59.8; P<0.001; median change, -65.4%) as compared to 6.6% (95% CI, -1.0 to 14.1; P=0.09; median change, 0.0%) for hsCRP. Incidence rates for future cardiovascular events for patients treated with both statin therapy and bococizumab according to hsCRPOT <1, 1 to 3, and >3 mg/L were 1.96, 2.50, and 3.59 events per 100 person-years, respectively, corresponding to multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of 1.0, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.81-1.66), and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.14-2.30) (P-trend=0.001) after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and LDL-COT. Comparable adjusted hazard ratios for LDL-COT (<30, 30-50, >50 mg/dL) were 1.0, 0.87, and 1.21, respectively (P-trend=0.16). Relative risk reductions with bococizumab were similar across hsCRPOT groups (P-interaction=0.87). CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis of the SPIRE trials of bococizumab in a stable outpatient population, evidence of residual inflammatory risk persisted among patients treated with both statin therapy and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibition. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01975376, NCT01975389.

4.
J Clin Lipidol ; 12(4): 958-965, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominant genetic disorder associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and premature atherosclerotic events. Although therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are indicated for LDL-C reduction among adult patients with FH, placebo-controlled outcome data among FH patients are scant. OBJECTIVE: Directly compare the efficacy of PCSK9 inhibition as compared to placebo on hard cardiovascular outcomes in FH patients enrolled in the Studies of PCSK9 Inhibition and the Reduction of vascular Events (SPIRE) program. METHODS: We estimated the efficacy of PCSK9 inhibition with bococizumab on future cardiovascular event rates among 1578 FH patients and 15,959 patients without FH who were selected for comparable lipid levels (on-statin levels of LDL-C >100 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol > 130 mg/dL). All patients were randomized by computer generated codes to bococizumab 150 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks or to matching placebo in the SPIRE clinical trials program and were followed over a median period of 11.2 months for major adverse cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death). Analysis is by intention to treat. The SPIRE trials are closed and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01968954, NCT01968967, NCT02100514, NCT01968980, NCT01975376, and NCT01975389. RESULTS: Compared to non-FH patients, FH patients enrolled in the SPIRE trials were on average younger (58 vs 63 years), more likely to be women (42 vs 35%), more likely to be primary prevention patients (42 vs 23%), had higher mean baseline LDL-C levels (151 vs 127 mg/dL), and lower rates of diabetes (25 vs 52%) and hypertension (59 vs 82%). FH and non-FH patients both had 55% reductions in LDL-C with bococizumab. Among FH patients, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred among 18 of 781 allocated to bococizumab and 22 of 797 allocated to placebo (hazard ratio 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.44-1.54, P = .55). This best estimate of effect was similar in magnitude to that observed in the much larger group of patients without FH (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.64-0.97, P = .023) with no statistically significant evidence of heterogeneity between groups (P = .87). Incidence rate ratios comparing bococizumab to placebo for adverse events were similar among those with and without FH. The proportion of patients developing antidrug antibodies was higher among those with FH compared to those without FH (43% vs 36%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In these randomized placebo-controlled data, the subgroup of statin-treated FH patients had a similar magnitude of risk reduction for hard cardiovascular events with the PCSK9 inhibitor bococizumab as did patients without FH, with no evidence of statistical heterogeneity between groups.

5.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0186456, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group. Results from cohort-specific GWA analyses (additive model) for fish and EPA+DHA consumption were adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, and population stratification, and meta-analyzed separately using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights (METAL software). Additionally, heritability was estimated in 2 cohorts. RESULTS: Heritability estimates for fish and EPA+DHA consumption ranged from 0.13-0.24 and 0.12-0.22, respectively. A significant GWA for fish intake was observed for rs9502823 on chromosome 6: each copy of the minor allele (FreqA = 0.015) was associated with 0.029 servings/day (~1 serving/month) lower fish consumption (P = 1.96x10-8). No significant association was observed for EPA+DHA, although rs7206790 in the obesity-associated FTO gene was among top hits (P = 8.18x10-7). Post-hoc calculations demonstrated 95% statistical power to detect a genetic variant associated with effect size of 0.05% for fish and 0.08% for EPA+DHA. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings suggest that non-genetic personal and environmental factors are principal determinants of the remarkable variation in fish consumption, representing modifiable targets for increasing intakes among all individuals. Genes underlying the signal at rs72838923 and mechanisms for the association warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS Med ; 14(9): e1002383, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 18 HbA1c-associated genetic variants. These variants proved to be classifiable by their likely biological action as erythrocytic (also associated with erythrocyte traits) or glycemic (associated with other glucose-related traits). In this study, we tested the hypotheses that, in a very large scale GWAS, we would identify more genetic variants associated with HbA1c and that HbA1c variants implicated in erythrocytic biology would affect the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. We therefore expanded the number of HbA1c-associated loci and tested the effect of genetic risk-scores comprised of erythrocytic or glycemic variants on incident diabetes prediction and on prevalent diabetes screening performance. Throughout this multiancestry study, we kept a focus on interancestry differences in HbA1c genetics performance that might influence race-ancestry differences in health outcomes. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 159,940 individuals from 82 cohorts of European, African, East Asian, and South Asian ancestry, we identified 60 common genetic variants associated with HbA1c. We classified variants as implicated in glycemic, erythrocytic, or unclassified biology and tested whether additive genetic scores of erythrocytic variants (GS-E) or glycemic variants (GS-G) were associated with higher T2D incidence in multiethnic longitudinal cohorts (N = 33,241). Nineteen glycemic and 22 erythrocytic variants were associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance. GS-G was associated with higher T2D risk (incidence OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.06, per HbA1c-raising allele, p = 3 × 10-29); whereas GS-E was not (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.60). In Europeans and Asians, erythrocytic variants in aggregate had only modest effects on the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. Yet, in African Americans, the X-linked G6PD G202A variant (T-allele frequency 11%) was associated with an absolute decrease in HbA1c of 0.81%-units (95% CI 0.66-0.96) per allele in hemizygous men, and 0.68%-units (95% CI 0.38-0.97) in homozygous women. The G6PD variant may cause approximately 2% (N = 0.65 million, 95% CI 0.55-0.74) of African American adults with T2D to remain undiagnosed when screened with HbA1c. Limitations include the smaller sample sizes for non-European ancestries and the inability to classify approximately one-third of the variants. Further studies in large multiethnic cohorts with HbA1c, glycemic, and erythrocytic traits are required to better determine the biological action of the unclassified variants. CONCLUSIONS: As G6PD deficiency can be clinically silent until illness strikes, we recommend investigation of the possible benefits of screening for the G6PD genotype along with using HbA1c to diagnose T2D in populations of African ancestry or groups where G6PD deficiency is common. Screening with direct glucose measurements, or genetically-informed HbA1c diagnostic thresholds in people with G6PD deficiency, may be required to avoid missed or delayed diagnoses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemoglobina A Glicada/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Risco
7.
Hypertension ; 2017 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739976

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a substantial genetic contribution. Genetic variation influencing blood pressure has the potential to identify new pharmacological targets for the treatment of hypertension. To discover additional novel blood pressure loci, we used 1000 Genomes Project-based imputation in 150 134 European ancestry individuals and sought significant evidence for independent replication in a further 228 245 individuals. We report 6 new signals of association in or near HSPB7, TNXB, LRP12, LOC283335, SEPT9, and AKT2, and provide new replication evidence for a further 2 signals in EBF2 and NFKBIA Combining large whole-blood gene expression resources totaling 12 607 individuals, we investigated all novel and previously reported signals and identified 48 genes with evidence for involvement in blood pressure regulation that are significant in multiple resources. Three novel kidney-specific signals were also detected. These robustly implicated genes may provide new leads for therapeutic innovation.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 13(6): e1006812, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614350

RESUMO

Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G×E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G×E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ = 0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ = 0.236 for BMI) compared to all SNPs. When Pv and Pm were compared for all pruned SNPs, only BMI was statistically significant (Spearman's ρ = 0.010). Overall, SNPs with established marginal effects were overrepresented in the nominally significant part of the Pv distribution (Pbinomial <0.05). SNPs from the top 1% of the Pm distribution for BMI had more significant Pv values (PMann-Whitney = 1.46×10-5), and the odds ratio of SNPs with nominally significant (<0.05) Pm and Pv was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.57) for BMI. Moreover, BMI SNPs with nominally significant G×E interaction P-values (Pint<0.05) were enriched with nominally significant Pv values (Pbinomial = 8.63×10-9 and 8.52×10-7 for SNP × smoking and SNP × physical activity, respectively). We conclude that some loci with strong marginal effects may be good candidates for G×E, and variance-based prioritization can be used to identify them.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Obesidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
9.
Nat Genet ; 49(6): 834-841, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436984

RESUMO

The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10-8) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Menarca/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Puberdade/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
10.
N Engl J Med ; 376(16): 1517-1526, 2017 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28304227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bococizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, the variability and durability of this effect are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted six parallel, multinational lipid-lowering trials enrolling 4300 patients with hyperlipidemia who were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of bococizumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks and who were followed for up to 12 months; 96% were receiving statin therapy at the time of enrollment. The patients were assessed for lipid changes over time, stratified according to the presence or absence of antidrug antibodies detected during the treatment period. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, patients who received bococizumab had a reduction of 54.2% in the LDL cholesterol level from baseline, as compared with an increase of 1.0% among those who received placebo (absolute between-group difference, -55.2 percentage points). Significant between-group differences were also observed in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) (P<0.001 for all comparisons). However, high-titer antidrug antibodies developed in a substantial proportion of the patients who received bococizumab, which markedly diminished the magnitude and durability of the reduction in LDL cholesterol levels. In addition, among patients with no antidrug antibodies, there was wide variability in the reduction in LDL cholesterol levels at both 12 weeks and 52 weeks. Major cardiovascular events occurred in 57 patients (2.5%) who received bococizumab and in 55 (2.7%) who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 1.39; P=0.83). The most common adverse event among patients who received bococizumab was injection-site reaction (12.7 per 100 person-years). CONCLUSIONS: In six multinational trials evaluating bococizumab, antidrug antibodies developed in a large proportion of the patients and significantly attenuated the lowering of LDL cholesterol levels. Wide variation in the relative reduction in cholesterol levels was also observed among patients in whom antidrug antibodies did not develop. (Funded by Pfizer; SPIRE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01968954 , NCT01968967 , NCT01968980 , NCT02100514 , NCT02135029 , and NCT02458287 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticolesterolemiantes/imunologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/imunologia , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0167742, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107422

RESUMO

An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8), the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Projeto HapMap , Humanos
12.
Circulation ; 135(8): 741-754, 2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have identified an association between body mass index (BMI) and incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Inferring causality from observational studies, however, is subject to residual confounding, reverse causation, and bias. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the causal association between BMI and AF by using genetic predictors of BMI. METHODS: We identified 51 646 individuals of European ancestry without AF at baseline from 7 prospective population-based cohorts initiated between 1987 and 2002 in the United States, Iceland, and the Netherlands with incident AF ascertained between 1987 and 2012. Cohort-specific mean follow-up ranged from 7.4 to 19.2 years, over which period there was a total of 4178 cases of incident AF. We performed a Mendelian randomization with instrumental variable analysis to estimate a cohort-specific causal hazard ratio for the association between BMI and AF. Two genetic instruments for BMI were used: FTO genotype (rs1558902) and a BMI gene score comprising 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified by genome-wide association studies to be associated with BMI. Cohort-specific estimates were combined by random-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. RESULTS: In age- and sex-adjusted meta-analysis, both genetic instruments were significantly associated with BMI (FTO: 0.43 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.54] kg/m2 per A-allele, P<0.001; BMI gene score: 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.20] kg/m2 per 1-U increase, P<0.001) and incident AF (FTO, hazard ratio, 1.07 [1.02-1.11] per A-allele, P=0.004; BMI gene score, hazard ratio, 1.11 [1.05-1.18] per 1-U increase, P<0.001). Age- and sex-adjusted instrumental variable estimates for the causal association between BMI and incident AF were hazard ratio, 1.15 (1.04-1.26) per kg/m2, P=0.005 (FTO) and 1.11 (1.05-1.17) per kg/m2, P<0.001 (BMI gene score). Both of these estimates were consistent with the meta-analyzed estimate between observed BMI and AF (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio 1.05 [1.04-1.06] per kg/m2, P<0.001). Multivariable adjustment did not significantly change findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are consistent with a causal relationship between BMI and incident AF. These data support the possibility that public health initiatives targeting primordial prevention of obesity may reduce the incidence of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco
13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35371, 2016 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824142

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heritable disease that affects more than thirty million individuals worldwide. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of genetic determinants of AF. The objective of our study is to examine the effect of gene-gene interaction on AF susceptibility. We performed a large-scale association analysis of gene-gene interactions with AF in 8,173 AF cases, and 65,237 AF-free referents collected from 15 studies for discovery. We examined putative interactions between genome-wide SNPs and 17 known AF-related SNPs. The top interactions were then tested for association in an independent cohort for replication, which included more than 2,363 AF cases and 114,746 AF-free referents. One interaction, between rs7164883 at the HCN4 locus and rs4980345 at the SLC28A1 locus, was found to be significantly associated with AF in the discovery cohorts (interaction OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27-1.65, P = 4.3 × 10-8). Eight additional gene-gene interactions were also marginally significant (P < 5 × 10-7). However, none of the top interactions were replicated. In summary, we did not find significant interactions that were associated with AF susceptibility. Future increases in sample size and denser genotyping might facilitate the identification of gene-gene interactions associated with AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Canais de Potássio/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13357, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876822

RESUMO

Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos
15.
Gastroenterology ; 151(2): 351-363.e28, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 280 cases identified the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a locus associated with risk for gallstone disease, but findings have not been reported from any other GWAS of this phenotype. We performed a large-scale, meta-analysis of GWASs of individuals of European ancestry with available prior genotype data, to identify additional genetic risk factors for gallstone disease. METHODS: We obtained per-allele odds ratio (OR) and standard error estimates using age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models within each of the 10 discovery studies (8720 cases and 55,152 controls). We performed an inverse variance weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis of study-specific estimates to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated independently with gallstone disease. Associations were replicated in 6489 cases and 62,797 controls. RESULTS: We observed independent associations for 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABCG8 locus: rs11887534 (OR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.86; P = 2.44 × 10(-60)) and rs4245791 (OR, 1.27; P = 1.90 × 10(-34)). We also identified and/or replicated associations for rs9843304 in TM4SF4 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 6.09 × 10(-11)), rs2547231 in SULT2A1 (encodes a sulfoconjugation enzyme that acts on hydroxysteroids and cholesterol-derived sterol bile acids) (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21; P = 2.24 × 10(-10)), rs1260326 in glucokinase regulatory protein (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.17; P = 2.55 × 10(-10)), and rs6471717 near CYP7A1 (encodes an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to primary bile acids) (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15; P = 8.84 × 10(-9)). Among individuals of African American and Hispanic American ancestry, rs11887534 and rs4245791 were associated positively with gallstone disease risk, whereas the association for the rs1260326 variant was inverse. CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale GWAS of gallstone disease, we identified 4 loci in genes that have putative functions in cholesterol metabolism and transport, and sulfonylation of bile acids or hydroxysteroids.


Assuntos
Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Cálculos Biliares/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Nat Genet ; 48(6): 617-623, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089180

RESUMO

The ages of puberty, first sexual intercourse and first birth signify the onset of reproductive ability, behavior and success, respectively. In a genome-wide association study of 125,667 UK Biobank participants, we identify 38 loci associated (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with age at first sexual intercourse. These findings were taken forward in 241,910 men and women from Iceland and 20,187 women from the Women's Genome Health Study. Several of the identified loci also exhibit associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with other reproductive and behavioral traits, including age at first birth (variants in or near ESR1 and RBM6-SEMA3F), number of children (CADM2 and ESR1), irritable temperament (MSRA) and risk-taking propensity (CADM2). Mendelian randomization analyses infer causal influences of earlier puberty timing on earlier first sexual intercourse, earlier first birth and lower educational attainment. In turn, likely causal consequences of earlier first sexual intercourse include reproductive, educational, psychiatric and cardiometabolic outcomes.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Comportamento , Coito , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Puberdade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0144997, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are limited on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Moreover, it is not known whether genetic variants identified to date also associate with risk of CHD in a prospective setting. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS analysis of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and CHD in a total of 64,297 individuals (including 3898 MI cases, 5465 CHD cases). SNPs that passed an arbitrary threshold of 5×10-6 in Stage I were taken to Stage II for further discovery. Furthermore, in an analysis of prognosis, we studied whether known SNPs from former GWAS were associated with total mortality in individuals who experienced MI during follow-up. RESULTS: In Stage I 15 loci passed the threshold of 5×10-6; 8 loci for MI and 8 loci for CHD, for which one locus overlapped and none were reported in previous GWAS meta-analyses. We took 60 SNPs representing these 15 loci to Stage II of discovery. Four SNPs near QKI showed nominally significant association with MI (p-value<8.8×10-3) and three exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold when Stage I and Stage II results were combined (top SNP rs6941513: p = 6.2×10-9). Despite excellent power, the 9p21 locus SNP (rs1333049) was only modestly associated with MI (HR = 1.09, p-value = 0.02) and marginally with CHD (HR = 1.06, p-value = 0.08). Among an inception cohort of those who experienced MI during follow-up, the risk allele of rs1333049 was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent mortality (HR = 0.90, p-value = 3.2×10-3). CONCLUSIONS: QKI represents a novel locus that may serve as a predictor of incident CHD in prospective studies. The association of the 9p21 locus both with increased risk of first myocardial infarction and longer survival after MI highlights the importance of study design in investigating genetic determinants of complex disorders.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Cooperativo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151932, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26999784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown associations between blood lipid levels and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). To test the potential effect of blood lipids with AF risk, we assessed whether previously developed lipid gene scores, used as instrumental variables, are associated with the incidence of AF in 7 large cohorts. METHODS: We analyzed 64,901 individuals of European ancestry without previous AF at baseline and with lipid gene scores. Lipid-specific gene scores, based on loci significantly associated with lipid levels, were calculated. Additionally, non-pleiotropic gene scores for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were calculated using SNPs that were only associated with the specific lipid fraction. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AF per 1-standard deviation (SD) increase of each lipid gene score. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 5434 (8.4%) incident AF cases were identified. After meta-analysis, the HDLc, LDLc, total cholesterol, and triglyceride gene scores were not associated with incidence of AF. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) were 1.01 (0.98-1.03); 0.98 (0.96-1.01); 0.98 (0.95-1.02); 0.99 (0.97-1.02), respectively. Similarly, non-pleiotropic HDLc and LDLc gene scores showed no association with incident AF: HR (95% CI) = 1.00 (0.97-1.03); 1.01 (0.99-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study of individuals of European ancestry, gene scores for lipid fractions were not associated with incident AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
19.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10494, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833098

RESUMO

Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Leptina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(2): 358-70, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561523

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ∼120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participants with data on the X-chromosome). Approximately 10.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.2 million indels were examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration.


Assuntos
Fibrinogênio/análise , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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