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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) provide significant benefit in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients with ROS1 fusions. However, as observed with all targeted therapies, resistance arises. Detecting mechanisms of acquired resistance (AR) is crucial to finding novel therapies and improve patient outcomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ROS1 fusions were expressed in in HBEC and NIH-3T3 cells either by cDNA overexpression (CD74/ROS1, SLC34A2/ROS1) or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genomic engineering (EZR/ROS1). We reviewed targeted large-panel sequencing data (using the MSK-IMPACT assay) patients treated with ROS1 TKIs, and genetic alterations hypothesized to confer AR were modeled in these cell lines. RESULTS: Eight of the 75 patients with a ROS1 fusion had a concurrent MAPK pathway alteration and this correlated with shorter overall survival. In addition, the induction of ROS1 fusions stimulated activation of MEK/ERK signaling in comparison with AKT signaling, suggesting the importance of the MAPK pathway in driving ROS1 fusion-positive cancers. Of 8 patients, 2 patients harbored novel in-frame deletions in MEK1 (MEK1delE41_L54) and MEKK1 (MEKK1delH907_C916) that were acquired after ROS1-TKIs, and 2 patients harbored NF1 loss-of-function mutations. Expression of MEK1del or MEKK1del, and knockdown of NF1 in ROS1 fusion-positive cells activated MEK/ERK signaling and conferred resistance to ROS1-TKIs. Combined targeting of ROS1 and MEK inhibited growth of cells expressing both ROS1 fusion and MEK1del. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the activation of MAPK pathway is mechanisms of innate or acquired resistance and that patients harboring ROS1 fusion and concurrent MAPK alterations have worse survival. Our findings suggest a treatment strategy to target both aberrations.

2.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213539

RESUMO

Amplification and oncogenic mutations of ERBB2, the gene encoding the HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase, promote receptor hyperactivation and tumor growth. Here we demonstrate that HER2 ubiquitination and internalization, rather than its overexpression, are key mechanisms underlying endocytosis and consequent efficacy of the anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) in lung cancer cell lines and patient-derived xenograft models. These data translated into a 51% response rate in a clinical trial of T-DM1 in 49 patients with ERBB2/HER2-amplified or mutant lung cancers. We show that co-treatment with irreversible pan-HER inhibitors enhances receptor ubiquitination and consequent ADC internalization and efficacy. We also demonstrate that ADC switching to T-DXd, which harbors a different cytotoxic payload, achieves durable responses in a patient with lung cancer and corresponding xenograft model developing resistance to T-DM1. Our findings may help guide future clinical trials and expand the field of ADC as cancer therapy.

3.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1428-1437, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015092

RESUMO

Genomic rearrangements leading to the aberrant expression of ERG are the most common early events in prostate cancer and are significantly enriched for the concomitant loss of PTEN. Genetically engineered mouse models reveal that ERG overexpression alone is not sufficient to induce tumorigenesis, but combined loss of PTEN results in an aggressive invasive phenotype. Here, we show that oncogenic ERG repressed PI3K signaling through direct transcriptional suppression of IRS2, leading to reduced RTK levels and activity. In accordance with this finding, ERG-positive human prostate cancers had a repressed AKT gene signature and transcriptional downregulation of IRS2. Although overexpression of IRS2 activated PI3K signaling, promoting cell migration in a PI3K-dependent manner, this did not fully recapitulate the phenotype seen with loss of PTEN as PI3K signaling is not as robust as observed in the setting of loss of PTEN. Importantly, deletions of the PTEN locus, which promotes active PI3K signaling, were among the most significant copy-number alterations that co-occurred with ERG genomic rearrangements. This work provides insight on how initiating oncogenic events may directly influence the selection of secondary concomitant alterations to promote oncogenic signaling during tumor evolution. SIGNIFICANCE: This work provides insight on how initiating oncogenic events may directly influence the selection of secondary concomitant alterations to promote tumorigenesis.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(3): 597-606, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825160

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of genetic disorders that result from germline pathogenic variants affecting RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes. RASopathies share RAS/MAPK pathway dysregulation and share phenotypic manifestations affecting numerous organ systems, causing lifelong and at times life-limiting medical complications. RASopathies may benefit from precision medicine approaches. For this reason, the Sixth International RASopathies Symposium focused on exploring precision medicine. This meeting brought together basic science researchers, clinicians, clinician scientists, patient advocates, and representatives from pharmaceutical companies and the National Institutes of Health. Novel RASopathy genes, variants, and animal models were discussed in the context of medication trials and drug development. Attempts to define and measure meaningful endpoints for treatment trials were discussed, as was drug availability to patients after trial completion.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(23): 7089-7097, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515458

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While mutations in BRAF in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) most commonly occur at the V600 amino acid, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, non-V600 BRAF mutations are increasingly identified in clinical practice. It is unclear whether these mutants, like BRAF V600E, confer resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter pooled analysis of consecutive patients with non-V600 BRAF-mutated mCRCs identified between 2010 and 2017. Non-V600 BRAF mutations were divided into functional classes based on signaling mechanism and kinase activity: activating and RAS-independent (class 2) or kinase-impaired and RAS-dependent (class 3). RESULTS: Forty patients with oncogenic non-V600 BRAF-mutant mCRC received anti-EGFR antibody treatment [n = 12 (30%) class 2 and n = 28 (70%) class 3]. No significant differences in clinical characteristics were observed by mutation class. In contrast, while only 1 of 12 patients with class 2 BRAF mCRC responded, 14 of 28 patients with class 3 BRAF responded to anti-EGFR therapy (response rate, 8% and 50%, respectively, P = 0.02). Specifically, in first- or second-line, 1 of 6 (17%) patients with class 2 and 7 of 9 (78%) patients with class 3 BRAF mutants responded (P = 0.04). In third- or later-line, none of 6 patients with class 2 and 7 of 19 (37%) patients with class 3 BRAF mutants responded (P = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Response to EGFR antibody treatment in mCRCs with class 2 BRAF mutants is rare, while a large portion of CRCs with class 3 BRAF mutants respond. Patients with colorectal cancer with class 3 BRAF mutations should be considered for anti-EGFR antibody treatment.See related commentary by Fontana and Valeri, p. 6896.

6.
Cancer Cell ; 36(2): 139-155.e10, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327655

RESUMO

The mechanisms that enable immune evasion at metastatic sites are poorly understood. We show that the Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 (PRC1) drives colonization of the bones and visceral organs in double-negative prostate cancer (DNPC). In vivo genetic screening identifies CCL2 as the top prometastatic gene induced by PRC1. CCL2 governs self-renewal and induces the recruitment of M2-like tumor-associated macrophages and regulatory T cells, thus coordinating metastasis initiation with immune suppression and neoangiogenesis. A catalytic inhibitor of PRC1 cooperates with immune checkpoint therapy to reverse these processes and suppress metastasis in genetically engineered mouse transplantation models of DNPC. These results reveal that PRC1 coordinates stemness with immune evasion and neoangiogenesis and point to the potential clinical utility of targeting PRC1 in DNPC.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10865, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350469

RESUMO

Small molecule inhibitors of BRAF and MEK have proven effective at inhibiting tumor growth in melanoma patients, however this efficacy is limited due to the almost universal development of drug resistance. To provide advanced insight into the signaling responses that occur following kinase inhibition we have performed quantitative (phospho)-proteomics of human melanoma cells treated with either dabrafenib, a BRAF inhibitor; trametinib, a MEK inhibitor or SCH772984, an ERK inhibitor. Over nine experiments we identified 7827 class I phosphorylation sites on 4960 proteins. This included 54 phosphorylation sites that were significantly down-modulated after exposure to all three inhibitors, 34 of which have not been previously reported. Functional analysis of these novel ERK targets identified roles for them in GTPase activity and regulation, apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion. Comparison of the results presented here with previously reported phosphorylation sites downstream of ERK showed a limited degree of overlap suggesting that ERK signaling responses may be highly cell line and cue specific. In addition we identified 26 phosphorylation sites that were only responsive to dabrafenib. We provide further orthogonal experimental evidence for 3 of these sites in human embryonic kidney cells over-expressing BRAF as well as further computational insights using KinomeXplorer. The validated phosphorylation sites were found to be involved in actin regulation, which has been proposed as a novel mechanism for inhibiting resistance development. These results would suggest that the linearity of the BRAF-MEK-ERK module is at least context dependent.

8.
Cancer Discov ; 9(9): 1182-1191, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227518

RESUMO

We report the emergence of the novel MEK1 V211D gatekeeper mutation in a patient with BRAF K601E colon cancer treated with the allosteric MEK inhibitor binimetinib and the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab. The MEK1 V211D mutation concurrently occurs in the same cell with BRAF K601E and leads to RAF-independent activity but remains regulated by RAF. The V211D mutation causes resistance to binimetinib by both increasing the catalytic activity of MEK1 and reducing its affinity for the drug. Moreover, the mutant exhibits reduced sensitivity to all the allosteric MEK inhibitors tested. Thus, this mutation serves as a general resistance mutation for current MEK inhibitors; however, it is sensitive to a newly reported ATP-competitive MEK inhibitor, which therefore could be used to overcome drug resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: We report a resistance mechanism to allosteric MEK inhibitors in the clinic. A MEK1 V211D mutation developed in a patient with BRAF K601E colon cancer on MEK and EGFR inhibitors. This mutant increases the catalytic activity of MEK1 and reduces its affinity for binimetinib, but remains sensitive to ATP-competitive MEK inhibitors.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1143.

9.
Nature ; 567(7749): 521-524, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867592

RESUMO

Histiocytic neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematopoietic disorders that are marked by diverse mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway1,2. For the 50% of patients with histiocytosis who have BRAFV600 mutations3-5, RAF inhibition is highly efficacious and has markedly altered the natural history of the disease6,7. However, no standard therapy exists for the remaining 50% of patients who lack BRAFV600 mutations. Although ERK dependence has been hypothesized to be a consistent feature across histiocytic neoplasms, this remains clinically unproven and many of the kinase mutations that are found in patients who lack BRAFV600 mutations have not previously been biologically characterized. Here we show ERK dependency in histiocytoses through a proof-of-concept clinical trial of cobimetinib, an oral inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2, in patients with histiocytoses. Patients were enrolled regardless of their tumour genotype. In parallel, MAPK alterations that were identified in treated patients were characterized for their ability to activate ERK. In the 18 patients that we treated, the overall response rate was 89% (90% confidence interval of 73-100). Responses were durable, with no acquired resistance to date. At one year, 100% of responses were ongoing and 94% of patients remained progression-free. Cobimetinib treatment was efficacious regardless of genotype, and responses were observed in patients with ARAF, BRAF, RAF1, NRAS, KRAS, MEK1 (also known as MAP2K1) and MEK2 (also known as MAP2K2) mutations. Consistent with the observed responses, the characterization of the mutations that we identified in these patients confirmed that the MAPK-pathway mutations were activating. Collectively, these data demonstrate that histiocytic neoplasms are characterized by a notable dependence on MAPK signalling-and that they are consequently responsive to MEK inhibition. These results extend the benefits of molecularly targeted therapy to the entire spectrum of patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/enzimologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/enzimologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/genética , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/patologia , Histiocitose/genética , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/genética
10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(5): 802-815, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple genetic mechanisms have been identified in EGFR-mutant lung cancers as mediators of acquired resistance (AR) to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but many cases still lack a known mechanism. METHODS: To identify novel mechanisms of AR, we performed targeted large panel sequencing of samples from 374 consecutive patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancer, including 174 post-TKI samples, of which 38 also had a matched pre-TKI sample. Alterations hypothesized to confer AR were introduced into drug-sensitive EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines (H1975, HCC827, and PC9) by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 genome editing. MSK-LX138cl, a cell line with EGFR exon 19 deletion (ex19del) and praja ring finger ubiquitin ligase 2 gene (PJA2)/BRAF fusion, was generated from an EGFR TKI-resistant patient sample. RESULTS: We identified four patients (2.3%) with a BRAF fusion (three with acylglycerol kinase gene (AGK)/BRAF and one with PJA2/BRAF) in samples obtained at AR to EGFR TKI therapy (two posterlotinib samples and two posterlotinib and postosimertinib samples). Pre-TKI samples were available for two of four patients and both were negative for BRAF fusion. Induction of AGK/BRAF fusion in H1975 (L858R + T790M), PC9 (ex19del) and HCC827 (ex19del) cells increased phosphorylation of BRAF, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and conferred resistance to growth inhibition by osimertinib. MEK inhibition with trametinib synergized with osimertinib to block growth. Alternately, a pan-RAF inhibitor as a single agent blocked growth of all cell lines with mutant EGFR and BRAF fusion. CONCLUSION: BRAF fusion is a mechanism of AR to EGFR TKI therapy in approximately 2% of patients. Combined inhibition of EGFR and MEK (with osimertinib and trametinib) or BRAF (with a pan-RAF inhibitor) are potential therapeutic strategies that should be explored.

11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(4): 534, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842593

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published the same blot was inadvertently presented as both p-Rb and Cyclin A in Fig. 2a. This blot corresponds to the p-Rb panel, as can be seen in the unprocessed version of these blots in Supplementary Fig. 9. The corrected version of the panel is shown below, together with a completely uncropped image of both blots. In addition, in the 'Viral transduction' section of the Methods, the pLKO.1 plasmids encoding short hairpin RNAs targeting human Rnd1 were incorrectly listed as clones TRCN0000018338 and TRCN0000039977. The correct clone numbers are TRCN0000047434 and TRCN0000047435.

12.
Nat Med ; 25(2): 284-291, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559419

RESUMO

Activating BRAF mutants and fusions signal as RAS-independent constitutively active dimers with the exception of BRAF V600 mutant alleles which can function as active monomers1. Current RAF inhibitors are monomer selective, they potently inhibit BRAF V600 monomers but their inhibition of RAF dimers is limited by induction of negative cooperativity when bound to one site in the dimer1-3. Moreover, acquired resistance to these drugs is usually due to molecular lesions that cause V600 mutants to dimerize4-8. We show here that PLX8394, a new RAF inhibitor9, inhibits ERK signaling by specifically disrupting BRAF-containing dimers, including BRAF homodimers and BRAF-CRAF heterodimers, but not CRAF homodimers or ARAF-containing dimers. Differences in the amino acid residues in the amino (N)-terminal portion of the kinase domain of RAF isoforms are responsible for this differential vulnerability. As a BRAF-specific dimer breaker, PLX8394 selectively inhibits ERK signaling in tumors driven by dimeric BRAF mutants, including BRAF fusions and splice variants as well as BRAF V600 monomers, but spares RAF function in normal cells in which CRAF homodimers can drive signaling. Our work suggests that drugs with these properties will be safe and useful for treating tumors driven by activating BRAF mutants or fusions.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Cell ; 34(6): 893-905.e8, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537512

RESUMO

Cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors (CDK4/6i) are effective in breast cancer; however, drug resistance is frequently encountered and poorly understood. We conducted a genomic analysis of 348 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers treated with CDK4/6i and identified loss-of-function mutations affecting FAT1 and RB1 linked to drug resistance. FAT1 loss led to marked elevations in CDK6, the suppression of which restored sensitivity to CDK4/6i. The induction of CDK6 was mediated by the Hippo pathway with accumulation of YAP and TAZ transcription factors on the CDK6 promoter. Genomic alterations in other Hippo pathway components were also found to promote CDK4/6i resistance. These findings uncover a tumor suppressor function of Hippo signaling in ER+ breast cancer and establish FAT1 loss as a mechanism of resistance to CDK4/6i.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Caderinas/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
14.
Oncogene ; 37(42): 5682-5693, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970903

RESUMO

FGFR1 amplification has been found in 15% of patients with breast cancer and has been postulated as a promising marker to predict response against FGFR inhibitors. However, early phase clinical trials of selective FGFR inhibitors demonstrated only limited efficacy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer patients. We found that BGJ398, an FGFR inhibitor, effectively inhibited phosphorylation of FGFR1 and MEK/ERK signaling in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer without affecting tumor cell proliferation. However, FGFR1 knockout inhibited tumor angiogenesis in vivo. We unraveled that FGFR1 regulates the secretion of the proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a MAPK-dependent manner. We further found that FGF-FGFR1 signaling induces an autocrine activation of VEGF-VEGFR1 pathway that again amplifies VEGF secretion via VEGF-VEGFR1-AKT signaling. Targeting both VEGFR1 and FGFR1 resulted in synergistic anti-angiogenic treatment effects in vivo. We thus postulate synergistic treatment effects in FGFR1/VEGFR1-positive breast cancer patients by dual targeting of FGFR and VEGFR.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia
15.
Cancer Discov ; 8(9): 1130-1141, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880583

RESUMO

BRAFV600E hyperactivates ERK and signals as a RAF inhibitor-sensitive monomer. Although RAF inhibitors can produce impressive clinical responses in patients with mutant BRAF tumors, the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs are incompletely characterized. Here, we report a complete response followed by clinical progression in a patient with a BRAFV600E-mutant brain tumor treated with dabrafenib. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a secondary BRAFL514V mutation at progression that was not present in the pretreatment tumor. Expressing BRAFV600E/L514V induces ERK signaling, promotes RAF dimer formation, and is sufficient to confer resistance to dabrafenib. Newer RAF dimer inhibitors and an ERK inhibitor are effective against BRAFL514V-mediated resistance. Collectively, our results validate a novel biochemical mechanism of RAF inhibitor resistance mediated by a secondary mutation, emphasizing that, like driver mutations in cancer, the spectrum of mutations that drive resistance to targeted therapy are heterogeneous and perhaps emerge with a lineage-specific prevalence.Significance: In contrast to receptor tyrosine kinases, in which secondary mutations are often responsible for acquired resistance, second-site mutations in BRAF have not been validated in clinically acquired resistance to RAF inhibitors. We demonstrate a secondary mutation in BRAF (V600E/L514V) following progression on dabrafenib and confirm functionally that this mutation is responsible for resistance. Cancer Discov; 8(9); 1130-41. ©2018 AACR.See related commentary by Romano and Kwong, p. 1064This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1047.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/química , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Cancer Discov ; 8(5): 648-661, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483135

RESUMO

Mutations at multiple sites in MEK1 occur in cancer, suggesting that their mechanisms of activation might be different. We analyzed 17 tumor-associated MEK1 mutants and found that they drove ERK signaling autonomously or in a RAS/RAF-dependent manner. The latter are sensitive to feedback inhibition of RAF, which limits their functional output, and often cooccur with RAS or RAF mutations. They act as amplifiers of RAF signaling. In contrast, another class of mutants deletes a hitherto unrecognized negative regulatory segment of MEK1, is RAF- and phosphorylation-independent, is unaffected by feedback inhibition of upstream signaling, and drives high ERK output and transformation in the absence of RAF activity. Moreover, these RAF-independent mutants are insensitive to allosteric MEK inhibitors, which preferentially bind to the inactivated form of MEK1. All the mutants are sensitive to an ATP-competitive MEK inhibitor. Thus, our study comprises a novel therapeutic strategy for tumors driven by RAF-independent MEK1 mutants.Significance: Mutants with which MEK1 mutants coexist and their sensitivity to inhibitors are determined by allele-specific properties. This study shows the importance of functional characterization of mutant alleles in single oncogenes and identifies a new class of MEK1 mutants, insensitive to current MEK1 inhibitors but treatable with a new ATP-competitive inhibitor. Cancer Discov; 8(5); 648-61. ©2018 AACR.See related commentary by Maust et al., p. 534This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 517.


Assuntos
Alelos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Mutação , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/química , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases raf/metabolismo
17.
Cancer Cell ; 33(1): 125-136.e3, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316426

RESUMO

Metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRCs) are clinically heterogeneous, but the genomic basis of this variability remains poorly understood. We performed prospective targeted sequencing of 1,134 CRCs. We identified splice alterations in intronic regions of APC and large in-frame deletions in CTNNB1, increasing oncogenic WNT pathway alterations to 96% of CRCs. Right-sided primary site in microsatellite stable mCRC was associated with shorter survival, older age at diagnosis, increased mutations, and enrichment of oncogenic alterations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, RNF43, and SMAD4 compared with left-sided primaries. Left-sided tumors frequently had no identifiable genetic alteration in mitogenic signaling, but exhibited higher mitogenic ligand expression. Our results suggest different pathways to tumorigenesis in right- and left-sided microsatellite stable CRC that may underlie clinical differences.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
18.
Cancer Discov ; 8(1): 49-58, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122777

RESUMO

The incidence of esophagogastric cancer is rapidly rising, but only a minority of patients derive durable benefit from current therapies. Chemotherapy as well as anti-HER2 and PD-1 antibodies are standard treatments. To identify predictive biomarkers of drug sensitivity and mechanisms of resistance, we implemented prospective tumor sequencing of patients with metastatic esophagogastric cancer. There was no association between homologous recombination deficiency defects and response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with microsatellite instability-high tumors were intrinsically resistant to chemotherapy but more likely to achieve durable responses to immunotherapy. The single Epstein-Barr virus-positive patient achieved a durable, complete response to immunotherapy. The level of ERBB2 amplification as determined by sequencing was predictive of trastuzumab benefit. Selection for a tumor subclone lacking ERBB2 amplification, deletion of ERBB2 exon 16, and comutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase, RAS, and PI3K pathways were associated with intrinsic and/or acquired trastuzumab resistance. Prospective genomic profiling can identify patients most likely to derive durable benefit to immunotherapy and trastuzumab and guide strategies to overcome drug resistance.Significance: Clinical application of multiplex sequencing can identify biomarkers of treatment response to contemporary systemic therapies in metastatic esophagogastric cancer. This large prospective analysis sheds light on the biological complexity and the dynamic nature of therapeutic resistance in metastatic esophagogastric cancers. Cancer Discov; 8(1); 49-58. ©2017 AACR.See related commentary by Sundar and Tan, p. 14See related article by Pectasides et al., p. 37This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
19.
Cancer Discov ; 8(2): 174-183, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247016

RESUMO

Most mutations in cancer are rare, which complicates the identification of therapeutically significant mutations and thus limits the clinical impact of genomic profiling in patients with cancer. Here, we analyzed 24,592 cancers including 10,336 prospectively sequenced patients with advanced disease to identify mutant residues arising more frequently than expected in the absence of selection. We identified 1,165 statistically significant hotspot mutations of which 80% arose in 1 in 1,000 or fewer patients. Of 55 recurrent in-frame indels, we validated that novel AKT1 duplications induced pathway hyperactivation and conferred AKT inhibitor sensitivity. Cancer genes exhibit different rates of hotspot discovery with increasing sample size, with few approaching saturation. Consequently, 26% of all hotspots in therapeutically actionable oncogenes were novel. Upon matching a subset of affected patients directly to molecularly targeted therapy, we observed radiographic and clinical responses. Population-scale mutant allele discovery illustrates how the identification of driver mutations in cancer is far from complete.Significance: Our systematic computational, experimental, and clinical analysis of hotspot mutations in approximately 25,000 human cancers demonstrates that the long right tail of biologically and therapeutically significant mutant alleles is still incompletely characterized. Sharing prospective genomic data will accelerate hotspot identification, thereby expanding the reach of precision oncology in patients with cancer. Cancer Discov; 8(2); 174-83. ©2017 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 127.


Assuntos
Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Códon , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Mutação INDEL
20.
Cancer Res ; 77(23): 6513-6523, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951457

RESUMO

BRAF V600E colorectal cancers are insensitive to RAF inhibitor monotherapy due to feedback reactivation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Combined RAF and EGFR inhibition exerts a therapeutic effect, but resistance invariably develops through undefined mechanisms. In this study, we determined that colorectal cancer progression specimens invariably harbored lesions in elements of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. Genetic amplification of wild-type RAS was a recurrent mechanism of resistance in colorectal cancer patients that was not seen in similarly resistant melanomas. We show that wild-type RAS amplification increases receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of RAS more potently in colorectal cancer than in melanoma and causes resistance only in the former. Currently approved RAF inhibitors inhibit RAF monomers but not dimers. All the drug-resistant lesions we identified activate BRAF V600E dimerization directly or by elevating RAS-GTP. Overall, our results show that mechanisms of resistance converge on formation of RAF dimers and that inhibiting EGFR and RAF dimers can effectively suppress ERK-driven growth of resistant colorectal cancer. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6513-23. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Quinases raf/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Dimerização , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Quinases raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas ras/genética
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