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1.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(6): 778-783, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926180

RESUMO

Background: Persistent false lumen patency in chronic thoracoabdominal aortic dissections after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) contributes to negative aortic remodeling. We have previously described the evolution of various endovascular techniques to treat persistent false lumen perfusion including false lumen embolization. Objectives of this study are to describe endovascular techniques to obliterate the false lumen and present updated outcomes in a recent series of patients undergoing false lumen embolization for chronic aortic dissection. Methods: From January 2018 to May 2021, 17 patients with chronic dissection underwent false lumen embolization with coils, iliac plugs, and nitinol plugs. This was often in conjunction with or following TEVAR and balloon fracture fenestration. Mean follow-up 354±324 days. Results: After false lumen embolization there was no mortality, stroke, spinal cord ischemia, or visceral and limb ischemia. No patients required dialysis, though 1 (5.9%) did experience acute kidney injury. There was 1 (5.9%) patient that required endovascular re-intervention on the thoracoabdominal aorta. No patients underwent subsequent open surgical repair. Conclusions: TEVAR with adjunctive false lumen embolization and balloon fracture fenestration are techniques to obliterate retrograde flow into the false lumen of chronic thoracoabdominal aortic dissections in appropriately selected patients.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite living closer to high-performing centers, minority patients reportedly receive care at lower-quality hospitals. Investigating opportunities for improvement at minority-serving hospitals may help attenuate disparities in care among cardiothoracic surgery patients. We sought to investigate the relationship between hospital quality and failure-to-rescue (FTR). METHODS: Over 451,000 cardiac surgery patients from 2000-2011 at minority-serving hospitals (MSH) were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. After stratifying patients by hospital mortality quartile, outcomes at poorly performing MSH were compared to those at high-performing MSH. Propensity-score matching was used for comparisons. RESULTS: Though patients at poorly performing centers were more likely black, there were no significant differences in admission status (urgent vs elective), income, insurance, or risk before matching. There were no differences in comorbidities between low- and high-performing MSH including chronic lung disease, coagulopathy, hypertension, and renal failure. While complications remained similar across mortality quartiles (29%, 32%, 31%, 36% respectively; p<0.0001), FTR increased in a stepwise manner (5.4%, 8.7%, 11.2%, 15.5%; p<0.0001). The same was true after propensity-score matching - FTR nearly tripled in the highest-mortality centers (14.4% vs 5.3%; p<0.0001) while complications only increased 1.2-fold from 31.1% to 36.7% (p=0.0058). This finding persisted even when stratified by procedure type and by complication. CONCLUSIONS: Improving timely management of complications after cardiac surgery may serve as a promising opportunity for increasing quality of care at MSH. When considering centralization of care in cardiac surgery, equal emphasis should be placed on collaboration between tertiary care centers and low-quality MSH to mitigate disparities in care.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between institutional volume and operative mortality following SAVR remains unclear. METHODS: From 1/2013 to 6/2018, 234,556 patients underwent isolated SAVR (n=144,177) or SAVR+CABG (n=90,379) within the STS ACSD. The association between annualized SAVR volume [Group 1 (1-25 SAVR), Group 2 (26-50 SAVR), Group 3 (51-100 SAVR), and Group 4 (>100 SAVR)] and operative mortality and composite major morbidity/mortality was assessed. Random effects models were used to evaluate whether historic (2013-2015) SAVR volume or risk-adjusted outcomes explained future (2016-2018) risk-adjusted outcomes. RESULTS: The annualized median number of SAVRs per site was 35 [IQR: 22-59, isolated AVR: 20, AVR+CABG: 13]. Among isolated SAVR cases, the mean operative mortality and composite morbidity/mortality were 1.5% and 9.7%, respectively, at the highest volume sites (Group 4); with significantly higher rates among progressively lower volume groups (p-trend<0.001). After adjustment, lower volume centers experienced increased odds of operative mortality [Group 1 vs. 4 (Ref): AOR (SAVR), 2.24 (1.91-2.64); AOR (SAVR+CABG), 1.96 (1.67-2.30)] and major morbidity/mortality [AOR (SAVR), 1.53 (1.39-1.69); AOR (SAVR+CABG), 1.46 (1.32-1.61)] compared to the highest volume institutions. Substantial variation in outcomes was observed across hospitals within each volume category and prior outcomes explained a greater proportion of hospital operative outcomes than prior volume. CONCLUSIONS: Operative outcomes following SAVR±CABG is inversely associated with institutional procedure volumes; however, prior outcomes are more predictive than prior volume of future outcomes. Given excellent outcomes observed at many lower volume hospitals, procedural outcomes may be preferable to procedural volumes as a quality metric.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now frequently performed for severe aortic stenosis. Data regarding cardiac operations after TAVR are limited, however. Therefore, we investigated patient characteristics, operative timing and indications, and outcomes of these operations in a single-center experience. METHODS: From 1/2012-7/2020, 59 patients (median age 70) underwent cardiac operations after TAVR, 38 (64%) of the latter performed outside our center. Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS-PROM) was calculated at time of prior TAVRs and at applicable index cardiac operations. RESULTS: From 2012-2018, there were fewer than 10 operations after TAVR, but 18 in 2019. Interval between prior TAVR and cardiac surgery decreased exponentially from 7 to less than 1 year over the experience. In applicable cases (n=19; 32%), median STS-PROM was 5.5% (15th-85th percentiles, 3.1%-25%); 40 (68%) were complex operations with no calculable STS-PROM. The TAVR valve was explanted in 46 (78%); 5 were isolated surgical AVRs. TAVR valve stenosis/regurgitation (n=34; 58%) was the leading indication, followed by paravalvular leak (14; 24%) and endocarditis (n=10/17%). When the TAVR valve was not explanted, mitral regurgitation was the leading indication for operation. Operative mortality was 5 (8.5%), postoperative stroke 2 (3.4%), and postoperative dialysis 6 (10%). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac operations after TAVR are increasing and interval between TAVR and operation decreasing. Most cardiac operations are complex, high-risk reoperations and isolated AVR rare. These findings should be considered when TAVR is selected for low-intermediate risk patients, particularly with multiple cardiac pathologies not addressed by TAVR.

5.
Aorta (Stamford) ; 9(4): 147-154, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing surgery for thoracic aortic aneurysms receive statin therapy out of proportion to cardiovascular comorbidity. We sought to determine the prevalence of statin use among patients presenting for thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery and investigate its effect on outcomes. METHODS: From January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2011, 1,839 consecutive patients underwent aortic replacement for degenerative thoracic aortic aneurysm at Cleveland Clinic. Of these, 771 (42%) were on statins preoperatively. Statin users (vs. nonstatin users) were older (65 ± 11 vs. 56 ± 16 years) and had more hypertension (78 vs. 59%). Propensity matching based on 56 preoperative variables other than lipid levels was used to compare outcomes among 570 matched patient pairs (74% of possible pairs). RESULTS: Propensity-matched statin and nonstatin users were aged 64 ± 11 years, 394 (69%) versus 387 (68%) were male, and 437 (77%) versus 442 (78%) had ascending aortic aneurysms, respectively. Overall, 25% of patients were followed for more than 8.2 years and 10% for more than 10 years. Perioperative outcomes were similar, including hospital mortality (11 [1.9%] vs. 5 [0.88%]) and stroke (22 [3.9%] vs. 13 [2.3%]), but 16 statin users (2.8%) versus 5 nonstatin users (0.88%) required temporary dialysis after surgery (p = 0.02). At 6 years, 3.7% of statin users versus 5.1% of nonstatin users (p[log-rank] = 0.5) underwent further aortic surgery, and at 10 years, mortality was 25% in both groups (p > 0.5). CONCLUSION: Patients presenting for thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery frequently receive unnecessary statins. Additionally, statin use was associated with more postoperative renal failure, but not less intermediate-term risk for aortic reintervention or all-cause mortality after surgery. Therefore, presence of a thoracic aortic aneurysm should not be considered an indication for statin therapy in the absence of well-established indications.

6.
Aorta (Stamford) ; 9(5): 171-179, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute Type A aortic dissection can be physically and mentally stressful with little known about survivors' postrepair activity levels, exercise habits, and quality of life (QOL). This study was aimed to describe pre- and postdissection changes regarding exercise, understand physician recommendations, quantify use of cardiac rehabilitation, and assess QOL in dissection survivors. METHODS: A total of 295 acute Type A aortic dissection survivors were surveyed about exercise, cardiac rehabilitation, QOL, sexual activity, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with 137 (46%) respondents. RESULTS: Respondents were less likely to participate in competitive athletics after than before dissection (1/131 [0.76%] vs. 26/131 [20%], p [McNemar test] < 0.0001) or lift heavy objects (11/111 [9.9%] vs. 41/111 [37%], p < 0.0001). Forty-eight of 132 respondents (36%) did not participate in cardiac rehabilitation. Compared with general population norms, respondents reported lower median QOL physical component scores (40 [26, 51; 15th, 85th percentile], p < 0.0001); these were lower in respondents who did not exercise (Hodges-Lehmann [HL; 95% confidence interval (CI)]: -6.8 [-11, -2.4], p = 0.002), limited sexual activity (-8.0 [-13, -4.3], p = 0.0002), or screened positive for PTSD (-10 [-14, -5.3], p = 0.0002). Median mental component scores were similar to general population norms (HL [95% CI]: 55 [34, 61], p = 0.24) but were lower among respondents who did not exercise (-4.2 [-7.8, -1.0], p = 0.01), limited sexual activity (-5.5 [-10, -1.8], p = 0.003), or screened positive for PTSD (-16 [-22, -10], p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Physicians should prescribe cardiac rehabilitation, encourage appropriate exercise, promote resumption of sexual activity, and identify and treat PTSD after surgery for acute Type A aortic dissection.

7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reoperative cardiac surgery in patients with patent bilateral internal thoracic arteries (ITA) grafts is technically challenging. METHODS: From 2008-2017, of 7,640 patients undergoing reoperative cardiac surgery, 116 (1.5%) had patent bilateral ITA grafts, including 28 with a right ITA crossing the midline. Mean age was 70±9.6 years, and 111 patients (96%) were male. Reoperations included isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; n=11), isolated valve (n=55), valve+CABG (n=26), and other procedures (n=24). Clinical details, intraoperative management, and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Aortic cannulation was central in 64 patients (56%) and via femoral or axillary artery in 50 (44%). Four patients (3.4%) had planned transection and reattachment of ITAs crossing the midline, and 4 (3.4%) had ITA injuries, all right ITAs, 3 crossing the midline; 3 were repaired with an interposition vein graft, and 1 was managed by translocating the right ITA as a Y-graft off another graft. Patent ITAs were managed by atraumatic occlusion during aortic clamping in 90 patients (78%) and by systemic cooling without ITA occlusion in 19. There were 6 operative deaths, all due to low cardiac output syndrome (5.2%), 4 strokes (3.4%), and 5 cases of new postoperative dialysis (4.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Risk of injury to bilateral ITA grafts during reoperation is high, and right ITAs crossing the midline present a particular risk of injury and should inform planning for primary CABG. Risk of low cardiac output syndrome underscores the challenge of ensuring adequate myocardial protection.

8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery bypass grafting using bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) maximizes long-term survival, knowledge of the effect of different right ITA (RITA) inflow configurations on graft patency is limited. We have compared RITA occlusion among these configurations and identified its risk factors while adjusting for outflow coronary target location. METHODS: From 1/1972-1/2016, of 7,092 patients undergoing BITA grafting at a single center, 1,331 received 1 ITA to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and had ≥1 evaluable postoperative coronary angiograms: 835 (63%) in-situ, 496 free-RITA grafts (311 [63%] originating from aorta, 98 [20%] left internal thoracic artery (LITA), 76 [15%] saphenous vein graft [SVG], 11 [2%] radial graft). RITA occlusion reported on 1,983 angiograms performed a median of 5.8 years later was estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects longitudinal modeling. RESULTS: RITA patency was 90% at 1 year, 87% at 5 years, and 86% at 10 and 15 years. At 15 years, in-situ RITA patency was 91% and free RITA patency from aorta 91%, LITA 89%, and SVG 77%. After adjusting for coronary target location and degree of stenosis, occlusion was similar in free RITAs from aorta (P=.15), LITA (P=.4), SVG (P=.13), and in-situ RITAs. However, RITAs grafted to the LAD had fewer occlusions (P<.001), with patency similar to LITAs. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with BITA grafting requiring interval coronary angiography, long-term RITA patency was high and independent of its inflow configuration. Therefore, priority should be a RITA configuration optimizing its reach to important coronary targets, including the LAD.

9.
J Vasc Surg ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited data exists on management and outcomes of patients presenting with type A aortic dissection (TAAD) and acute lower extremity ischemia (ALI). The role of limb-related revascularization and optimal treatment strategy remains undefined. The objective of this study was to analyze dissection characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes of patients undergoing proximal aortic repair for TAAD with ALI. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent proximal aortic repair for TAAD were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Clinical data, imaging, operative details, and outcomes of patients with TAAD and ALI were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to estimate overall and amputation-free survival. Log-rank tests were used to compare overall curves. Predictors of revascularization and in-hospital mortality were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2018, 463 patients with TAAD underwent proximal aortic repair. A total of 81 patients (17%) presented with ALI; 48% (39/81) with isolated ALI, and 52% (42/81) with ALI and renovisceral malperfusion. Thirty percent (24/81) required revascularization in addition to proximal aortic repair. Revascularization strategies involved endovascular (46%; 11/24), open (33%; 8/24), and hybrid (21%; 5/24) interventions. The major amputation rate was 4% (3/81), and in-hospital mortality was 21% (17/81). Amputation-free survival was significantly lower in patients requiring revascularization compared with those who did not (log-rank P = .023). Overall survival did not significantly differ between the two groups (log-rank P = .095). Overall survival was significantly lower in patients with concomitant ALI and renovisceral malperfusion compared with those with isolated ALI (log-rank P = .0017). Distal extent of dissection flap into zone 11 (odds ratio [OR], 5.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-20.2; P = .008) and partial/complete thrombosis of any iliac artery (OR, 3.94; 95% CI, 1.23-12.6; P = .021) were associated with increased risk of requiring an additional revascularization procedure. True lumen collapse at level of renovisceral aorta (OR, 8.84; 95% CI, 1.74-44.9; P = .0086) was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: ALI resolves after proximal aortic repair of TAAD in most cases. Distal extent of aortic dissection into zone 11 and iliac thrombosis are risk factors for additional peripheral revascularization. True lumen collapse at the renovisceral aorta and TAAD with concomitant ALI and renovisceral malperfusion portends a poor prognosis. A multi-disciplinary team approach to manage these patients who present with ascending aortic dissection and distal malperfusion may improve outcomes in this complex population.

10.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(10): 142, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410528

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction is a principal cause of cardiovascular disease with a steadily rising incidence of 4.98 AMI events/100,000 deliveries over the last four decades in the USA. It is also linked with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, with maternal case fatality rate ranging from 5.1 to 37%. The management of acute myocardial infarction can be challenging in pregnant patients since treatment modalities and medication use are limited by their safety during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited guidelines exist regarding the management of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction. Routinely used medications in myocardial infarction including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and statin therapy are contraindicated during pregnancy. Aspirin use is considered safe in pregnant women, but dual antiplatelet therapy and therapeutic anticoagulation can be associated with increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, and should only be used after a comprehensive benefit-to-risk assessment. The standard approach to revascularization requires additional caution in pregnant women. Percutaneous coronary intervention is generally considered safe but can be associated with high failure rates and poor outcomes depending on the etiology. Fibrinolytic therapy may have significant sequelae in pregnant patients, and hemodynamic management during surgery is complex and adds risk during pregnancy. Understanding the risks and benefits of the different treatment modalities available and their utility depending on the underlying etiology, encompassed with a multidisciplinary team approach, is vital to improve outcomes and minimize maternal and fetal complications.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Gravidez
12.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 113, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269860

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present review, we discuss the role of CT imaging in the management of aortic dissection, with a particular emphasis on endovascular treatment considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Computed tomography imaging is a fundamental tool in the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic aortic dissection. Its diagnostic accuracy and high resolution contribute to and guide operative strategy. Persistent high mortality for patients who develop aortic dissections suggests a need for innovative diagnostic and treatment strategies. In the recent era, considerable advances have been made in computed tomography (CT) image acquisition, processing, and analysis as well as endovascular technologies with expanded roles in the treatment of aortic diseases.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Doenças da Aorta , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271093

RESUMO

To assess and compare patient-reported long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after combined proximal aortic (arch ± ascending, root) and distal aortic (descending thoracic ± abdominal) replacement using open vs multimodal/endovascular (hybrid) approaches. From 2010 to 2016, 146 adults underwent single- or multi-stage aortic arch plus descending thoracic aorta replacement, 31 open and 115 hybrid. The 2 surgical approach groups had similar preoperative characteristics and extent of surgery. Cross-sectional follow-up revealed 49 deaths (7 open, 42 hybrid). Of the 97 survivors, 72 (74%) responded to the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global-10 survey (18 open, 54 hybrid) a median 6.2 years (15th, 85th percentiles: 3.1, 7.9) after their last aortic surgery. Predictors of HRQoL scores were identified by random forest regression. Overall physical HRQoL T-score was lower than that of population norms (46 vs 50, P < 0.0001); mental HRQoL T-score was similar (50 vs 50, P > 0.9). Neither T-score was significantly different according to surgical approach (P ≥ 0.3). Greater number of postoperative complications and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most important predictors of lower physical HRQoL, and prior myocardial infarction was the most important predictor of lower mental HRQoL. Although extensive aortic replacement had a small long-term effect on patient-reported physical HRQoL, both physical and mental HRQoL can be preserved in survivors with both surgical approaches. Surgeons should recommend the approach they believe will yield the best long-term survival, but lifelong follow-up is crucial, and patients should understand that they may require multiple operations.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Open repair is the standard of care for patients with descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Although effective, surgery carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular stent grafts were introduced to treat these aneurysms in patients considered too high risk for open repair. Early results are promising, but later results are incompletely known. Therefore, we sought to compare short- and intermediate-term outcomes of open vs endovascular repair for these aneurysms. METHODS: From 2000 to 2010, 1053 patients underwent open (n = 457) or endovascular (n = 596) repair of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms at Cleveland Clinic. To balance patient characteristics between these groups, propensity score matching was performed, yielding 278 well-matched pairs (61% of possible pairs). End points included short- and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: In matched patients, compared with endovascular stenting, open repair achieved similar in-hospital death (n = 23 [8.3%] vs n = 21 [7.6%], P = .80) and occurrence of paralysis and stroke (n = 10 [3.6%] vs n = 6 [2.2%], P = .30), despite a longer postoperative stay (median 11 vs 6 days), more dialysis-dependent acute renal failure (n = 24 [8.6%] vs n = 9 [3.3%], P = .008), and prolonged ventilation (n = 106 [46%] vs n = 17 [6.3%], P < .0001). Open repair resulted in better 10-year survival than endovascular repair (52% vs 33%, P < .0001), and aortic reintervention was less frequent (4% vs 21%, P < .0001). Despite a decrease in the first postoperative year, average aneurysm size did not recover to normal range after endovascular stenting. CONCLUSIONS: Open repair of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms can achieve acceptable short-term outcomes with better intermediate-term outcomes than endovascular repair.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate recent practice and outcomes of reoperative cardiac surgery via re-sternotomy. Use of early versus late institution of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) before sternal re-entry was of particular interest. METHODS: From January 2008 to July 2017, 7640 patients underwent reoperative cardiac surgery at Cleveland Clinic. The study group consisted of 6627 who had a re-sternotomy and preoperative computed tomography scans; 755 and 5872 were in the early and late institution of CPB groups, respectively. Patients were stratified into high (n = 563) or low (n = 6064) anatomic risk of re-entry on the basis of computed tomography criteria. Weighted propensity-balanced operative mortality and morbidity were compared with surgeon as a random effect. RESULTS: Reoperative procedures most commonly incorporated aortic valve replacement (n = 3611) and coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 2029), but also aortic root (n = 1061) and arch procedures (n = 527). Unadjusted operative mortality was 3.5% (235/6627), and major sternal re-entry and mediastinal dissection injuries were uncommon (2.8%). In the propensity-weighted analysis, similar mortality (3.1% vs 4.5%; P = .6) and major morbidity, including stroke (1.8% vs 3.2%) and dialysis (0 vs 2.6%), were noted in the high anatomic risk cohort between early and late CPB groups. Similar trends were observed in the low anatomic risk cohort (mortality 3.5% vs 2.1%; P = .2). CONCLUSIONS: Reoperative cardiac surgery is associated with low operative morbidity and mortality at an experienced center. Early and late CPB strategies have comparable outcomes in the context of an image-guided, team-based strategy.

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