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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579943

RESUMO

Molecularly targeted cancer therapy has improved outcomes for cancer patients with targetable oncoproteins, such as mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lung cancer. Yet, long-term patient survival remains limited because treatment responses are typically incomplete. One potential explanation for the lack of complete and durable responses is that oncogene-driven cancers with activating mutations in the EGFR often harbor additional co-occurring genetic alterations. This hypothesis remains untested for most genetic alterations that co-occur with mutant EGFR. Here, we report the functional impact of inactivating genetic alteration of the mRNA splicing factor RBM10 that co-occur with mutant EGFR. RBM10 deficiency decreased EGFR inhibitor efficacy in patient-derived EGFR mutant tumor models. RBM10 modulated mRNA alternative splicing of the mitochondrial apoptotic regulator Bcl-x to regulate tumor cell apoptosis during treatment. Genetic inactivation of RBM10 diminished EGFR inhibitor-mediated apoptosis by decreasing the ratio of Bcl-xS-(pro-apoptotic)-to-Bcl-xL(anti-apoptotic) Bcl-x isoforms. RBM10 deficiency was a biomarker of poor response to EGFR inhibitor treatment in clinical samples. Co-inhibition of Bcl-xL and mutant EGFR overcame resistance induced by RBM10 deficiency. This study sheds light on the role of co-occurring genetic alterations, and on the impact of splicing factor deficiency in the modulation of sensitivity to targeted kinase inhibitor cancer therapy.

2.
Nat Cancer ; 3(4): 518, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379985
3.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(3)2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337178

RESUMO

The combination of metformin and TKIs for non-small cell lung cancer has been proposed as a strategy to overcome resistance of neoplastic cells induced by several molecular mechanisms. This study sought to investigate the effects of a second generation TKI afatinib, metformin, or their combination on three adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines with different EGFRmutation status. A549, H1975, and HCC827 cell lines were treated with afatinib, metformin, and their combination for 72 h. Afterwards, several parameters were assessed including cytotoxicity, interactions, apoptosis, and EGFR protein levels at the cell membrane and several glycolytic, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and EMT expression markers. All cell lines showed additive to synergic interactions for the induction of cytotoxicity caused by the tested combination, as well as an improved pro-apoptotic effect. This effect was accompanied by downregulation of glycolytic, EMT markers, a significant decrease in glucose uptake, extracellular lactate, and a tendency towards increased OXPHOS subunits expression. Interestingly, we observed a better response to the combined therapy in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1975, which normally have low affinity for TKI treatment. Findings from this study suggest a sensitization to afatinib therapy by metformin in TKI-resistant lung cancer cells, as well as a reduction in cellular glycolytic phenotype.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for monitoring treatment outcome in solid tumors, including lung cancer. The relevance of monitoring CTCs and plasma ctDNA as predictors of clinical outcome was assessed in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients treated with osimertinib. METHODS: Forty-seven EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients who had progressed on prior first- or second-generation EGFR inhibitors were enrolled in the study and treated with osimertinib, irrespective of the presence of the T790M mutation in the primary tumor or the plasma. Peripheral blood was collected at baseline (n = 47), post-Cycle 1 (n = 47), and at the end of treatment (EOT; n = 39). CTCs were evaluated in 32 patients at the same time points (n = 32, n = 27, and n = 21, respectively) and phenotypic characterization was performed using triple immunofluorescence staining (CK/VIM/CD45). RESULTS: Osimertinib resulted in an ORR of 34% (2 CR) and a DCR of 76.6%. The median PFS and OS values were 7.5 (range, 0.8-52.8) and 15.1 (range, 2.1-52.8) months, respectively. ctDNA was detected in 61.7%, 27.7%, and 61.5% of patients at baseline, post-Cycle 1, and EOT, respectively. CTCs (CK+/CD45-) were detected in 68.8%, 48.1%, and 61.9% of patients at the three time points, respectively. CTCs expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal markers (CK+/VIM+/CD45-) were detected in 56.3% and 29.6% of patients at baseline and post-Cycle 1, respectively. The detection of ctDNA at baseline and post-Cycle 1 was associated with shorter PFS and OS, whereas the ctDNA clearance post-Cycle 1 resulted in a significantly longer PFS and OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex and the detection of ctDNA at baseline were independent predictors of shorter PFS (HR: 2.6, 95% C.I.: 1.2-5.5, p = 0.015 and HR: 3.0, 95% C.I.: 1.3-6.9; p = 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in both CTCs and ctDNA occurring early during osimertinib treatment is predictive of better outcome, implying that liquid biopsy monitoring may be a valuable tool for the assessment of treatment efficacy.

7.
Mol Oncol ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060299

RESUMO

Although many studies highlight the implication of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, their potential as cancer biomarkers has not yet been fully explored in the clinic due to the limitations of current quantification methods. Here, we report the use of the nCounter platform as a valid technology for the analysis of circRNA expression patterns in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. Under this context, our custom-made circRNA panel was able to detect circRNA expression both in NSCLC cells and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. CircFUT8 was overexpressed in NSCLC, contrasting with circEPB41L2, circBNC2, and circSOX13 downregulation even at the early stages of the disease. Machine learning (ML) approaches from different paradigms allowed discrimination of NSCLC from nontumor controls (NTCs) with an 8-circRNA signature. An additional 4-circRNA signature was able to classify early-stage NSCLC samples from NTC, reaching a maximum area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.981. Our results not only present two circRNA signatures with diagnosis potential but also introduce nCounter processing following ML as a feasible protocol for the study and development of circRNA signatures for NSCLC.

8.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666211066064, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098800

RESUMO

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, and therapeutic management has advanced to identify various critical oncogenic mutations that promote lung cancer tumorigenesis. Subsequent studies have developed targeted therapies against these oncogenes in the hope of personalized treatment based on the tumor's molecular genomics. This review presents a comprehensive review of the biology, new therapeutic interventions, and resistance patterns of two well-defined subgroups, tumors with KRAS and MET alterations. We also discuss the status of molecular testing practices for these two key oncogenic drivers, considering the progressive introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and RNA sequencing in regular clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
9.
Transl Oncol ; 15(1): 101276, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The KRAS exon 2 p. G12C mutation in patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been increasing in relevance due to the development and effectiveness of new treatment medications. Studies around different populations indicate that regional variability between ethnic groups and ancestries could play an essential role in developing this molecular alteration within lung cancer. METHODS: In a prospective and retrospective cohort study on samples from lung adenocarcinoma from 1000 patients from different administrative regions in Colombia were tested for the KRAS p.G12C mutation. An analysis of STR populations markers was conducted to identify substructure contributions to mutation prevalence. RESULTS: Included were 979 patients with a national mean frequency for the KRAS exon 2 p.G12C mutation of 7.97% (95%CI 6.27-9.66%). Variation between regions was also identified with Antioquia reaching a positivity value of 12.7% (95%CI 9.1-16.3%) in contrast to other regions such as Bogota DC (Capital region) with 5.4% (2.7-8.2%) and Bolivar with 2.4% (95%CI 0-7.2%) (p-value = 0.00262). Furthermore, Short tandem repeat population substructures were found for eight markers that strongly yielded association with KRAS exon 2 p.G12C frequency reaching an adjusted R2 of 0.945 and a p-value of < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread identification of KRAS exon 2 p.G12C mutations, especially in cases where NGS is not easily achieved is feasible at a population based level that can characterize regional and national patterns of mutation status. Furthermore, this type of mutation prevalence follows a population substructure pattern that can be easily determined by population and ancestral markers such as STR.

10.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 174-181, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763195

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: The AZENT (NCT02841579) study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of first-line osimertinib in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and with a coexisting low allelic fraction of Thr790Met. METHODS: In this multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase IIa study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC harbouring centrally confirmedEGFR Thr790Met mutation received 80 mg osimertinib daily. The primary end-point was objective response rate (ORR). The secondary end-points included disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. Efficacy was assessed as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1. Blood samples collected at baseline, end of week 2 and disease progression were analysed using next-generation sequencing. As osimertinib was approved as a first-line therapy during the trial, this led to early termination of phase II; thus, analysis is considered exploratory. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled and received osimertinib. All 22 patients were included in the efficacy and safety analysis. At the data cutoff, 10 (50%) patients remained on treatment. The median duration of follow-up was 24.4 months (interquartile range 12.9 to 26.0). The ORR was 77.3% (17/22 [95% confidence interval {CI} 54.6 to 89.3]). The DCR was 86.4% (19/22, [95% CI 65.1 to 97.1]). The median PFS was 23.1 months (95% CI 14.1 to NE). The median OS was 28·4 months (95% CI 25.6 to NE). CONCLUSION: Despite early study termination, osimertinib first-line therapy yields an overall PFS of 23.1 months in EGFR-mutant patients harbouring a coexisting low allelic fraction of EGFR Thr790Met mutation.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(3): 100113, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589994

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: DNA repair capacity, as exemplified by BRCA1 gene expression, is related with outcome to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, reduces BRCA1 expression. Olaparib was tested in combination with gefitinib versus gefitinib single agent, as a first-line therapy for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC in the GOAL study (trial registration: NCT01513174). Here, we report the results of the biomarker-related prespecified secondary objectives of the GOAL study. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of BRCA1 mRNA expression in 91 patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Of those 91 patients, 51 were randomized to treatment with gefitinib and 40 were randomized to treatment with gefitinib plus olaparib. We explored in vitro whether BRCA1 mRNA levels are related with outcome to gefitinib plus olaparib. The expression levels of 53BP1, CtIP, and AXL were also explored and correlated with the treatment outcome. RESULTS: Overall, as what happened in the GOAL study, no statistically significant difference was observed in median progression-free survival (PFS) between the two treatment arms, for the 91 patients of the present study (p = 0.2419). For patients with high BRCA1 mRNA expression (BRCA1-high group), median PFS was 12.9 months in the gefitinib plus olaparib arm, compared with 9.2 months in the gefitinib arm (p = 0.0449). In the gefitinib arm, median PFS was 9.1 months for the BRCA1-high group and 10.2 months for the BRCA1-low group (p = 0.0193). We observed a more pronounced synergism of gefitinib plus olaparib in cells with higher BRCA1 compared with those with low BRCA1 mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: High BRCA1 mRNA expression identified patients with NSCLC who benefited from gefitinib plus olaparib in the GOAL phase 2 clinical trial.

12.
J Neurooncol ; 154(3): 353-364, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amplification of EGFR and its active mutant EGFRvIII are common in glioblastoma (GB). While EGFR and EGFRvIII play critical roles in pathogenesis, targeted therapy with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors or antibodies has shown limited efficacy. To improve the likelihood of effectiveness, we targeted adult patients with recurrent GB enriched for simultaneous EGFR amplification and EGFRvIII mutation, with osimertinib/bevacizumab at doses described for non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively explored whether previously described EGFRvIII mutation in association with EGFR gene amplification could predict response to osimertinib/bevacizumab combination in a subset of 15 patients treated at recurrence. The resistance pattern in a subgroup of subjects is described using a commercial next-generation sequencing panel in liquid biopsy. RESULTS: There were ten males (66.7%), and the median patient's age was 56 years (range 38-70 years). After their initial diagnosis, 12 patients underwent partial (26.7%) or total resection (53.3%). Subsequently, all cases received IMRT and concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ; the median number of cycles 9, range 6-12). The median follow-up after recurrence was 17.1 months (95% CI 12.3-22.6). All patients received osimertinib/bevacizumab as a second-line intervention with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 5.1 months (95% CI 2.8-7.3) and overall survival of 9.0 months (95% CI 3.9-14.0). The PFS6 was 46.7%, and the overall response rate was 13.3%. After exposure to the osimertinib/bevacizumab combination, the main secondary alterations were MET amplification, STAT3, IGF1R, PTEN, and PDGFR. CONCLUSIONS: While the osimertinib/bevacizumab combination was marginally effective in most GB patients with simultaneous EGFR amplification plus EGFRvIII mutation, a subgroup experienced a long-lasting meaningful benefit. The findings of this brief cohort justify the continuation of the research in a clinical trial. The pattern of resistance after exposure to osimertinib/bevacizumab includes known mechanisms in the regulation of EGFR, findings that contribute to the understanding and targeting in a stepwise rational this pathway.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Glioblastoma , Acrilamidas , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 695038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381717

RESUMO

Finding angiogenic prognostic markers in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is still an unmet medical need. We explored a set of genetic variants in the VEGF-pathway as potential biomarkers to predict clinical outcomes of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. We prospectively analyzed the relationship between VEGF-pathway components with both pathological and prognostic variables in response to chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in 168 patients with non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Circulating levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 and expression of specific endothelial surface markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in VEGF-pathway genes were analyzed. The primary clinical endpoint was progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival and objective tumor response. VEGFR-1 rs9582036 variants AA/AC were associated with increased progression-free survival (p = 0.012 and p = 0.035, respectively), and with improved overall survival (p = 0.019) with respect to CC allele. Patients with VEGF-A rs3025039 harboring allele TT had also reduced mortality risk (p = 0.049) compared with the CC allele. The VEGF-A rs833061 variant was found to be related with response to treatment, with 61.1% of patients harboring the CC allele achieving partial treatment response. High pre-treatment circulating levels of VEGF-A were associated with shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.036). In conclusion, in this prospective study, genetic variants in VEGFR-1 and VEGF-A and plasma levels of VEGF-A were associated with clinical benefit, progression-free survival, or overall survival in a cohort of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy plus antiangiogenic therapy.

14.
J Clin Pathol ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429353

RESUMO

AIMS: Gene fusions assays are key for personalised treatments of advanced human cancers. Their implementation on cytological material requires a preliminary validation that may make use of cell line slides mimicking cytological samples. In this international multi-institutional study, gene fusion reference standards were developed and validated. METHODS: Cell lines harbouring EML4(13)-ALK(20) and SLC34A2(4)-ROS1(32) gene fusions were adopted to prepare reference standards. Eight laboratories (five adopting amplicon-based and three hybridisation-based platforms) received, at different dilution points two sets of slides (slide A 50.0%, slide B 25.0%, slide C 12.5% and slide D wild type) stained by Papanicolaou (Pap) and May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG). Analysis was carried out on a total of 64 slides. RESULTS: Four (50.0%) out of eight laboratories reported results on all slides and dilution points. While 12 (37.5%) out of 32 MGG slides were inadequate, 27 (84.4%) out of 32 Pap slides produced libraries adequate for variant calling. The laboratories using hybridisation-based platforms showed the highest rate of inadequate results (13/24 slides, 54.2%). Conversely, only 10.0% (4/40 slides) of inadequate results were reported by laboratories adopting amplicon-based platforms. CONCLUSIONS: Reference standards in cytological format yield better results when Pap staining and processed by amplicon-based assays. Further investigation is required to optimise these standards for MGG stained cells and for hybridisation-based approaches.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 125(12): 1602-1611, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373568

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung adenocarcinoma are a frequent class of driver mutations. Single EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) provides substantial clinical benefit, but almost nil radiographic complete responses. Patients invariably progress, although survival can reach several years with post-treatment therapies, including EGFR TKIs, chemotherapy or other procedures. Endeavours have been clinically oriented to manage the acquisition of EGFR TKI-resistant mutations; however, basic principles on cancer evolution have not been considered in clinical trials. For years, evidence has displayed rapidly adaptive mechanisms of resistance to selective monotherapy, posing several dilemmas for the practitioner. Strict adherence to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) guidelines is not always practical for addressing the clinical progression that EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients suffer. The purpose of this review is to highlight regulatory mechanisms and signalling pathways that cause therapy-induced resistance to EGFR TKIs. It suggests combinatorial therapies that target EGFR, as well as potential mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutant NSCLC, alerting the reader to clinical opportunities that may lead to a deeper and more durable response. Molecular reprogramming contributes to EGFR TKI resistance, and the compiled information is relevant in understanding the development of new combined targeted strategies in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação
16.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2698-2714, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295671

RESUMO

Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, being non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) sub-types the most prevalent. Since most LC cases are only detected during the last stage of the disease the high mortality rate is strongly associated with metastases. For this reason, the migratory and invasive capacity of these cancer cells as well as the mechanisms involved have long been studied to uncover novel strategies to prevent metastases and improve the patients' prognosis. This narrative review provides an overview of the main in vitro migration and invasion assays employed in NSCLC research. While several methods have been developed, experiments using conventional cell culture models prevailed, specifically the wound-healing and the transwell migration and invasion assays. Moreover, it is provided herewith a summary of the available information concerning chemical contaminants that may promote the migratory/invasive properties of NSCLC cells in vitro, shedding some light on possible LC risk factors. Most of the reported agents with pro-migration/invasion effects derive from cigarette smoking [e.g., Benzo(a)pyrene and cadmium] and air pollution. This review further presents several studies in which different dietary/plant-derived compounds demonstrated to impair migration/invasion processes in NSCLC cells in vitro. These chemicals that have been proposed as anti-migratory consisted mainly of natural bioactive substances, including polyphenols non-flavonoids, flavonoids, bibenzyls, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroids. Some of these compounds may eventually represent novel therapeutic strategies to be considered in the future to prevent metastasis formation in LC, which highlights the need for additional in vitro methodologies that more closely resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment and cancer cell interactions. These studies along with adequate in vivo models should be further explored as proof of concept for the most promising compounds.

17.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 5(1): 65, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267282

RESUMO

EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is inevitable. Identification of resistance mechanisms and corresponding targeting strategies can lead to more successful later-line treatment in many patients. Using spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified increased fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and Akt activation across erlotinib, gefitinib, and osimertinib EGFR-TKI-resistant cell line models. We show that while combined EGFR-TKI and FGFR inhibition showed some efficacy, simultaneous inhibition of FGFR and Akt or PI3K induced superior synergistic growth inhibition of FGFR1-overexpressing EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. This effect was confirmed in vivo. Only dual FGFR and Akt inhibition completely blocked the resistance-mediating signaling pathways downstream of Akt. Further, increased FGFR1 expression was associated with significantly lower PFS in EGFR-TKI-treated NSCLC patients, and increased FGFR1 were demonstrated in a few post- vs. pre-EGFR-TKI treatment clinical biopsies. The superior therapeutic benefit of combining FGFR and Akt inhibitors provide the rationale for clinical trials of this strategy.

18.
Pharmacol Res ; 170: 105701, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087353

RESUMO

Osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is commonly used to treat EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance to mutant EGFR (T790M) can evolve following osimertinib treatment. High reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in lung cancer cells can influence heme levels and have an impact on osimertinib resistance. Here, we found that heme levels were increased in osimertinib resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and plasma heme levels were also elevated in osimertinib-treated EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. The antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA), which has anticancer effects and requires heme, was tested to determine its potential to revert osimertinib resistance. DHA downregulated the expression of heme oxygenase 1 and inhibited cell proliferation in osimertinib-resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells (PC9-GR4-AZD1), which was further enhanced by addition of 5-aminolevulinic acid, protoporphyrin IX and hemin. DHA was synergistic with osimertinib in inhibiting cell proliferation and colony formation of all osimertinib-resistant cell lines tested. Combination treatment with osimertinib and DHA also increased the levels of ROS, downregulated the phosphorylation or protein levels of several RTKs that often are overexpressed in osimertinib-resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, and inhibited tumor growth without toxicity in a PC9-GR4-AZD1 xenograft mouse model. The results suggest that DHA is able to reverse the resistance to osimertinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC by elevating ROS level and impair heme metabolism.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Heme/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7092-7109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093873

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have demonstrated that first-line immunotherapy is associated with better therapeutic response than second-line treatment. So far, the mechanisms need to be explored. It prompted us to evaluate the association between first-line chemotherapy and subsequent immunotherapy in NSCLC as well as its underlying mechanisms at the genomic and transcriptomic level. Methods: We launched a prospective, observational clinical study, paired tumor biopsies before and after chemotherapy were collected from NSCLC patients without tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-related driver gene mutations. The analyses included genomic and transcriptional changes performed by next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) and messager ribonucleic acid (mRNA) sequencing. Characteristic mutational alterations in 1574 genes were investigated based on mutational status, clinicopathological factors, and chemotherapy responses. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, neoantigen prediction and intratumoral heterogeneity evaluation were also performed. Results: Samples and information from 32 NSCLC patients without TKI-related driver gene mutations were obtained. We found that the total number of single nucleotide variants (SNV)/insertion-deletion (INDEL) mutations did not change significantly after chemotherapy. The tumor mutation burden (TMB) decreased significantly after chemotherapy in smoking patients and the decreased TMB correlated with a better survival of smoking patients. The change in copy number variations (CNVs) exhibited a decreasing trend during chemotherapy. Subsequent analysis at mRNA level revealed a significant decrease in the expression levels of genes related to antigen processing and presentation as well as other factors relevant for response to immunotherapy. Pathway enrichment analysis confirmed that the immune-related signaling pathways or biological processes were decreased after first-line chemotherapy. Conclusions: Our study presents an explanation for the unsatisfactory results of immunotherapy when given after chemotherapy, and suggests that first-line chemotherapy is able to influence the tumor microenvironment and decrease the efficacy of subsequent immunotherapy. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03764917, and has completed enrolment; patients are still in follow-up.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Biópsia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genômica , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA-Seq , Fumantes , Microambiente Tumoral , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(25): 2791-2802, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although NRG1 fusions are oncogenic drivers across multiple tumor types including lung cancers, these are difficult to study because of their rarity. The global eNRGy1 registry was thus established to characterize NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancers in the largest and most diverse series to date. METHODS: From June 2018 to February 2020, a consortium of 22 centers from nine countries in Europe, Asia, and the United States contributed data from patients with pathologically confirmed NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancers. Profiling included DNA-based and/or RNA-based next-generation sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Anonymized clinical, pathologic, molecular, and response (RECIST v1.1) data were centrally curated and analyzed. RESULTS: Although the typified never smoking (57%), mucinous adenocarcinoma (57%), and nonmetastatic (71%) phenotype predominated in 110 patients with NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancer, further diversity, including in smoking history (43%) and histology (43% nonmucinous and 6% nonadenocarcinoma), was elucidated. RNA-based testing identified most fusions (74%). Molecularly, six (of 18) novel 5' partners, 20 unique epidermal growth factor domain-inclusive chimeric events, and heterogeneous 5'/3' breakpoints were found. Platinum-doublet and taxane-based (post-platinum-doublet) chemotherapy achieved low objective response rates (ORRs 13% and 14%, respectively) and modest progression-free survival medians (PFS 5.8 and 4.0 months, respectively). Consistent with a low programmed death ligand-1 expressing (28%) and low tumor mutational burden (median: 0.9 mutations/megabase) immunophenotype, the activity of chemoimmunotherapy and single-agent immunotherapy was poor (ORR 0%/PFS 3.3 months and ORR 20%/PFS 3.6 months, respectively). Afatinib achieved an ORR of 25%, not contingent on fusion type, and a 2.8-month median PFS. CONCLUSION: NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancers were molecularly, pathologically, and clinically more heterogeneous than previously recognized. The activity of cytotoxic, immune, and targeted therapies was disappointing. Further research examining NRG1-rearranged tumor biology is needed to develop new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Imunoterapia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neuregulina-1/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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