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1.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants involving the MYT1L gene lead to an autosomal dominant form of syndromic obesity, characterized by polyphagia, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and behavioral problems, and that a characteristic facial phenotype does not seem to be recognizable. METHODS: Trio whole exome sequencing was performed in a 10-year-old Brazilian male presenting polyphagia, severe early-onset obesity, intellectual disability, speech delay, macrocephaly, frontal bossing, telecanthus, strabismus, and hypogenitalism. Additionally, we performed a literature review of patients carrying non-copy number MYT1L variants. RESULTS: A de novo genetic variant not previously reported in MYT1L (NM_015025.4:c.2990C>A) was identified in the proband and classified as pathogenic. From a literature search, 22 further patients carrying non-copy number MYT1L variants were identified, evidencing that although the associated phenotype is quite variable, intellectual disability/developmental and speech delays are always present. Further, most patients have obesity or overweight due to polyphagia. Macrocephaly, strabismus, behavioral problems, and hand/feet malformations are also recurrent features. CONCLUSIONS: We described the first Brazilian case of MYT1L related syndrome and highlighted clinical characteristics based on the literature. Other syndromic forms of obesity such as Prader-Willi, Bardet-Biedl, Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann, MORM, Cohen, Alstrom, and Kleefstra type 1 syndromes should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Further, although obesity is frequent, it is not an obligatory feature of all carriers of MYT1L mutations.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
3.
Hum Reprod ; 36(2): 506-518, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313884

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is there an (epi)genetic basis in patients with central precocious puberty (CPP) associated with multiple anomalies that unmasks underlying mechanisms or reveals novel genetic findings related to human pubertal control? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a group of 36 patients with CPP associated with multiple phenotypes, pathogenic or likely pathogenic (epi)genetic defects were identified in 12 (33%) patients, providing insights into the genetics of human pubertal control. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A few studies have described patients with CPP associated with multiple anomalies, but without making inferences on causalities of CPP. Genetic-molecular studies of syndromic cases may reveal disease genes or mechanisms, as the presentation of such patients likely indicates a genetic disorder. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This translational study was based on a genetic-molecular analysis, including genome-wide high throughput methodologies, for searching structural or sequence variants implicated in CPP and DNA methylation analysis of candidate regions. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: A cohort of 197 patients (188 girls) with CPP without structural brain lesions was submitted to a detailed clinical evaluation, allowing the selection of 36 unrelated patients (32 girls) with CPP associated with multiple anomalies. Pathogenic allelic variants of genes known to cause monogenic CPP (KISS1R, KISS1, MKRN3 and DLK1) had been excluded in the entire cohort (197 patients). All selected patients with CPP associated with multiple anomalies (n = 36) underwent methylation analysis of candidate regions and chromosomal microarray analysis. A subset (n = 9) underwent whole-exome sequencing, due to presenting familial CPP and/or severe congenital malformations and neurocognitive abnormalities. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Among the 36 selected patients with CPP, the more prevalent associated anomalies were metabolic, growth and neurocognitive conditions. In 12 (33%) of them, rare genetic abnormalities were identified: six patients presented genetic defects in loci known to be involved with CPP (14q32.2 and 7q11.23), whereas the other six presented defects in candidate genes or regions. In detail, three patients presented hypomethylation of DLK1/MEG3:IG-DMR (14q32.2 disruption or Temple syndrome), resulting from epimutation (n = 1) or maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (n = 2). Seven patients presented pathogenic copy number variants: three with de novo 7q11.23 deletions (Williams-Beuren syndrome), three with inherited Xp22.33 deletions, and one with de novo 1p31.3 duplication. Exome sequencing revealed potential pathogenic variants in two patients: a sporadic female case with frameshift variants in TNRC6B and AREL1 and a familial male case with a missense substitution in UGT2B4 and a frameshift deletion in MKKS. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The selection of patients was based on a retrospective clinical characterization, lacking a longitudinal inclusion of consecutive patients. In addition, future studies are needed, showing the long-term (mainly reproductive) outcomes in the included patients, as most of them are not in adult life yet. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The results highlighted the relevance of an integrative clinical-genetic approach in the elucidation of mechanisms and factors involved in pubertal control. Chromosome 14q32.2 disruption indicated the loss of imprinting of DLK1 as a probable mechanism of CPP. Two other chromosomal regions (7q11.23 and Xp22.33) represented new candidate loci potentially involved in this disorder of pubertal timing. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by grant number 2018/03198-0 (to A.P.M.C.) and grant number 2013/08028-1 (to A.C.V.K) from the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), and grant number 403525/2016-0 (to A.C.L.) and grant number 302849/2015-7 (to A.C.L.) and grant number 141625/2016-3 (to A.C.V.K) from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The authors have nothing to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

4.
Tumour Biol ; 42(12): 1010428320977124, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256542

RESUMO

Hepatoblastomas exhibit the lowest mutational burden among pediatric tumors. We previously showed that epigenetic disruption is crucial for hepatoblastoma carcinogenesis. Our data revealed hypermethylation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, a highly expressed gene in adipocytes and hepatocytes. The expression pattern and the role of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase in pediatric liver tumors have not yet been explored, and this study aimed to evaluate the effect of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase hypermethylation in hepatoblastomas. We evaluated 45 hepatoblastomas and 26 non-tumoral liver samples. We examined in hepatoblastomas if the observed nicotinamide N-methyltransferase promoter hypermethylation could lead to dysregulation of expression by measuring mRNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot assays. The potential impact of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase changes was evaluated on the metabolic profile by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Significant nicotinamide N-methyltransferase downregulation was revealed in hepatoblastomas, with two orders of magnitude lower nicotinamide N-methyltransferase expression in tumor samples and hepatoblastoma cell lines than in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. A specific TSS1500 CpG site (cg02094283) of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase was hypermethylated in tumors, with an inverse correlation between its methylation level and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase expression. A marked global reduction of the nicotinamide N-methyltransferase protein was validated in tumors, with strong correlation between gene and protein expression. Of note, higher nicotinamide N-methyltransferase expression was statistically associated with late hepatoblastoma diagnosis, a known clinical variable of worse prognosis. In addition, untargeted metabolomics analysis detected aberrant lipid metabolism in hepatoblastomas. Data presented here showed the first evidence that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase reduction occurs in hepatoblastomas, providing further support that the nicotinamide N-methyltransferase downregulation is a wide phenomenon in liver cancer. Furthermore, this study unraveled the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase expression in hepatoblastomas, in addition to evaluate the potential effect of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase reduction in the metabolism of these tumors. These preliminary findings also suggested that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase level may be a potential prognostic biomarker for hepatoblastoma.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 41(11): 1979-1998, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906200

RESUMO

Cytogenetically detected inversions are generally assumed to be copy number and phenotypically neutral events. While nonallelic homologous recombination is thought to play a major role, recent data suggest the involvement of other molecular mechanisms in inversion formation. Using a combination of short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS), 10X Genomics Chromium WGS, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and array comparative genomic hybridization we investigated the genomic structure of 18 large unique cytogenetically detected chromosomal inversions and achieved nucleotide resolution of at least one chromosomal inversion junction for 13/18 (72%). Surprisingly, we observed that seemingly copy number neutral inversions can be accompanied by a copy-number gain of up to 350 kb and local genomic complexities (3/18, 17%). In the resolved inversions, the mutational signatures are consistent with nonhomologous end-joining (8/13, 62%) or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (5/13, 38%). Our study indicates that short-read 30x coverage WGS can detect a substantial fraction of chromosomal inversions. Moreover, replication-based mechanisms are responsible for approximately 38% of those events leading to a significant proportion of inversions that are actually accompanied by additional copy-number variation potentially contributing to the overall phenotypic presentation of those patients.

7.
Ann Hum Genet ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761927

RESUMO

Mosaic segmental and whole chromosome copy number alterations are postzygotic variations known to be associated with several disorders. We have previously presented an efficient targeted sequencing approach to simultaneously detect point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs). In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of this approach to detect mosaic CNVs, using seven postnatal and 19 tumor samples, previously characterized by chromosomal microarray analyses (CMA). These samples harbored a total of 28 genomic imbalances ranging in size from 0.68 to 171 Mb, and present in 10-80% of the cells. All CNV regions covered by the platform were correctly identified in postnatal samples, and only seven out of 19 CNVs from tumor samples were not identified either because of a lack of target probes in the affected genomic regions or an absence of minimum reads for an alteration call. These results demonstrate that, in a research setting, this is a robust approach for detecting mosaicism in cases of segmental and whole chromosome alterations. Although the current sequencing platform presented a resolution similar to genomic microarrays, it is still necessary to further validate this approach in a clinical setting in order to replace CMA and sequencing analyses by a single test.

8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(9): 3671-3684, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564284

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) affects 30% more males than females. This sex bias can be attributed to the enrichment of genes on the X chromosome playing essential roles in the central nervous system and their hemizygous state on males. Moreover, as a result of X chromosome inactivation (XCI), most genes on one of the X chromosomes in female somatic cells are epigenetically silenced, so that females carrying X-linked variants are not expected to be so severely affected as males. Consequently, the knowledge about X-linked ID (XLID) in females is still scarce. Herein, we used extreme XCI skewing (≥ 90%) to predict X-linked variants in females with idiopathic ID. XCI profiles from 53 probands were estimated from blood and buccal mucosa through a methylation-sensitive AR/RP2 assay. DNA samples with extreme XCI skewing were then submitted to array-comparative genomic hybridization and whole-exome sequencing. Seven females (13.2%) exhibited extreme XCI skewing, a percentage significantly higher than expected for healthy females in our population. XLID-potentially related variants were identified in five patients with extreme XCI skewing, including one pathogenic rstructural rearrangement [der(X) chromosome from a t(X;2)] and four single nucleotide variants in NLGN4X, HDAC8, TAF1, and USP9X genes, two of which affecting XCI escape genes. XCI skewing showed to be an outstanding approach for the characterization of molecular mechanisms underlying XLID in females. Beyond expanding the spectrum of variants/phenotypes associated with ID, our results pointed to compensatory biological pathways underlying XCI and uncover new insights into the involvement of escape genes on XLID, impacting genetic counseling.

9.
Front Oncol ; 10: 556, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432034

RESUMO

Hepatoblastoma is a very rare embryonal liver cancer supposed to arise from the impairment of hepatocyte differentiation during embryogenesis. In this study, we investigated by exome sequencing the burden of somatic mutations in a cohort of 10 hepatoblastomas, including a congenital case. Our data disclosed a low mutational background and pointed out to a novel set of candidate genes for hepatoblastoma biology, which were shown to impact gene expression levels. Only three recurrently mutated genes were detected: CTNNB1 and two novel candidates, CX3CL1 and CEP164. A relevant finding was the identification of a recurrent mutation (A235G) in two hepatoblastomas at the CX3CL1 gene; evaluation of RNA and protein expression revealed upregulation of CX3CL1 in tumors. The analysis was replicated in two independents cohorts, substantiating that an activation of the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 pathway occurs in hepatoblastomas. In inflammatory regions of hepatoblastomas, CX3CL1/CX3CR1 were not detected in the infiltrated lymphocytes, in which they should be expressed in normal conditions, whereas necrotic regions exhibited negative labeling in tumor cells, but strongly positive infiltrated lymphocytes. Altogether, these data suggested that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 upregulation may be a common feature of hepatoblastomas, potentially related to chemotherapy response and progression. In addition, three mutational signatures were identified in hepatoblastomas, two of them with predominance of either the COSMIC signatures 1 and 6, found in all cancer types, or the COSMIC signature 29, mostly related to tobacco chewing habit; a third novel mutational signature presented an unspecific pattern with an increase of C>A mutations. Overall, we present here novel candidate genes for hepatoblastoma, with evidence that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 chemokine signaling pathway is likely involved with progression, besides reporting specific mutational signatures.

10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(2): 139-147, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751304

RESUMO

Context: Patients with tall stature often remain undiagnosed after clinical investigation and few studies have genetically assessed this group, most of them without a systematic approach. Objective: To assess prospectively a group of individuals with tall stature, with and without syndromic features, and to establish a molecular diagnosis for their growth disorder. Design: Screening by karyotype (n = 42), chromosome microarray analyses (CMA) (n = 16), MS-MLPA (n = 2) targeted panel (n = 12) and whole-exome sequencing (n = 31). Patients and methods: We selected 42 patients with tall stature after exclusion of pathologies in GH/IGF1 axis and divided them into syndromic (n = 30) and non-syndromic (n = 12) subgroups. Main outcome measures: Frequencies of pathogenic findings. Results: We identified two patients with chromosomal abnormalities including SHOX trisomy by karyotype, one 9q22.3 microdeletion syndrome by CMA, two cases of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome by targeted MS-MLPA analysis and nine cases with heterozygous pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants by multigene analysis techniques (FBN1 = 3, NSD1 = 2, NFIX = 1, SUZ12 = 1, CHD8 = 1, MC4R = 1). Three of 20 patients analyzed by WES had their diagnosis established. Only one non-syndromic patient had a definitive diagnosis. The sequential genetic assessment diagnosed 14 out of 42 (33.3%) tall patients. Conclusion: A systematic molecular approach of patients with tall stature was able to identify the etiology in 13 out of 30 (43.3%) syndromic and 1 out of 12 (8.3%) non-syndromic patients, contributing to the genetic counseling and avoiding unfavorable outcomes in the syndromic subgroup.


Assuntos
Gigantismo/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estatura/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína de Homoeobox de Baixa Estatura/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ortodoncia ; 83(166): 50-51, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102101

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS Determinar los cambios cefalométricos esqueletales y dentarios y la estabilidad a largo plazo, en pacientes con patrón de crecimiento horario, tratados con intrusión molar maxilar mediante minitornillos.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Mordida Aberta , Procedimentos de Ancoragem Ortodôntica
12.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 13, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and mild dysmorphisms associated with several comorbidities caused by SHANK3 loss-of-function mutations. Although SHANK3 haploinsufficiency has been associated with the major neurological symptoms of PMS, it cannot explain the clinical variability seen among individuals. Our goals were to characterize a Brazilian cohort of PMS individuals, explore the genotype-phenotype correlation underlying this syndrome, and describe an atypical individual with mild phenotype. METHODOLOGY: A total of 34 PMS individuals were clinically and genetically evaluated. Data were obtained by a questionnaire answered by parents, and dysmorphic features were assessed via photographic evaluation. We analyzed 22q13.3 deletions and other potentially pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and also performed genotype-phenotype correlation analysis to determine whether comorbidities, speech status, and ASD correlate to deletion size. Finally, a Brazilian cohort of 829 ASD individuals and another independent cohort of 2297 ID individuals was used to determine the frequency of PMS in these disorders. RESULTS: Our data showed that 21% (6/29) of the PMS individuals presented an additional rare CNV, which may contribute to clinical variability in PMS. Increased pain tolerance (80%), hypotonia (85%), and sparse eyebrows (80%) were prominent clinical features. An atypical case diagnosed with PMS at 18 years old and IQ within the normal range is here described. Among Brazilian ASD or ID individuals referred to CNV analyses, the frequency of 22q13.3 deletion was 0.6% (5/829) and 0.61% (15/2297), respectively. Finally, renal abnormalities, lymphedema, and language impairment were found to be positively associated with deletion sizes, and the minimum deletion to cause these abnormalities is here suggested. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first work describing a cohort of Brazilian individuals with PMS. Our results confirm the impact of 22q13 deletions on ASD and several comorbidities, such as hypotonia. The estimation of a minimal deletion size for developing lymphedema and renal problem can assist prediction of prognosis in PMS individuals, particularly those diagnosed in early infancy. We also identified one atypical individual carrying SHANK3 deletion, suggesting that resilience to such mutations occurs. This case expands the clinical spectrum of variability in PMS and opens perspectives to identify protective mechanisms that can minimize the severity of this condition.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Estudos de Associação Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/complicações , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/fisiopatologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Genet ; 10: 553, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249594

RESUMO

Hepatoblastoma is an embryonal liver tumor carrying few genetic alterations. We previously disclosed in hepatoblastomas a genome-wide methylation dysfunction, characterized by hypermethylation at specific CpG islands, in addition to a low-level hypomethylation pattern in non-repetitive intergenic sequences, in comparison to non-tumoral liver tissues, shedding light into a crucial role for epigenetic dysregulation in this type of cancer. To explore the underlying mechanisms possibly related to aberrant epigenetic modifications, we evaluated the expression profile of a set of genes engaged in the epigenetic machinery related to DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3L, UHRF1, TET1, TET2, and TET3), as well as the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) global level. We observed in hepatoblastomas a general disrupted expression of these genes from the epigenetic machinery, mainly UHRF1, TET1, and TET2 upregulation, in association with an enrichment of 5hmC content. Our findings support a model of active demethylation by TETs in hepatoblastoma, probably during early stages of liver development, which in combination with UHRF1 overexpression would lead to DNA hypomethylation and an increase in overall 5hmC content. Furthermore, our data suggest that decreased 5hmC content might be associated with poor survival rate, highlighting a pivotal role of epigenetics in hepatoblastoma development and progression.

15.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(1): 62-70, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531907

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) enable protein ubiquitination by conjugating ubiquitin to their catalytic cysteine for subsequent transfer to a target lysine side chain. Deprotonation of the incoming lysine enables its nucleophilicity, but determinants of lysine activation remain poorly understood. We report a novel pathogenic mutation in the E2 UBE2A, identified in two brothers with mild intellectual disability. The pathogenic Q93E mutation yields UBE2A with impaired aminolysis activity but no loss of the ability to be conjugated with ubiquitin. Importantly, the low intrinsic reactivity of UBE2A Q93E was not overcome by a cognate ubiquitin E3 ligase, RAD18, with the UBE2A target PCNA. However, UBE2A Q93E was reactive at high pH or with a low-pKa amine as the nucleophile, thus providing the first evidence of reversion of a defective UBE2A mutation. We propose that Q93E substitution perturbs the UBE2A catalytic microenvironment essential for lysine deprotonation during ubiquitin transfer, thus generating an enzyme that is disabled but not dead.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/química , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Adulto , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lisina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/química , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
16.
Appl Clin Genet ; 11: 93-98, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174453

RESUMO

Introduction: Exome sequencing is recognized as a powerful tool for identifying the genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). It is uncertain, however, whether only the exome of the proband should be sequenced or if the sequencing of parental genomes is also required, and the resulting increase in diagnostic yield justifies the increase in costs. Patients and methods: We sequenced the exomes of eight individuals with sporadic syndromic ID and their parents. Results and discussion: Likely pathogenic variants were detected in eight candidate genes, namely homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in three autosomal genes (ADAMTSL2, NALCN, VPS13B), one in an X-linked gene (MID1), and de novo heterozygous variants in four autosomal genes (RYR2, GABBR2, CDK13, DDX3X). Two patients harbored rare variants in two or more candidate genes, while in three other patients no candidate was identified. In five probands (62%), the detected variants explained their clinical findings. The causative recessive variants would have led to diagnosis even without parental exome sequencing, but for the heterozygous dominant ones, the exome trio-based approach was fundamental in the identification of the de novo likely pathogenic variants.

17.
Neural Plast ; 2018: 2406170, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050570

RESUMO

Aging is a complex process strongly determined by genetics. Previous reports have shown that the genome of neuronal cells displays somatic genomic mosaicism including DNA copy number variations (CNVs). CNVs represent a significant source of genetic variation in the human genome and have been implicated in several disorders and complex traits, representing a potential mechanism that contributes to neuronal diversity and the etiology of several neurological diseases and provides new insights into the normal, complex functions of the brain. Nonetheless, the features of somatic CNV mosaicism in nondiseased elderly brains have not been investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate a highly significant increase in the number of CNVs in nondiseased elderly brains compared to the blood. In two neural tissues isolated from paired postmortem samples (same individuals), we found a significant increase in the frequency of deletions in both brain areas, namely, the frontal cortex and cerebellum. Also, deletions were found to be significantly larger when present only in the cerebellum. The sizes of the variants described here were in the 150-760 kb range, and importantly, nearly all of them were present in the Database of Genomic Variants (common variants). Nearly all evidence of genome structural variation in human brains comes from studies detecting changes in single cells which were interpreted as derived from independent, isolated mutational events. The observations based on array-CGH analysis indicate the existence of an extensive clonal mosaicism of CNVs within and between the human brains revealing a different type of variation that had not been previously characterized.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Mosaicismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Stem Cell Res ; 31: 52-54, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015173

RESUMO

An efficient one-step procedure to reprogram fibroblasts into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) and perform CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing simultaneously was recently reported. Here we show that such simultaneous reprogramming and gene editing can be efficiently done from erythroblasts. We successfully obtained human induced pluripotent stem cells colonies together with in frame and out of frame CAPN1 mutations in one or both alleles. We did not identify off-targets in edited cell lines. The entire process, from blood collection to mutated hiPSC took approximately 5 weeks, a much shorter period than standard multi-step methodologies using fibroblasts. Noteworthy, blood drawing is a less invasive procedure than a skin biopsy.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Eritroblastos/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Humanos
19.
Chromosome Res ; 26(3): 191-198, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752677

RESUMO

A complex mosaicism of the short arm of chromosome 1 detected by SNP microarray analysis is described in a patient presenting a 4-Mb 1p36 terminal deletion and associated phenotypic features. The array pattern of chromosome 1p displayed an intriguing increase in divergence of the SNP heterozygote frequency from the expected 50% from the centromere towards the 1p36 breakpoint. This suggests that various overlapping segments of UPD were derived by somatic recombination between the 1p homologues. The most likely explanation was the occurrence of a series of events initiated in either a gamete or an early embryonic cell division involving a 1pter deletion rapidly followed by multiple telomere captures, resulting in additive, stepped increases in frequency of homozygosity towards the telomere. The largest segment involved the entire 1p, and at least four other capture events were observed, indicating that at least five independent telomere captures occurred in separate cell lineages. The determination of breakpoint position by detection of abrupt changes in B-allele frequency using a moving window analysis demonstrated that they were identical in blood and saliva, the tissues available for analysis. We developed a model to explain the interaction of parameters determining the mosaic clones and concluded that, while number, size, and position of telomere captures were important initiating determinants, variation in individual clone frequencies was the main contributor to mosaic differences between tissues. All previous reports of telomere capture have been restricted to single events. Other cases involving multiple telomere capture probably exist but require investigation by SNP microarrays for their detection.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Mosaicismo , Telômero/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Dissomia Uniparental
20.
Hum Genome Var ; 5: 18010, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428438

RESUMO

KIF11 mutations are known to cause autosomal dominant microcephaly-lymphedema-chorioretinopathy dysplasia syndrome, associated or not with intellectual disability. We report a father and two children presenting microcephaly, chorioretinopathy and mild intellectual disability associated with a 209-kb microdeletion at 10q23.33. This microdeletion encompasses the entire KIF11 gene. In addition to point mutations, KIF11 haploinsufficiency due to a deletion is causally associated with autosomal dominant microcephaly, chorioretinopathy and mild intellectual disability.

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