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1.
Pancreatology ; 20(8): 1598-1603, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: /Objectives: A recent Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) identified a novel association with the CTRB1-CTRB2 (chymotrypsinogen B1, B2) locus, linked to a 16.6 kb inversion that was confirmed in non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (NACP). Moreover, recent findings on the function of CTRB1 and CTRB2 suggest a protective role in pancreatitis development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CTRB1-CTRB2 locus for rare genetic variants associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: We analyzed 134 patients with ACP and 203 patients with NACP and compared them to up to 258 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed with polymerase chain reaction, followed by Sanger sequencing of all exons and the exon-intron-boundaries of CTRB1 and CTRB2. Finally, in silico analyses of the identified variants were conducted. RESULTS: None of the seven rare missense variants or the single 5'-UTR variant in CTRB1 and CTRB2 was associated with ACP or NACP. In silico analysis predicted that variant p. Trp5Leu in CTRB1 and variant c.-4C > T in CTRB2 might alter protein expression and variants p. Asp222His in CTRB1 and p. Ala247Thr in CTRB2 might affect protein function. However, all of these variants were also described in public databases. CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not reveal an association of rare variants in CTRB1 and CTRB2 with ACP or NACP. Although rare missense variants were almost exclusively found in patients, only four variants were predicted to affect protein expression or function. Thus, a major influence of rare variants in the CTRB1-CTRB2 locus on CP development is unlikely.

2.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904638

RESUMO

Background: The worldwide impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unprecedented. Among the aerosol generating procedures, bronchoscopy in particular is an indispensable diagnostic and therapeutic tool that comes with a high risk of infection. Therefore, national societies have issued guidance statements. However, the individual ability of bronchoscopy units to follow these recommendations is largely unknown. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey from 1 April 2020 to 7 April 2020 to which 218 German endoscopy units, 105 solely bronchoscopy and 113 interdisciplinary, responded. The survey was distributed electronically via the German Respiratory Society. Results: While 17% of units did not cancel any interventions, 16% cancelled >80% of their interventions. 73% were unable to completely separate high-risk patients. Most procedural measures, such as risk stratification in patients (95%), training to handle COVID-19 patients and personal protective equipment (PPE) (91%), risk adapted use of PPE (85%) and self-monitoring for staff (84%) were adopted well. Unit managers expected shortages in PPE (74%), staff shortages (68%) and severe financial losses (63%). Conclusion: In the short-term, PPE shortages are perceived to be the most imminent threat to bronchoscopic activity as a whole. In this era of uncertainty, sound evidence to guide bronchoscopy units and an international concerted effort are urgently needed to formulate recommendations on facts and adapted to local conditions as described in this study.

3.
Surg Oncol ; 35: 285-297, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of people aged 60 and above will rise from 46 million in 2015 to 157 in 2050 million, exceeding 30% of the population in many western countries. Consequently, the demand for oncological therapy for elderly patients will increase within the next decades. Currently, sufficient data on neoadjuvant therapy (NTx) of pancreatic cancer in elderly patients are lacking. METHODS: Data of a multinational, retrospective database were screened for patients having received preoperative FOLFIRINOX (FFx) or Gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (GNP) for locally advanced and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC/BRPC) before June 2017. Data were included in an intention-to-treat-analysis and outcomes were compared between non-aged and elderly patients using a cut-off age of 63 (comparison 1) and 70 years (comparison 2). RESULTS: Of 165 patients receiving NTx, 76 and 33 were older than 63 and 70 years. Baseline characteristics revealed that elderly patients preferably undergo GNP (comparison 1: p = 0.063; comparison2: p = 0.005), with less cycles of NTx (comparison 1: p = 0.057). Whereas reductions of NTx dosage was more common in elderly patients in comparison 1 (p = 0.003), resection rates (p = 0.575; p = 1.000) and median survival (p = 0.406; p = 0.499) were not different. Whereas resected patients showed no differences in survival (p = 0.328; p = 0.132), patients aged >70 years showed a decreased progression-free survival (p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Elderly patients treated with NTx show encouragingly high resection rates. If comorbidities allow for FFx or GNP, elderly patients with LAPC/BRPC can offered NTx with the prospect of survival comparable to younger patients.

4.
Pancreatology ; 20(7): 1511-1518, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is frequently associated with severe pain. Given the almost inevitably fatal nature of the disease, pain control is crucial. However, data on quality of pain management in PDAC is scarce. METHODS: This is a multi-center, prospective study to evaluate the quality of pain management in PDAC. Insufficient pain treatment (undertreatment) was prevalent if there was an incongruence between the patients level of pain and the potency of analgesic drug therapy. Determinants of pain and undertreatment were identified using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 139 patients with histologically confirmed PDAC were analyzed. The prevalence of pain was 63%, with approximately one third of the patients grading their pain as moderate to severe. Palliative stage (OR: 3.37, 95%CI: 1.23-9.21, p = 0.018) and localization of the primary tumor in the body or tail (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.05-6.31, p = 0.039) were independent determinants of pain. Of those reporting pain, 60% were undertreated and in 89% pain interfered with activities and emotions. Age ≥ 70 years (OR: 3.20, 95%CI: 1.09-9.41, p = 0.035) was an independent predictor of undertreatment. Patients with longer-known PDAC ( ≥ 30 days) showed improved pain management compared to new cases (OR: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.81, p = 0.025). Treatment by gastroenterologists (OR: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.05-0.89, p = 0.034) was associated with less undertreatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a high proportion of PDAC patients with pain, pain interference and undertreatment, whose characteristics could help to identify patients at risk in the future. Several changes in the management of cancer-related pain are necessary to overcome barriers to optimal treatment.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14618, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884092

RESUMO

The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to provide an MRI-based examination framework of venous malformations (VMs) infiltrating the sciatic nerve and determine the frequency of nerve infiltration patterns and muscle involvement in correlation to the patients' quality of life. Pelvic and lower limb MR images of 378 patients with vascular malformations were examined retrospectively. Pain levels and restriction of motion were evaluated with a questionnaire. Cross-sectional areas of affected nerves were compared at standardized anatomical landmarks. Intraneural infiltration patterns and involvement of muscles surrounding the sciatic nerve were documented. Sciatic nerve infiltration occurred in 23/299 patients (7.7%) with VM. In all cases (23/23; 100%), gluteal or hamstring muscles surrounding the nerve were affected by the VM. Infiltrated nerves were enlarged and showed signal alterations (T2-hyperintensity) compared to the unaffected side. Enlarged nerve cross-sectional areas were associated with elevated pain levels. Three nerve infiltration patterns were observed: subepineurial (12/23; 52.2%), subparaneurial (6/23; 26.1%) and combined (5/23; 21.7%) infiltration. This study provides a clinically relevant assessment for sciatic nerve infiltration patterns and muscle involvement of VMs, while suggesting that VMs in gluteal and hamstring muscles require closer investigation of the sciatic nerve by the radiologist.

6.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(11): 1074-1080, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a major challenge for health care systems worldwide. Recent data suggests an increased risk for personnel of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy units for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Several societies have provided recommendations for the current situation, but their feasibility is unclear and real-world data on preparedness of endoscopy units are lacking. AIMS & METHODS: A web-based survey among German GI-endoscopy heads was conducted from April 1 to April 7, 2020. It comprised 33 questions based on the ESGE (European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy) recommendations and was distributed electronically by the German Society of Gastroenterology, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases (DGVS). RESULTS: Of 551 completed surveys, 202 (37 %) endoscopy units cancelled less than 40 % of their procedures. Small-volume units (< 4000 procedures/year) cancelled significantly less procedures than high-volume units (> 4000). Complete spatial separation of high-risk patients was possible in only 17 %. Most units systematically identified patients at risk (91 %) and used risk adapted personal protective equipment (PPE, 85 %). For the future, shortages in PPE (83 %), staff (69 %) and relevant financial losses (80 %) were expected. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations on structural measures were only partially fulfilled and cancellations of procedures were heterogeneous. Clear definitions of indications to perform endoscopies during such a pandemic are needed. Further, structural recommendations should be adapted and strategies to compensate financial losses need to be developed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/normas , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Motivação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
7.
United European Gastroenterol J ; : 2050640620959153, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable and safe sedation is a prerequisite for endoscopic interventions. The current standard is rather safe, yet, an objective device to measure sedation depth is missing. To date, anaesthesia monitors based on processed electroencephalogram (EEG) have not been utilised in conscious sedation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate EEG parameters to differentiate consciousness in endoscopic propofol sedation. METHODS: In total, 171 patients aged 21-83 years (ASA I-III) undergoing gastrointestinal and bronchial endoscopy were enrolled. Standard monitoring and a frontotemporal 2-channel-EEG were recorded. The state of consciousness was identified by repeated requests to squeeze the investigator's hand. RESULTS: In total, 1132 state of consciousness transitions were recorded in procedures ranging from 5 to 69 minutes. Thirty-four EEG parameters from the frequency domain, time-frequency domain and complexity measures were calculated. Area under the curve ranged from 0.51 to 0.82 with complexity and optimised frequency domain parameters yielding the best results. CONCLUSION: Prediction of the state of consciousness with processed EEG parameters is feasible, and results for sedation in endoscopic procedures are similar to those reported from general anaesthesia. These results are insufficient for a clinical application, but prediction capability may be increased with optimisation and modelling.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850908

RESUMO

Introduction: Treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is based solely on consensus and has yet to become standardized. Consequently, therapeutic regimens vary greatly between countries and centers, and largely depend on the experience of the physician. At this moment, the optimal regimen for inducing disease remission and preventing relapse is unknown. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to describe current treatment regimens used in Europe, and to compare their effectiveness in inducing remission and preventing and treating relapse. The secondary objectives are: to identify risk factors for relapse; to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Unified-AIP criteria; to assess the performance of the M-ANNHEIM score for predicting relapse; and to assess long-term outcomes including pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and pancreatic cancer. Methods: This is an international, retrospective, observational cohort study, performed in over 40 centers from 16 European countries. Eligible are all patients diagnosed with AIP from 2005 onwards, regardless of the used diagnostic criteria. Data on study subjects will be retrieved from the hospital's electronic medical records and registered with a standardized, web-based, electronic case report form (eCRF). To compare the effectiveness of treatment regimens in inducing remission, preventing relapse, and treating relapse, subjects will be stratified in groups based on: type of therapy; initial therapy dose; cumulative therapy dose; therapy tapering speed and duration; and having received maintenance therapy or not. Ethics and Dissemination: Ethical and/or institutional review board approvals are obtained by all participating centers according to local regulations. The study complies with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). All manuscripts resulting from the study will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Conclusion: This is the first pan-European retrospective registry for AIP. It will produce the first large-scale data on treatment of European patients with AIP, providing answers on the use and effectiveness of treatment regimens. In the future, this collaboration may provide a network for continuation into a prospective European registry.

9.
Pancreatology ; 20(6): 1131-1138, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become a powerful tool to convert borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC) into a resectable scenario. However, data analyzing the optimal type of therapy are scarce. In the present multicenter retrospective study, we evaluated the influence of FOLFIRINOX (FFX) and gemcitabine (GEM)-based neoadjuvant therapy on patient prognosis. METHODS: Data on 239 patients from 7 centers across Europe was gathered using an online database. Patients having received their first cycle of chemotherapy for BRPC/LAPC before 06/2017, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Patients treated with neoadjuvant FFX (n = 135) or gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel (GNP) (n = 38) had significantly improved radiological response according to RECIST criteria as compared to single-agent GEM (n = 16), with a partial/complete response of 59.3%, 55.3% and 6.25% respectively (p = 0.001). Treatment with FFX (n = 135) and GNP (n = 38) resulted in higher resection rates compared to GEM (73.3%, 81.6% and 43.8%; p = 0.01 and p = 0.005). Regardless of regimen, patients who were resected had significantly prolonged overall survival compared to non-resected patients (p < 0.01). Complete pathological responses (ypT0 ypN0) were predominantly observed with FFX (p = 0.01). Adjuvant GNP in addition to successful neoadjuvant therapy and surgery resulted in a trend towards improved median survival as compared to postoperative observation (47.0 vs. 30.1 months, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Representing one of the largest studies published so far, our results reveal that patients with BRPC/LAPC should be offered either FFX or GNP to improve chances of resection and with this also survival.

10.
Pancreatology ; 20(7): 1262-1267, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The G-protein-coupled receptor Class C Group 6 Member A (GPRC6A) is activated by multiple ligands and is important for the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Extracellular calcium is capable to increase NLRP3 inflammasome activity of the innate immune system and deletion of this proinflammatory pathway mitigated pancreatitis severity in vivo. As such this pathway and the GPRC6A receptor is a reasonable candidate gene for pancreatitis. Here we investigated the prevalence of sequence variants in the GPRC6A locus in different pancreatitis aetiologies. METHODS: We selected 6 tagging SNPs with the SNPinfo LD TAG SNP Selection tool and the functional relevant SNP rs6907580 for genotyping. Cohorts from Germany, further European countries and China with up to 1,124 patients and 1,999 controls were screened for single SNPs with melting curve analysis. RESULTS: We identified an association of rs1606365(G) with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis in a German (odds ratio (OR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.89, p = 8 × 10-5) and a Chinese cohort (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96, p = 0.02). However, this association was not replicated in a combined cohort of European patients (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.99-1.41, p = 0.07). Finally, no association was found with acute and non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a potential role of calcium sensing receptors and inflammasome activation in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis development. As the functional consequence of the associated variant is unclear, further investigations might elucidate the relevant mechanisms.

11.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707646

RESUMO

Recently, we identified the homeodomain transcription factor Cut homeobox 1 (CUX1) as mediator of tumour de-differentiation and metastatic behaviour in human insulinoma patients. In insulinomas, CUX1 enhanced tumour progression by stimulating proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNET), however, the impact of CUX1 remains to be elucidated. Here, we analysed CUX1 expression in two large independent cohorts (n = 43 and n = 141 tissues) of non-functional treatment-naïve and pre-treated PanNET patients, as well as in the RIP1Tag2 mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. To further assess the functional role of CUX1, expression profiling of DNA damage-, proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes was performed in CUX1-overexpressing Bon-1 cells. Validation of differentially regulated genes was performed in Bon-1 and QGP1 cells with knock-down and overexpression strategies. CUX1 expression assessed by a predefined immunoreactivity score (IRS) was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) of pre-treated PanNET patients (23 vs. 8 months; p = 0.005). In treatment-naïve patients, CUX1 was negatively correlated with grading and recurrence-free survival (mRFS of 39 versus 8 months; p = 0.022). In both groups, high CUX1 levels indicated a metastatic phenotype. Functionally, CUX1 upregulated expression of caspases and death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), known as mediators of tumour progression and resistance to cytotoxic drugs. This was also confirmed in both cell lines and human tissues. In the RIP1Tag2 mouse model, CUX1 expression was associated with advanced tumour stage and resistance to apoptosis. In summary, we identified the transcription factor CUX1 as mediator of tumour progression in non-functional PanNET in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the CUX1-dependent signalling network is a promising target for future therapeutic intervention.

13.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 8(6): 637-666, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552502

RESUMO

The overall objective of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related digestive disease in adults and children. IgG4-related digestive disease can be diagnosed only with a comprehensive work-up that includes histology, organ morphology at imaging, serology, search for other organ involvement, and response to glucocorticoid treatment. Indications for treatment are symptomatic patients with obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain, posterior pancreatic pain, and involvement of extra-pancreatic digestive organs, including IgG4-related cholangitis. Treatment with glucocorticoids should be weight-based and initiated at a dose of 0.6-0.8 mg/kg body weight/day orally (typical starting dose 30-40 mg/day prednisone equivalent) for 1 month to induce remission and then be tapered within two additional months. Response to initial treatment should be assessed at week 2-4 with clinical, biochemical and morphological markers. Maintenance treatment with glucocorticoids should be considered in multi-organ disease or history of relapse. If there is no change in disease activity and burden within 3 months, the diagnosis should be reconsidered. If the disease relapsed during the 3 months of treatment, immunosuppressive drugs should be added.

14.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recommendations for the treatment of lower GI bleeding do not include bleeding from venous malformations (VMs). The aim of this study was to delineate the usefulness of a novel hybrid intervention (fluoroscopy-guided endoscopic sclerotherapy) for the treatment of symptomatic VMs in the rectosigmoidal colon with bleeding. METHODS: The magnetic resonance images of 421 patients with VM, referred to multicenter vascular anomaly centers from 2009 to 2017, were analyzed retrospectively. Treatment was performed for all patients who experienced bleeding from rectosigmoidal VMs using fluoroscopy-guided endoscopic sclerotherapy with polidocanol foam as a novel approach. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients displayed VM in the rectosigmoidal area. Eleven of these presented with acute or previous bleeding and received treatment. Active bleeding was observed in 8 patients (72.7%), whereas 3 patients (27.3%) had signs of previous bleeding. Six of the 11 patients had anemia (54.5%). There were no adverse events within 24 hours of the intervention. In a 2-year follow-up period, only 1 patient (9.1%) presented with recurrent bleeding after 13 months and was successfully treated again with fluoroscopy-guided endoscopic sclerotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Fluoroscopy-guided endoscopic sclerotherapy was shown to be a safe and effective treatment of symptomatic VMs of the rectosigmoidal area. Thus, fluoroscopy-guided endoscopic sclerotherapy should be considered for patients with bleeding from VMs of the rectosigmoid after a comprehensive workup and interdisciplinary case discussion.

15.
Pancreatology ; 20(4): 579-585, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex inflammatory disease with remarkably impaired quality of life and permanent damage of the pancreas. This paper is part of the international consensus guidelines on CP and presents the consensus on factors elevating the risk for CP. METHODS: An international working group with 20 experts on CP from the major pancreas societies (IAP, APA, JPS, and EPC) evaluated 14 statements generated from evidence on four questions deemed to be the most clinically relevant in CP. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to evaluate the level of evidence available per statement. To determine the level of agreement, the working group voted on the 14 statements for strength of agreement, using a nine-point Likert scale in order to calculate Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient. RESULTS: Strong consensus and agreement were obtained for the following statements: Alcohol, smoking, and certain genetic alterations are risk factors for CP. Past history, family history, onset of symptoms, and life-style factors including alcohol intake and smoking history should be determined. Alcohol consumption dose-dependently elevates the risk of CP up to 4-fold. Ever smokers, even smoking less than a pack of cigarettes per day, have an increased risk for CP, as compared to never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Both genetic and environmental factors can markedly elevate the risk for CP. Therefore, health-promoting lifestyle education and in certain cases genetic counselling should be employed to reduce the incidence of CP.

17.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 8(6): 1083-1089, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical outcomes of percutaneous sclerotherapy of venous disorders of the labia majora in patients with vascular malformations of the lower limbs. METHODS: Thirty percutaneous sclerotherapy treatments were performed over a 6-year period among 17 female patients with symptomatic venous malformation (VM) or secondary varicosis of the labia majora. Four patients were treated with sclerotherapy alone, 13 patients had additional procedures to control the VM before sclerotherapy. Polidocanol was used as sclerosant. Indications for sclerotherapy included pain, bleeding, thrombophlebitis, and swelling. Genitourinary symptoms were recorded. The number of treatments and procedure-related complications were registered. Complications were classified according to the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) classification system (grade A-E). The 3-month postintervention follow-up included magnetic resonance imaging, clinical examination, and a symptom-related questionnaire. If no reintervention was necessary, consultation was scheduled biannually. RESULTS: All patients had local swelling and pain; only a fraction of the patients had further symptoms with bleeding or thrombophlebitis (47% each). Eight patients required reintervention. No major complications were observed; minor complications such as postprocedural swelling occurred in 29% (SIR grade A), pain occurred in 17% (SIR grade B), and skin blistering developed in 5% (SIR grade B). Upon follow-up examination after a median of 40 months, 76% showed complete relief of symptoms, and 23% reported partial relief. All patients reported a substantial reduction in pain (75% >5 points in visual analogue scale) and swelling (88% complete cessation). CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous sclerotherapy is a safe and effective treatment option of VM and secondary varicosis of the labia majora.

19.
Pancreatology ; 20(3): 377-384, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Carboxyl ester lipase is a pancreatic enzyme encoded by CEL, an extremely polymorphic human gene. Pathogenic variants of CEL either increases the risk for chronic pancreatitis (CP) or cause MODY8, a syndrome of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. Here, we aimed to characterize a novel duplication allele of CEL (CEL-DUP2) and to investigate whether it associates with CP or pancreatic cancer. METHODS: The structure of CEL-DUP2 was determined by a combination of Sanger sequencing, DNA fragment analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and whole-genome sequencing. We developed assays for screening of CEL-DUP2 and analyzed cohorts of idiopathic CP, alcoholic CP and pancreatic cancer. CEL protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: CEL-DUP2 consists of an extra copy of the complete CEL gene. The allele has probably arisen from non-allelic, homologous recombination involving the adjacent pseudogene of CEL. We found no association between CEL-DUP2 carrier frequency and CP in cohorts from France (cases/controls: 2.5%/2.4%; P = 1.0), China (10.3%/8.1%; P = 0.08) or Germany (1.6%/2.3%; P = 0.62). Similarly, no association with disease was observed in alcohol-induced pancreatitis (Germany: 3.2%/2.3%; P = 0.51) or pancreatic cancer (Norway; 2.5%/3.2%; P = 0.77). Notably, the carrier frequency of CEL-DUP2 was more than three-fold higher in Chinese compared with Europeans. CEL protein expression was similar in tissues from CEL-DUP2 carriers and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the contention that the number of CEL alleles does not influence the risk of pancreatic exocrine disease. Rather, the pathogenic CEL variants identified so far involve exon 11 sequence changes that substantially alter the protein's tail region.

20.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1626-1641.e8, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Changes in pancreatic calcium levels affect secretion and might be involved in development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). We investigated the association of CP with the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 gene (TRPV6), which encodes a Ca2+-selective ion channel, in an international cohort of patients and in mice. METHODS: We performed whole-exome DNA sequencing from a patient with idiopathic CP and from his parents, who did not have CP. We validated our findings by sequencing DNA from 300 patients with CP (not associated with alcohol consumption) and 1070 persons from the general population in Japan (control individuals). In replication studies, we sequenced DNA from patients with early-onset CP (20 years or younger) not associated with alcohol consumption from France (n = 470) and Germany (n = 410). We expressed TRPV6 variants in HEK293 cells and measured their activity using Ca2+ imaging assays. CP was induced by repeated injections of cerulein in TRPV6mut/mut mice. RESULTS: We identified the variants c.629C>T (p.A210V) and c.970G>A (p.D324N) in TRPV6 in the index patient. Variants that affected function of the TRPV6 product were found in 13 of 300 patients (4.3%) and 1 of 1070 control individuals (0.1%) from Japan (odds ratio [OR], 48.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3-371.7; P = 2.4 × 10-8). Twelve of 124 patients (9.7%) with early-onset CP had such variants. In the replication set from Europe, 18 patients with CP (2.0%) carried variants that affected the function of the TRPV6 product compared with 0 control individuals (P = 6.2 × 10-8). Variants that did not affect the function of the TRPV6 product (p.I223T and p.D324N) were overrepresented in Japanese patients vs control individuals (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 4.5-25.9; P = 7.4 × 10-9 for p.I223T and P = .01 for p.D324N), whereas the p.L299Q was overrepresented in European patients vs control individuals (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9-4.8; P = 1.2 × 10-5). TRPV6mut/mut mice given cerulein developed more severe pancreatitis than control mice, as shown by increased levels of pancreatic enzymes, histologic alterations, and pancreatic fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients with early-onset CP not associated with alcohol consumption carry variants in TRPV6 that affect the function of its product, perhaps by altering Ca2+ balance in pancreatic cells. TRPV6 regulates Ca2+ homeostasis and pancreatic inflammation.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
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