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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The clinicopathological or genetic features related to the prognosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma are unknown because of its rarity. The clinicopathological or targetable features were investigated for better management of patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung. METHODS: We comprehensively evaluated the clinicopathological and genetic features of 60 completely resected mucinous lung adenocarcinomas. Targetable genetic variants were explored using nCounter and polymerase chain reaction, PD-L1 and TTF-1 expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the prognostic impact using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: Of the 60 enrolled patients, 13 (21.7%) had adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, and 47 (78.3%) had invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA). Fifteen patients (25%) showed a pneumonic appearance on computed tomography (CT). CD74-NRG1 fusion, EGFR mutations, and BRAF mutation were detected in three (5%), four (6.7%), and one (1.7%) patient(s), respectively. KRAS mutations were detected in 31 patients (51.7%). Two patients (3.5%) showed immunoreactivity for PD-L1. No in situ or minimally invasive cases recurred. IMA patients with pneumonic appearance had significantly worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, IMA patients harboring KRAS mutations had worse RFS (p = 0.211). Multivariate analysis revealed that radiological pneumonic appearance was significantly associated with lower RFS (p < 0.003) and OS (p = 0.012). KRAS mutations served as an unfavorable status for RFS (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Mucinous adenocarcinoma had a low frequency of targetable genetic variants and PD-L1 immunoreactivity; however, KRAS mutations were frequent. Pneumonic appearance on CT imaging and KRAS mutations were clinicopathological features associated with a worse prognosis.

3.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymomas are a group of rare neoplasms of the anterior mediastinum. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment approaches in Latin America. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study including patients with histologically proven thymomas diagnosed between 1997 and 2018. Demographics, clinicopathological characteristics and therapeutic outcomes were collected locally and analyzed in a centralized manner. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 53 years old (19-84), 53.3% (n = 72) of patients were female and 87.4% had an ECOG performance score ranging from 0-1. A total of 47 patients (34.8%) had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Concurrent myasthenia gravis occurred in 21.5% of patients. Surgery was performed in 74 patients (54.8%), comprising 27 (20%) tumorectomies and 47 (34.8%) thymectomies. According to the Masaoka-Koga system, overall survival (OS) at five-years was 73.4%, 63.8% and 51%, at stages I-II, III-IVA and IVB, respectively (p = 0.005). Furthermore, patients with low lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (≤373 IU/L) at baseline and myasthenia gravis concurrence showed significantly better OS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high LDH levels (HR 2.8 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-7.8]; p = 0.036) at baseline and not performing a surgical resection (HR 4.1 [95% CI: 1.3-12.7]; p = 0.016) were significantly associated with increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provides the largest insight into the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with thymomas in Latin America. Survival in patients with thymomas continues to be very favorable, especially when subjected to adequate local control.

4.
Lung Cancer ; 154: 113-117, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical utility of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, a routinely used test for detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in treatment-naive advanced lung cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with individual patient data. Eligible RCTs compared EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) and chemotherapy in first line setting for advanced lung cancer, and included tumour EGFR+ (tEGFR+) with paired ctDNA results using real-time (quantitative) PCR. We assessed the proportion of tEGFR + detected by ctDNA, and compared the effectiveness of EGFR-TKI versus chemotherapy in ctDNA + and ctDNA- subgroups. RESULTS: Six randomized clinical trials included 1058 tEGFR + patients with paired baseline EGFR ctDNA testing. Of these, 460 (43 %) tested ctDNA- (ctDNA+ 57 %). Progression-free survival was longer for EGFR-TKI versus chemotherapy for both ctDNA+ (HR 0.28; 95 % CI 0.22-0.36, p < 0.00001) and ctDNA- subgroups (HR 0.37; 95 % CI 0.28-0.49, p < 0.00001; p-interaction = 0.14). Objective response rate (odds ratio 6.21; 95 % CI 4.25-9.07, p < 0.00001 vs 6.44; 95 % CI 4.21-9.87, p < 0.00001) and overall survival (HR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-1.04 vs HR 0.77; 95CI% 0.59-1.00) similarly favoured EGFR-TKI in both ctDNA + and ctDNA- subgroups respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that approximately two in five tissue EGFR mutation-positive patients will not be detected using a qPCR assay, but would still potentially benefit from highly effective EGFR-TKI treatment. A negative EGFR ctDNA result via qPCR testing is therefore insufficient to exclude benefit from EGFR-TKI. Attempts should be made to repeat EGFR testing with a tissue biopsy in this patient group. As newer ctDNA assays with better sensitivity become available, the clinical impact for any false negatives will remain an important consideration.

5.
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3712, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580122

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are double-layered phospholipid membrane vesicles that are released by most cells and can mediate intercellular communication through their RNA cargo. In this study, we tested if the NanoString nCounter platform can be used for the analysis of EV-mRNA. We developed and optimized a methodology for EV enrichment, EV-RNA extraction and nCounter analysis. Then, we demonstrated the validity of our workflow by analyzing EV-RNA profiles from the plasma of 19 cancer patients and 10 controls and developing a gene signature to differentiate cancer versus control samples. TRI reagent outperformed automated RNA extraction and, although lower plasma input is feasible, 500 µL provided highest total counts and number of transcripts detected. A 10-cycle pre-amplification followed by DNase treatment yielded reproducible mRNA target detection. However, appropriate probe design to prevent genomic DNA binding is preferred. A gene signature, created using a bioinformatic algorithm, was able to distinguish between control and cancer EV-mRNA profiles with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. Hence, the nCounter platform can be used to detect mRNA targets and develop gene signatures from plasma-derived EVs.

7.
Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases (BM) are frequent among lung cancer patients, affecting prognosis and quality of life. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) classification (IASLC/ATS/ERS) has prognostic impact in early-stage disease; however, its role in the advanced setting is not precise. This study aims to determine the correlation between the predominant histological subtype and the risk of developing brain metastases (BM) in locally advanced and metastatic (stages IIIB-IV) LADC. METHODS: A total of 710 patients with LADC were treated at our institution from January 2010 to December 2017. After excluding patients with brain metastases at diagnoses (n = 151), they were categorized according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS LADC classification to estimate the risk of developing brain metastases. A competing risk analysis was employed, considering death a competing risk event. RESULTS: From 559 patients, the mean age was 59 ±â€¯13.2 years, women (52.4 %), and clinical-stage IV (79.2 %). LADC subtypes distribution was lepidic (11.6 %), acinar (37.9 %), papillary (10.2 %), micropapillary (6.8 %), and solid (33.5 %). A total of 27.0 % of patients developed BM, 32.9 % died without brain affection, and 40.0 % did not progress. The predominantly solid subtype showed the greatest probability of all subtypes for developing BM [HR 4.0; 95 % CI (1.80-8.91), p = 0.0006], followed by micropapillary [HR1.11; 95 % CI (0.36-3.39), p = 0.85). The solid subtype, moderately differentiated tumors, age, and ECOG PS (>2) were associated with increased hazards in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: According to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification, the predominantly solid pattern was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing BM in patients with locally advanced and metastatic LADC. Its prognostic value might help explore novel clinical approaches, modify monitoring for earlier detection, prevent complications, and reduce morbidity.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To date, studies regarding the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) versus standard of care (SoC) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not shown a significant effect in terms of overall survival (OS). Additionally, the effect of PCI among high-risk patients has been scarcely studied. The objective of this randomized phase 2 study was to evaluate the role of PCI in a population of patients at high risk for development of brain metastases (BM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients had histologically confirmed NSCLC without baseline BM, harboring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, or elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels at the time of diagnosis. Participants received systemic therapy according to molecular status, those without progressive disease were then assigned to receive SoC or SoC + PCI (25 Gy in 10 fractions). The primary outcome was cumulative incidence of brain metastases (CBM). The secondary endpoints included progression-free survival and OS. Quality of life and neurocognitive function are discussed in a separate article (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01603849). RESULTS: From May 2012 to December 2017, 84 patients were enrolled in the study, with 41 patients allocated to receive PCI and 43 received SoC. Patients allocated to receive PCI had a CBM at 24 months of 7% versus 38% in those allocated to the SoC arm. PCI was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.12 (95% confidence interval, 0.035-0.42) for developing BM. A benefit in OS was also observed (64.5 vs 19.8 months; hazard ratio: 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.78; P =∙007). CONCLUSIONS: Among a selected population at high risk for developing BM, PCI significantly decreased CBM in addition to increasing progression-free survival and OS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate PCI in epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, or elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels in patients with NSCLC, showing a significant improvement in CBM. This relevant information should be of particular importance in the context of patients without access to third-generation targeted agents. Further studies are warranted to ascertain this effect.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(9): 1040-1091, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2017 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with driver alterations. A guideline update for systemic therapy for patients with stage IV NSCLC without driver alterations was published separately. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario) NSCLC Expert Panel updated recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from December 2015 to January 2020 and meeting abstracts from ASCO 2020. RESULTS: This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous update. Twenty-seven RCTs, 26 observational studies, and one meta-analysis provide the evidence base (total 54). Outcomes of interest included efficacy and safety. Additional literature suggested by the Expert Panel is discussed. RECOMMENDATIONS: All patients with nonsquamous NSCLC should have the results of testing for potentially targetable mutations (alterations) before implementing therapy for advanced lung cancer, regardless of smoking status recommendations, when possible, following other existing high-quality testing guidelines. Most patients should receive targeted therapy for these alterations: Targeted therapies against ROS-1 fusions, BRAF V600e mutations, RET fusions, MET exon 14 skipping mutations, and NTRK fusions should be offered to patients, either as initial or second-line therapy when not given in the first-line setting. New or revised recommendations include the following: Osimertinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (exon 19 deletion, exon 21 L858R, and exon 20 T790M); alectinib or brigatinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions. For the first time, to our knowledge, the guideline includes recommendations regarding RET, MET, and NTRK alterations. Chemotherapy is still an option at most stages.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/thoracic-cancer-guidelines.

11.
Clin Chem ; 67(3): 554-563, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the advent of precision oncology, liquid biopsies are quickly gaining acceptance in the clinical setting. However, in some cases, the amount of DNA isolated is insufficient for Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis. The nCounter platform could be an alternative, but it has never been explored for detection of clinically relevant alterations in fluids. METHODS: Circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) was purified from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and ascites of patients with cancer and analyzed with the nCounter 3 D Single Nucleotide Variant (SNV) Solid Tumor Panel, which allows for detection of 97 driver mutations in 24 genes. RESULTS: Validation experiments revealed that the nCounter SNV panel could detect mutations at allelic fractions of 0.02-2% in samples with ≥5 pg mutant DNA/µL. In a retrospective analysis of 70 cfDNAs from patients with cancer, the panel successfully detected EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and NRAS mutations when compared with previous genotyping in the same liquid biopsies and paired tumor tissues [Cohen kappa of 0.96 (CI = 0.92-1.00) and 0.90 (CI = 0.74-1.00), respectively]. In a prospective study including 91 liquid biopsies from patients with different malignancies, 90 yielded valid results with the SNV panel and mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, NFE2L2, CTNNB1, ALK, FBXW7, and PTEN were found. Finally, serial liquid biopsies from a patient with NSCLC revealed that the semiquantitative results of the mutation analysis by the SNV panel correlated with the evolution of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The nCounter platform requires less DNA than NGS and can be employed for routine mutation testing in liquid biopsies of patients with cancer.

12.
Drugs ; 81(2): 257-266, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ARCHER 1050, an ongoing, randomized, open-label, phase III trial of dacomitinib versus gefitinib in newly diagnosed patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and an EGFR-activating mutation, reported significant improvement in overall survival (OS) with dacomitinib. OBJECTIVE: This paper reports an updated OS analysis of ARCHER 1050 after an extended follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multinational, multicenter trial, adults (aged ≥ 18 years or ≥ 20 years in Japan and Korea) with newly diagnosed NSCLC and EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R substitution), and no history of central nervous system metastases, were randomized 1:1 to receive dacomitinib 45 mg/day (n = 227) or gefitinib 250 mg/day (n = 225). Randomization was stratified by race and EGFR mutation type. An ad hoc updated analysis of OS was conducted at the protocol-defined cut-off of 48 months from first dosing of the last enrolled patient (13 May 2019). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 47.9 months, 133 (58.6%) patients had died in the dacomitinib arm and 152 (67.6%) in the gefitinib arm. The hazard ratio (HR) for OS was 0.748 (95% CI 0.591-0.947; two-sided P = 0.0155); median OS was 34.1 months with dacomitinib versus 27.0 months with gefitinib. The HR for OS in patients with dose reduction(s) in the dacomitinib arm (n = 154) compared with all patients in the gefitinib arm was 0.554 (95% CI 0.420-0.730); median OS was 42.5 months for patients with dose reduction(s) in the dacomitinib arm. The most common adverse events were diarrhea (87.7%), paronychia (61.7%), dermatitis acneiform (49.3%), and stomatitis (43.6%) with dacomitinib, and diarrhea (55.8%) and alanine aminotransferase increased (40.2%) with gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS: The OS benefit from first-line treatment with dacomitinib versus gefitinib was maintained after extended follow-up in patients with advanced NSCLC with EGFR-activating mutations. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01774721 (registered 24 January 2013).

13.
iScience ; 23(12): 101832, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305187

RESUMO

Tepotinib is an oral MET inhibitor approved for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring MET exon 14 (METex14) skipping mutations. Examining treatment-naive or tepotinib-resistant cells with MET amplification or METex14 skipping mutations identifies other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that co-exist in cells prior to tepotinib exposure and become more prominent upon tepotinib resistance. In a small cohort of patients with lung cancer with MET genetic alterations treated with tepotinib, gene copy number gains of other RTKs were found at baseline and affected treatment outcome. An Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2) inhibitor delayed the emergence of tepotinib resistance and synergized with tepotinib in treatment-naive and tepotinib-resistant cells as well as in xenograft models. Alternative signaling pathways potentially diminish the effect of tepotinib monotherapy, and the combination of tepotinib with an SHP2 inhibitor enables the control of tumor growth in cells with MET genetic alterations.

14.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(5): 1810-1821, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209603

RESUMO

Background: The role of MET alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing and several targeted agents are under evaluation. MET exon 14 skipping mutations and MET amplifications are associated with potential sensitivity to MET inhibition, though resistance mechanisms are emerging. In MET addicted cells, MET inhibition leads to activation of proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1 (PIM1). PIM1 and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (SRC) can regulate the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), potentially inducing resistance to MET inhibition through cross-activation. Methods: We evaluated the activity of class I-II MET inhibitors, the SRC inhibitor dasatinib, and pan-PIM inhibitors in four MET addicted cell lines. We assessed the effect of the dual MET/PIM and MET/SRC inhibition on cell viability and at the protein level. We evaluated RNA expression profiles of the cell lines. Advanced NSCLCs were also screened for MET alterations. Results: All cell lines were sensitive to class I-II MET inhibitors. All cell lines were resistant to single PIM and SRC inhibition. Dual MET/PIM inhibition was synergistic or additive in MET amplified cell lines and dual MET/SRC inhibition was highly synergistic in all MET addicted cell lines. The addition of an SRC inhibitor partially prevents the RTKs cross-activation. MET alterations were found in 9 out of 97 evaluable samples (9.3%); median overall survival in MET altered patients was 5 months (95% CI, 3 m-NA). Conclusions: We identified a potential role of PIM inhibition in MET amplified tumors and of SRC inhibition in MET addicted tumors. Potential applications of this new treatment strategy warrant further evaluation.

15.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(5): 2074-2081, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209627

RESUMO

In the modern era of personalized and precision medicine, lung cancer management needs to be carried out in a multidisciplinary manner. Among other disciplines, also cytopathology is key in diagnosis and treatment management of these patients. Indeed, cytopathology specimens are often the only source of available tissue material for morphological diagnosis and molecular purposes in order to guarantee an adequate treatment decision making, since surgical resection specimens are not available when lung cancer is diagnosed at advanced disease stages. Today, as an effect of the current severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, cytopathology is reorganizing and reshaping many of its procedures and workflows, in order to ensure the safety of cytopathologists and laboratory personnel. In particular, careful attention should be paid on biosafety procedures when pulmonary cytological specimens are handled. In addition, also molecular cytopathology, that provides relevant information on the molecular status and on the potential sensitivity to target treatments, is undergoing major changes. In this setting, fully automated technologies, requiring minimal hands-on work, may be a valid option. The aim of this narrative review is to keep updated all the different professional figures involved in lung cancer management and treatment on how SARS-CoV-2 is modifying lung cancer cytopathology.

16.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236532

RESUMO

MET inhibitors have shown activity in non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) with MET amplification and exon 14 skipping (METΔex14). However, patient stratification is imperfect and thus response rates have varied widely. Here, we studied MET alterations in 474 advanced NSCLC patients by nCounter, an RNA-based technique, together with Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), exploring correlation with clinical benefit. Of the 474 samples analyzed, 422 (89%) yielded valid results by nCounter, which identified 13 patients (3%) with METΔex14 and 15 patients (3.5%) with very-high MET mRNA expression. These two subgroups were mutually exclusive, displayed distinct phenotypes and did not generally co-exist with other drivers. For METΔex14, 3/8 (37.5%) samples positive by nCounter tested negative by NGS. Regarding patients with very-high MET mRNA, 92% had MET amplification by FISH and/or NGS. However, FISH failed to identify three patients (30%) with very high MET RNA expression, among which one received MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment deriving clinical benefit. Our results indicate that quantitative mRNA-based techniques can improve the selection of patients for MET-targeted therapies.

17.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 62-69, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) varies in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) driven byEGFR mutations, suggesting that other genetic alterations may influence oncogene addiction. Low BRCA1 mRNA levels correlate with longer PFS in erlotinib-treated EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. Since the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, olaparib, may attenuate and/or prevent BRCA1 expression, the addition of olaparib to gefitinib could improve outcome in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GOAL was a multicenter, randomized phase IB/II study performed in two countries, Spain and Mexico. Eligible patients were 18 years or older, treatment-naïve, pathologically confirmed stage IV NSCLC, with centrally confirmed EGFR mutations and measurable disease. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive gefitinib 250 mg daily or gefitinib 250 mg daily plus olaparib 200 mg three times daily in 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was PFS. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), response rate, safety and tolerability. RESULTS: Between September 2013, and July 2016, 182 patients underwent randomization, 91 received gefitinib and 91 received gefitinib plus olaparib. There were no differences in gender, age, smoking status, performance status, presence of bone and brain metastases or type ofEGFR mutation. Median PFS was 10.9 months (95 % CI 9.3-13.3) in the gefitinib arm and 12.8 months (95 % CI 9.1-14.7) in the gefitinib plus olaparib arm (HR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.00-1.92; p = 0.124). The most common adverse events were anemia, 78 % in gefitinib plus olaparib group, 38 % in gefitinib arm, diarrhea, 65 % and 60 %, and fatigue, 40 % and 32 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The gefitinib plus olaparib combination did not provide significant benefit over gefitinib alone. The combination's safety profile showed an increase in hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity, compared to gefitinib alone, however, no relevant adverse events were noted.

18.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100887, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129112

RESUMO

Advanced NSCLC patients harboring EML4-ALK and CCDC6-RET rearrangements derive benefit from treatment with ALK and RET TKIs but not immune checkpoint inhibitors. New immunotherapeutic approaches, such as immunization against growth factors, can be of particular interest for combination treatment in these patients. Here, we investigated the effects of anti-EGF antibodies generated by vaccination (anti-EGF VacAbs), TKIs and combinations in EML4-ALK and CCDC6-RET NSCLC cell lines. We found that EGF and tumor growth factor alpha (TGFα) significantly decreased the antiproliferative activity of the RET inhibitor BLU-667 in CCDC6-RET cells and brigatinib, alectinib and crizotinib in EML4-ALK translocated cells. The addition of anti-EGF VacAbs reversed the effects of EGF and TGFα, potentiated the antitumor effects of the kinase inhibitors and delayed the appearance in vitro of resistant clones. Western blotting demonstrated that the combination of anti-EGF VacAbs with ALK or RET TKIs effectively suppressed EGFR downstream pathways in EML4-ALK translocated and CCDC6-RET cells, respectively. In conclusion, anti-EGF VacAbs significantly increased the antitumor activity of TKIs in ALK and RET-positive cell lines. Clinical trials of an EGF vaccine in combination with ALK and RET TKIs are warranted.

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