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1.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674218

RESUMO

Introduction. There is limited knowledge about factors associated with the development of aortic stenosis. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of aortic sclerosis or stenosis in 71-years-old men and determine which risk factors at 50 years of age predict the development of aortic sclerosis or aortic stenosis. Methods. A random sample of Swedish men from the general population, born in 1943 (n = 798) were followed for 21 years. Data on clinical characteristics and laboratory values were collected in 1993. An echocardiography was performed in 2014. We used logistic regression to examine the association between baseline data and the outcome. Results. Echocardiography was performed in 535 men, and aortic sclerosis or aortic stenosis was diagnosed in 27 (5.0%). 14 persons developed aortic stenosis (2.6%). Among men with aortic sclerosis or aortic stenosis, 29.6% were obese. In multivariable stepwise regression model, body mass index (odds ratio per unit increase 1.23 (95% CI 1.10-1.38; p = .0003)) and hypercholesterolemia, combined with high sensitive C-reactive protein (odds ratio versus all other 2.66 (1.18-6.00; p = .019)) were significantly associated with increased risk of developing aortic sclerosis or aortic stenosis. Body mass index was the only factor significantly associated with a higher risk of developing aortic stenosis. Conclusion. The prevalence of either aortic sclerosis or aortic stenosis was 5% and of aortic stenosis 2.6%. Obesity and hypercholesterolemia combined with elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein at the age of 50 predicted the development of degenerative aortic sclerosis or stenosis, whilst only obesity was correlated with the occurrence of aortic stenosis.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107012, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but few studies have considered incident disease in relation to PM from different sources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations between long-term exposure to different types of PM and sources, and incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in three Swedish cities. METHODS: Based on detailed emission databases, monitoring data, and high-resolution dispersion models, we calculated source contributions to PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) from road wear, traffic exhaust, residential heating, and other sources in Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Umeå. Registry data for participants from four cohorts were used to obtain incidence of IHD and stroke for first hospitalization or death. We constructed time windows of exposure for same-year, 1- to 5-y, and 6- to 10-y averages preceding incidence from annual averages at residential addresses. Risk estimates were based on random effects meta-analyses of cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We observed 5,166 and 3,119 incident IHD and stroke cases, respectively, in 114,758 participants. Overall, few consistent associations were observed between the different air pollution measures and IHD or stroke incidence. However, same-year levels of ambient locally emitted BC (range: 0.01-4.6 µg/m3) were associated with a 4.0% higher risk of incident stroke per interquartile range (IQR), 0.30 µg/m3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 7.8]. This association was primarily related to BC from traffic exhaust. PM10 (range: 4.4-52 µg/m3) and PM2.5 (range: 2.9-22 µg/m3) were not associated with stroke. Associations with incident IHD were observed only for PM2.5 exposure from residential heating. DISCUSSION: Few consistent associations were observed between different particulate components and IHD or stroke. However, long-term residential exposure to locally emitted BC from traffic exhaust was associated with stroke incidence. The comparatively low exposure levels may have contributed to the paucity of associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4757.

3.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global estimates of the effect of common modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality are largely based on data from separate studies, using different methodologies. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study overcomes these limitations by using similar methods to prospectively measure the effect of modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries (spanning five continents) grouped by different economic levels. METHODS: In this multinational, prospective cohort study, we examined associations for 14 potentially modifiable risk factors with mortality and cardiovascular disease in 155 722 participants without a prior history of cardiovascular disease from 21 high-income, middle-income, or low-income countries (HICs, MICs, or LICs). The primary outcomes for this paper were composites of cardiovascular disease events (defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) and mortality. We describe the prevalence, hazard ratios (HRs), and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with a cluster of behavioural factors (ie, tobacco use, alcohol, diet, physical activity, and sodium intake), metabolic factors (ie, lipids, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity), socioeconomic and psychosocial factors (ie, education, symptoms of depression), grip strength, and household and ambient pollution. Associations between risk factors and the outcomes were established using multivariable Cox frailty models and using PAFs for the entire cohort, and also by countries grouped by income level. Associations are presented as HRs and PAFs with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, 155 722 participants were enrolled and followed up for measurement of risk factors. 17 249 (11·1%) participants were from HICs, 102 680 (65·9%) were from MICs, and 35 793 (23·0%) from LICs. Approximately 70% of cardiovascular disease cases and deaths in the overall study population were attributed to modifiable risk factors. Metabolic factors were the predominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (41·2% of the PAF), with hypertension being the largest (22·3% of the PAF). As a cluster, behavioural risk factors contributed most to deaths (26·3% of the PAF), although the single largest risk factor was a low education level (12·5% of the PAF). Ambient air pollution was associated with 13·9% of the PAF for cardiovascular disease, although different statistical methods were used for this analysis. In MICs and LICs, household air pollution, poor diet, low education, and low grip strength had stronger effects on cardiovascular disease or mortality than in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Most cardiovascular disease cases and deaths can be attributed to a small number of common, modifiable risk factors. While some factors have extensive global effects (eg, hypertension and education), others (eg, household air pollution and poor diet) vary by a country's economic level. Health policies should focus on risk factors that have the greatest effects on averting cardiovascular disease and death globally, with additional emphasis on risk factors of greatest importance in specific groups of countries. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

4.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no previous study has prospectively documented the incidence of common diseases and related mortality in high-income countries (HICs), middle-income countries (MICs), and low-income countries (LICs) with standardised approaches. Such information is key to developing global and context-specific health strategies. In our analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we aimed to evaluate differences in the incidence of common diseases, related hospital admissions, and related mortality in a large contemporary cohort of adults from 21 HICs, MICs, and LICs across five continents by use of standardised approaches. METHODS: The PURE study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years who have been enrolled from 21 countries across five continents. The key outcomes were the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases, cancers, injuries, respiratory diseases, and hospital admissions, and we calculated the age-standardised and sex-standardised incidence of these events per 1000 person-years. FINDINGS: This analysis assesses the incidence of events in 162 534 participants who were enrolled in the first two phases of the PURE core study, between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, and who were assessed for a median of 9·5 years (IQR 8·5-10·9). During follow-up, 11 307 (7·0%) participants died, 9329 (5·7%) participants had cardiovascular disease, 5151 (3·2%) participants had a cancer, 4386 (2·7%) participants had injuries requiring hospital admission, 2911 (1·8%) participants had pneumonia, and 1830 (1·1%) participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cardiovascular disease occurred more often in LICs (7·1 cases per 1000 person-years) and in MICs (6·8 cases per 1000 person-years) than in HICs (4·3 cases per 1000 person-years). However, incident cancers, injuries, COPD, and pneumonia were most common in HICs and least common in LICs. Overall mortality rates in LICs (13·3 deaths per 1000 person-years) were double those in MICs (6·9 deaths per 1000 person-years) and four times higher than in HICs (3·4 deaths per 1000 person-years). This pattern of the highest mortality in LICs and the lowest in HICs was observed for all causes of death except cancer, where mortality was similar across country income levels. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of deaths overall (40%) but accounted for only 23% of deaths in HICs (vs 41% in MICs and 43% in LICs), despite more cardiovascular disease risk factors (as judged by INTERHEART risk scores) in HICs and the fewest such risk factors in LICs. The ratio of deaths from cardiovascular disease to those from cancer was 0·4 in HICs, 1·3 in MICs, and 3·0 in LICs, and four upper-MICs (Argentina, Chile, Turkey, and Poland) showed ratios similar to the HICs. Rates of first hospital admission and cardiovascular disease medication use were lowest in LICs and highest in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Among adults aged 35-70 years, cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality globally. However, in HICs and some upper-MICs, deaths from cancer are now more common than those from cardiovascular disease, indicating a transition in the predominant causes of deaths in middle-age. As cardiovascular disease decreases in many countries, mortality from cancer will probably become the leading cause of death. The high mortality in poorer countries is not related to risk factors, but it might be related to poorer access to health care. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

5.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319871644, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about long-term risk factors and the prevalence of heart failure stages in general population is limited. We aimed to study the prevalence of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure in 71-year-old men and potential risk factors in the past two decades. DESIGN: This research was based on a randomized selected population study with longitudinal follow-up. METHODS: A random sample of men born in 1943 in Gothenburg, Sweden were examined in 1993 (at 50 years of age) and re-examined 21 years later in 2014 (at 71 years of age). Cardiac dysfunction or heart failure was classified into four stages (A-D) according to American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on heart failure. RESULTS: Of the 798 men examined in 1993 (overall cohort), 535 (67%) were re-examined in 2014 (echo cohort). In the echo cohort 122 (23%) men had normal cardiac function, 135 (25%) were at stage A, 207 (39%) men were at stage B, 66 (12%) men were at stage C, and five (1%) men were at stage D. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that elevated body mass index at 50 years old was the only independent risk factor for developing heart failure/cardiac dysfunction during the subsequent 21 years. For each unit (1 kg/m2) of increased body mass index, the odds ratio for stages C/D heart failure vs no heart failure/stage A increased by 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.31, p < 0.001), after adjustment for smoking, sedentary life style, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSION: In a random sample of men at 71 years of age, half presented with either cardiac dysfunction or clinical heart failure. High body mass index was associated with an increased risk for developing cardiac dysfunction or heart failure over a 21-year period.

6.
Thorax ; 74(10): 958-964, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breathlessness is common in the population, especially in women and associated with adverse health outcomes. Obesity (body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2) is rapidly increasing globally and its impact on breathlessness is unclear. METHODS: This population-based study aimed primarily to evaluate the association of current BMI and self-reported change in BMI since age 20 with breathlessness (modified Research Council score ≥1) in the middle-aged population. Secondary aims were to evaluate factors that contribute to breathlessness in obesity, including the interaction with spirometric lung volume and sex. RESULTS: We included 13 437 individuals; mean age 57.5 years; 52.5% women; mean BMI 26.8 (SD 4.3); mean BMI increase since age 20 was 5.0 kg/m2; and 1283 (9.6%) reported breathlessness. Obesity was strongly associated with increased breathlessness, OR 3.54 (95% CI, 3.03 to 4.13) independent of age, sex, smoking, airflow obstruction, exercise level and the presence of comorbidities. The association between BMI and breathlessness was modified by lung volume; the increase in breathlessness prevalence with higher BMI was steeper for individuals with lower forced vital capacity (FVC). The higher breathlessness prevalence in obese women than men (27.4% vs 12.5%; p<0.001) was related to their lower FVC. Irrespective of current BMI and confounders, individuals who had increased in BMI since age 20 had more breathlessness. CONCLUSION: Breathlessness is independently associated with obesity and with weight gain in adult life, and the association is stronger for individuals with lower lung volumes.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium. METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries. RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e196762, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276179

RESUMO

Importance: Adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have an increased incidence of cancer, presumably owing to repeated radiation exposure, genetic predisposition, or repeated stress factors during heart interventions. However, there are limited data on the risk of cancer in children and young adults with CHD compared with the general population. Objective: To determine the risk of developing cancer from birth to age 41 years among patients with CHD compared with healthy matched controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based, matched, prospective cohort study in Sweden used data from the Patient and Cause of Death Registers. Successive cohorts of patients with CHD born from 1970 to 1979, 1980 to 1989, and 1990 to 1993 were identified. Each patient (n = 21 982) was matched for birth year, sex, and county with 10 controls without CHD from the general population (n = 219 816). Follow-up and comorbidity data were collected from 1970 until 2011. Data analysis began in September 2018 and concluded in February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of cancer among children and young adults with CHD and among healthy controls. Results: Among 21 982 individuals with CHD and 219 816 healthy matched controls, 428 patients with CHD (2.0%) and 2072 controls (0.9%) developed cancer. Among patients with CHD, the mean (SD) age at follow-up was 26.6 (8.4) years, and 11 332 participants (51.6%) were men. Among healthy controls, the mean (SD) age at follow-up was 28.5 (9.1) years, and 113 319 participants (51.6%) were men. By the age of 41 years, 1 of 50 patients with CHD developed cancer. The overall hazard ratio (HR) for cancer was 2.24 (95% CI, 2.01-2.48) in children and young adults with CHD compared with controls. Risk increased by each successive birth cohort to an HR of 3.37 (95% CI, 2.60-4.35) among those born from 1990 to 1993. The risk of cancer was similar in men and women with CHD (men: HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.08-2.79; women: HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.80-2.41). The HR for cancer among patients with CHD who underwent surgery was 1.95 (95% CI, 1.58-2.33) compared with controls; for patients with CHD who had not undergone surgery, the HR was 2.43 (95% CI, 2.12-2.76). According to a hierarchical classification, a significantly increased risk of cancer was found among patients with complex heart lesions, such as conotruncal defects (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.62-3.25), compared with healthy controls. Conclusions and Relevance: Children and young adult patients with CHD had an increased risk of developing cancer compared with healthy matched controls, and the risk was significantly higher among patients with CHD from the most recent birth cohort. An increased risk of cancer in all CHD lesion groups was found, and a systematic screening for cancer could be considered for this at-risk group of patients.

9.
J Hypertens ; 37(11): 2269-2279, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) - nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke - at blood pressure levels that meet current recommendations with risk at lower levels, particularly in older patients. METHODS: We identified patients with hypertension aged 40-90 years from a primary care register. Patients with a history of cancer, diabetes mellitus or CVD were excluded. Patients were divided into age groups (40-75 and 76-90), and four groups of SBP 110-129, 130-139 (reference), 140-149 and ≥150 mmHg. We used the Kaplan-Meier estimator to study incidence of AMI, stroke and a composite of the two. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for outcomes. RESULTS: We included 31 704 patients: 26 663 were 40-75 years old and 5041 were 76-90 years old. Mean follow-up was 2 years. Although no significant differences in risk of any outcome were found in the younger group, low blood pressure was associated with the lowest risk in the older group. Older patients in the 110-129 mmHg group had a lower incidence of CVD (15.9/1000 vs. 25.3/1000 person-years) than the reference group. After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratio of CVD in older patients in the 110-129 mmHg group compared with the reference group was 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.40-0.92). CONCLUSION: Blood pressure levels lower than those currently recommended are not harmful among older patients. The association between lower SBP and lesser risk of CVD may instead suggest a beneficial effect of lower SBP.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1530-1538, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study identified variables associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation in people with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a cohort study of people with type 1 diabetes from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry followed up between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2013. Median follow-up was 9.7 years (interquartile range 5.2-13.0). The association between potential risk factors and incident atrial fibrillation was investigated using adjusted Cox regression. To compare the impact of each risk factor, the gradient of risk per 1 SD was estimated. RESULTS: In this cohort of 36,258 patients with type 1 diabetes, 749 developed atrial fibrillation during follow-up. Older age, male sex, renal complications, increased BMI and HbA1c, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and heart valve disease increased the risk of atrial fibrillation. Age, signs of renal dysfunction with macroalbuminuria, and decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate were associated with the highest gradient of risk for atrial fibrillation. High blood pressure, severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2), and elevated levels of HbA1c (>9.6%) were associated with increased risk, but no associations were found with hyperlipidemia or smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The most prominent risk factors for atrial fibrillation in people with type 1 diabetes were older age, cardiovascular comorbidities, and renal complications, while obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia had more modest affects.

11.
Circulation ; 140(2): 117-125, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modifiable lifestyle factors in relation to risk for cardiomyopathy, a common and increasing cause of heart failure in the young, have not been widely studied. We sought to investigate a potential link between obesity, a recognized predictor of early heart failure, in adolescence and being diagnosed with cardiomyopathy in adulthood. METHODS: This was a nationwide register-based prospective cohort study of 1 668 893 adolescent men (mean age, 18.3 years; SD, 0.7 years) who enlisted for compulsory military service from 1969 to 2005. At baseline, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and medical disorders were registered, along with test results for fitness and muscle strength. Cardiomyopathy diagnoses were identified from the National Hospital Register and Cause of Death Register during an up to 46-year follow-up and divided into categories: dilated, hypertrophic, alcohol/drug-induced, and other. Hazard ratios were calculated with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During follow-up (median, 27 years; Q1-Q3, 19-35 years), 4477 cases of cardiomyopathy were identified, of which 2631 (59%) were dilated, 673 (15%) were hypertrophic, and 480 (11%) were alcohol/drug-induced. Increasing BMI was strongly associated with elevated risk of cardiomyopathy, especially dilated, starting at levels considered normal (BMI, 22.5-<25 kg/m2; hazard ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.22-1.57]), adjusted for age, year, center, and baseline comorbidities, and with a >8-fold increased risk at BMI ≥35 kg/m2 compared with BMI of 18.5 to <20 kg/m2. For each 1-unit increase in BMI, similarly adjusted hazard ratios were 1.15 (95% CI, 1.14-1.17) for dilated cardiomyopathy, 1.09 (95% CI, 1.06-1.12) for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and 1.10 (1.06-1.13) for alcohol/drug-induced cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Even mildly elevated body weight in late adolescence may contribute to being diagnosed with cardiomyopathy in adulthood. The already marked importance of weight control in youth is further strengthened by these findings, as well as greater evidence for obesity as a potential important cause of adverse cardiac remodeling that is independent of clinically evident ischemic heart disease.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1297-1304, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low weight has been associated with increased mortality risks in type 1 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the importance of weight and weight gain/loss in the Swedish population diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 26,125; mean age 33.3 years; 45% women) registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry from 1998 to 2012 were followed from the first day of study entry. Cox regression was used to calculate risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), major CVD events, hospitalizations for heart failure (HF), and total deaths. RESULTS: Population mean BMI in patients with type 1 diabetes increased from 24.7 to 25.7 kg/m2 from 1998 to 2012. Over a median follow-up of 10.9 years, there were 1,031 deaths (33.2% from CVD), 1,460 major CVD events, and 580 hospitalizations for HF. After exclusion of smokers, patients with poor metabolic control, and patients with a short follow-up time, there was no increased risk for mortality in those with BMI <25 kg/m2, while BMI >25 kg/m2 was associated with a minor increase in risk of mortality, major CVD, and HF. In women, associations with BMI were largely absent. Weight gain implied an increased risk of mortality and HF, while weight loss was not associated with higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of major CVD, HF, CVD death, and mortality increased with increasing BMI, with associations more apparent in men than in women. After exclusion of factors associated with reverse causality, there was no evidence of an obesity paradox.

13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(6): e748-e760, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is associated with differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease incidence and outcomes, including mortality. However, it is unclear whether the associations between cardiovascular disease and common measures of socioeconomic status-wealth and education-differ among high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries, and, if so, why these differences exist. We explored the association between education and household wealth and cardiovascular disease and mortality to assess which marker is the stronger predictor of outcomes, and examined whether any differences in cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status parallel differences in risk factor levels or differences in management. METHODS: In this large-scale prospective cohort study, we recruited adults aged between 35 years and 70 years from 367 urban and 302 rural communities in 20 countries. We collected data on families and households in two questionnaires, and data on cardiovascular risk factors in a third questionnaire, which was supplemented with physical examination. We assessed socioeconomic status using education and a household wealth index. Education was categorised as no or primary school education only, secondary school education, or higher education, defined as completion of trade school, college, or university. Household wealth, calculated at the household level and with household data, was defined by an index on the basis of ownership of assets and housing characteristics. Primary outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (a composite of cardiovascular deaths, strokes, myocardial infarction, and heart failure), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Information on specific events was obtained from participants or their family. FINDINGS: Recruitment to the study began on Jan 12, 2001, with most participants enrolled between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2014. 160 299 (87·9%) of 182 375 participants with baseline data had available follow-up event data and were eligible for inclusion. After exclusion of 6130 (3·8%) participants without complete baseline or follow-up data, 154 169 individuals remained for analysis, from five low-income, 11 middle-income, and four high-income countries. Participants were followed-up for a mean of 7·5 years. Major cardiovascular events were more common among those with low levels of education in all types of country studied, but much more so in low-income countries. After adjustment for wealth and other factors, the HR (low level of education vs high level of education) was 1·23 (95% CI 0·96-1·58) for high-income countries, 1·59 (1·42-1·78) in middle-income countries, and 2·23 (1·79-2·77) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). We observed similar results for all-cause mortality, with HRs of 1·50 (1·14-1·98) for high-income countries, 1·80 (1·58-2·06) in middle-income countries, and 2·76 (2·29-3·31) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). By contrast, we found no or weak associations between wealth and these two outcomes. Differences in outcomes between educational groups were not explained by differences in risk factors, which decreased as the level of education increased in high-income countries, but increased as the level of education increased in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). Medical care (eg, management of hypertension, diabetes, and secondary prevention) seemed to play an important part in adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes because such care is likely to be poorer in people with the lowest levels of education compared to those with higher levels of education in low-income countries; however, we observed less marked differences in care based on level of education in middle-income countries and no or minor differences in high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Although people with a lower level of education in low-income and middle-income countries have higher incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, they have better overall risk factor profiles. However, these individuals have markedly poorer health care. Policies to reduce health inequities globally must include strategies to overcome barriers to care, especially for those with lower levels of education. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

14.
Circulation ; 139(19): 2228-2237, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality for patients with versus without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) appears to vary by the age at T2DM diagnosis, but few population studies have analyzed mortality and CVD outcomes associations across the full age range. METHODS: With use of the Swedish National Diabetes Registry, everyone with T2DM registered in the Registry between 1998 and 2012 was included. Controls were randomly selected from the general population matched for age, sex, and county. The analysis cohort comprised 318 083 patients with T2DM matched with just <1.6 million controls. Participants were followed from 1998 to 2013 for CVD outcomes and to 2014 for mortality. Outcomes of interest were total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular mortality, coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. We also examined life expectancy by age at diagnosis. We conducted the primary analyses using Cox proportional hazards models in those with no previous CVD and repeated the work in the entire cohort. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 5.63 years, patients with T2DM diagnosed at ≤40 years had the highest excess risk for most outcomes relative to controls with adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 2.05 (1.81-2.33) for total mortality, 2.72 (2.13-3.48) for cardiovascular-related mortality, 1.95 (1.68-2.25) for noncardiovascular mortality, 4.77 (3.86-5.89) for heart failure, and 4.33 (3.82-4.91) for coronary heart disease. All risks attenuated progressively with each increasing decade at diagnostic age; by the time T2DM was diagnosed at >80 years, the adjusted hazard ratios for CVD and non-CVD mortality were <1, with excess risks for other CVD outcomes substantially attenuated. Moreover, survival in those diagnosed beyond 80 was the same as controls, whereas it was more than a decade less when T2DM was diagnosed in adolescence. Finally, hazard ratios for most outcomes were numerically greater in younger women with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Age at diagnosis of T2DM is prognostically important for survival and cardiovascular risks, with implications for determining the timing and intensity of risk factor interventions for clinical decision making and for guideline-directed care. These observations amplify support for preventing/delaying T2DM onset in younger individuals.

15.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(2): 232-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028008

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to monitor trends in socioeconomic inequalities in body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and muscular strength over several decades in a population of Swedish males aged 18-19 years. METHODS: The cohort consists of 1.5 million young men attending military conscript examinations from late 1968 to 2005. Parental education was used as a marker for socioeconomic conditions in the conscripts' families of origin. Changing gradient in BMI, CRF, and muscular strength in sons of parents with higher and lower educational attainment was evaluated during four periods covering 36 years. RESULTS: Over the course of the obesity epidemic, BMI remained higher in conscripts with lesser (vs. higher) parental education. Moreover, the absolute difference in obesity prevalence between groups showed a continuous increase, from .6% to 3.9%, indicating growing inequalities. Regarding fitness, lower CRF was consistently associated with less parental education, but with no clear secular trend in the magnitude of the difference. Finally, social differences in muscular strength changed in direction, from lower strength among conscripts with higher parental education in the initial observation period to lower strength associated with lower parental education in the final decade studied. CONCLUSIONS: Among Swedish conscripts entering adulthood, social gradients in BMI and obesity widened continuously between 1968 and 2005. An apparent reversal of the earlier gradient in muscular strength in young men may be related to societal trends in occupational and leisure-time physical activity over the observation period. This cohort is being continually monitored through national registries for obesity-related comorbidities in later life.

16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(5): e613-e623, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between the extent of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) impairment and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisations are unclear, and how these associations might vary across populations is unknown. METHODS: In this international, community-based cohort study, we prospectively enrolled adults aged 35-70 years who had no intention of moving residences for 4 years from rural and urban communities across 17 countries. A portable spirometer was used to assess FEV1. FEV1 values were standardised within countries for height, age, and sex, and expressed as a percentage of the country-specific predicted FEV1 value (FEV1%). FEV1% was categorised as no impairment (FEV1% ≥0 SD from country-specific mean), mild impairment (FEV1% <0 SD to -1 SD), moderate impairment (FEV1% <-1 SD to -2 SDs), and severe impairment (FEV1% <-2 SDs [ie, clinically abnormal range]). Follow-up was done every 3 years to collect information on mortality, cardiovascular disease outcomes (including myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, or congestive heart failure), and respiratory hospitalisations (from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or other pulmonary conditions). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression. FINDINGS: Among 126 359 adults with acceptable spirometry data available, during a median 7·8 years (IQR 5·6-9·5) of follow-up, 5488 (4·3%) deaths, 5734 (4·5%) cardiovascular disease events, and 1948 (1·5%) respiratory hospitalisation events occurred. Relative to the no impairment group, mild to severe FEV1% impairments were associated with graded increases in mortality (HR 1·27 [95% CI 1·18-1·36] for mild, 1·74 [1·60-1·90] for moderate, and 2·54 [2·26-2·86] for severe impairment), cardiovascular disease (1·18 [1·10-1·26], 1·39 [1·28-1·51], 2·02 [1·75-2·32]), and respiratory hospitalisation (1·39 [1·24-1·56], 2·02 [1·75-2·32], 2·97 [2·45-3·60]), and this pattern persisted in subgroup analyses considering country income level and various baseline risk factors. Population-attributable risk for mortality (adjusted for age, sex, and country income) from mildly to moderately reduced FEV1% (24·7% [22·2-27·2]) was larger than that from severely reduced FEV1% (3·7% [2·1-5·2]) and from tobacco use (19·7% [17·2-22·3]), previous cardiovascular disease (5·5% [4·5-6·5]), and hypertension (17·1% [14·6-19·6]). Population-attributable risk for cardiovascular disease from mildly to moderately reduced FEV1 was 17·3% (14·8-19·7), second only to the contribution of hypertension (30·1% [27·6-32·5]). INTERPRETATION: FEV1 is an independent and generalisable predictor of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisation, even across the clinically normal range (mild to moderate impairment). FUNDING: Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, AstraZeneca, Sanofi-Aventis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, and GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and King Pharma. Additional funders are listed in the appendix.

17.
BMJ ; 364: l772, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. DESIGN: International prospective cohort study. SETTING: 18 high, middle, and low income countries, sampled from urban and rural communities. PARTICIPANTS: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). RESULTS: Mean estimated sodium and potassium urinary excretion were 4.93 g/day and 2.12 g/day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 7884 (6.1%) participants had died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Increasing urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with increasing potassium excretion (unadjusted r=0.34), and only 0.002% had a concomitant urinary excretion of <2.0 g/day of sodium and >3.5 g/day of potassium. A J-shaped association was observed of sodium excretion and inverse association of potassium excretion with death and cardiovascular events. For joint sodium and potassium excretion categories, the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events occurred in the group with moderate sodium excretion (3-5 g/day) and higher potassium excretion (21.9% of cohort). Compared with this reference group, the combinations of low potassium with low sodium excretion (hazard ratio 1.23, 1.11 to 1.37; 7.4% of cohort) and low potassium with high sodium excretion (1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; 13.8% of cohort) were associated with the highest risk, followed by low sodium excretion (1.19, 1.02 to 1.38; 3.3% of cohort) and high sodium excretion (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18; 29.6% of cohort) among those with potassium excretion greater than the median. Higher potassium excretion attenuated the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium excretion (P for interaction=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) is extremely uncommon. Combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) with high potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(6): e011490, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852925

RESUMO

Background Little is known of the impact of social factors on mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting ( CABG ). We explored sex- and age-specific associations between mortality risk after CABG and marital status, income, and education. Methods and Results This population-based register study included 110 742 CABG patients (21.3% women) from the SWEDEHEART registry (Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies) operated 1992 to 2015. Cox regression models were used to study the relation between social factors and all-cause mortality. Never having been married compared with being married/cohabiting was associated with a higher risk in women than in men (hazard ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.44) versus 1.17 (1.13-1.22), P=0.030 between sex. The lowest income quintile, compared with the highest, was associated with higher risk in men than in women (hazard ratio 1.44 [1.38-1.51] versus 1.25 [1.14-1.38], P=0.0036). Lowest education level was associated with higher risk without sex difference (hazard ratio 1.15 [1.11-1.19] versus 1.25 [1.16-1.35], P=0.75). For unmarried women aged 60 years at surgery with low income and low education, mortality 10 years after surgery was 18%, compared with 11% in married women with high income and higher education level. The median life expectancy was 4.8 years shorter. Corresponding figures for 60-year-old men were 21% versus 12% mortality risk at 10 years and 5.0 years shorter life expectancy. Conclusions There are strong associations between social factors and mortality risk after CABG in both men and women. These results emphasize the importance of developing and implementing secondary prevention strategies for CABG patients with disadvantages in social factors.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study age and sex specific prevalence of 30 symptoms in random samples from the general population and to analyze possible secular trends across time. STUDY POPULATION: The study was based on data from eight on-going Swedish cohort studies, with baseline investigations performed between 1973 and 2003. Samples were drawn from the general population of the cities of Gothenburg and Eskilstuna, and of Uppsala County. Overall, 20,160 subjects were sampled, 14,470 (71.8%) responded, of whom 12.000 were unique subjects, and 2548 were part of more than one sample. METHODS: The Complaint score sub-scale of the Gothenburg Quality of Life instrument, listing 30 general symptoms was used. Responders were asked to indicate which symptoms they had experienced during the last three months. RESULTS: Women reported on average 7.8 symptoms, and men 5.3 (p<0.0001). Women reported higher prevalence than men for 24 of the 30 symptoms. In multivariate analyses four patterns of prevalence across age were identified in both men and women; increasing prevalence, decreasing, stable and biphasic prevalence. The symptoms in the various pattern groups differed somewhat between men and women. However, symptoms related to strain were prominent among symptoms decreasing with age. Moreover, there were secular trends. Across all symptoms reporting prevalence increased over time in men (p<0.001) as well as in women (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Women reported higher total symptom prevalence than men. Symptoms related to health generally increased with age, while symptoms related to stress decreased markedly. Significant secular trends across time regarding symptom prevalence were found.

20.
Circulation ; 139(16): 1900-1912, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strength of association and optimal levels for risk factors related to excess risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes in type 1 diabetes mellitus have been sparsely studied. METHODS: In a national observational cohort study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register from 1998 to 2014, we assessed relative prognostic importance of 17 risk factors for death and cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We used Cox regression and machine learning analyses. In addition, we examined optimal cut point levels for glycohemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were followed up until death or study end on December 31, 2013. The primary outcomes were death resulting from all causes, fatal/nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, fatal/nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: Of 32 611 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 1809 (5.5%) died during follow-up over 10.4 years. The strongest predictors for death and cardiovascular outcomes were glycohemoglobin, albuminuria, duration of diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Glycohemoglobin displayed ≈2% higher risk for each 1-mmol/mol increase (equating to ≈22% per 1% glycohemoglobin difference), whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with 35% to 50% greater risk for each 1-mmol/L increase. Microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria was associated with 2 to 4 times greater risk for cardiovascular complications and death. Glycohemoglobin <53 mmol/mol (7.0%), systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.5 mmol/L were associated with significantly lower risk for outcomes observed. CONCLUSIONS: Glycohemoglobin, albuminuria, duration of diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol appear to be the most important predictors for mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Lower levels for glycohemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than contemporary guideline target levels appear to be associated with significantly lower risk for outcomes.

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