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1.
J ECT ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625177

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be lifesaving for patients suffering from treatment-resistant psychiatric conditions, especially acute suicidality or depression. However, space-occupying lesions pose risks associated with ECT use due in part to seizure-induced escalations in blood pressure with corresponding increases in cerebral blood flow and possibly intracranial pressure, subsequently increasing the risk of brain herniation. Here, we present the case of a patient with a left medial temporal lobe astrocytoma, worsening epileptic seizures, and nonepileptic seizures who underwent ECT for major depressive disorder and suicidality. The patient had improvement of depressive symptoms, resolution of suicidality, and brief cessation of nonepileptic seizures. Brief anterograde amnesia contributed to the termination of treatment. This case adds to the growing literature about the feasibility of ECT treatment in cerebral lesions prone to changes in intracranial pressure, such as the usually cystic astrocytomas.

2.
Psychiatry Res ; : 113582, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234325

RESUMO

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) reflects physiologic arousal, and a potential point-of-care biomarker of suicide risk. We collected data from 9 healthy controls, 6 non-suicidal depressed patients, 7 with prior suicide attempts but not presently suicidal, and 8 depressed patients who were actively suicidal. The pupillary maximum constriction velocity (MCV) was similar between the non-suicidal depressed patients and healthy controls (the "Never suicidal" group). Patients with prior attempt resembled the patients expressing active suicidal ideation (the "Ever suicidal" group). MCV was a significant predictor within a logistic regression model of participants who were "Ever suicidal" versus "Never suicidal".

3.
J ECT ; 36(4): 291-295, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An important barrier to further studying electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the cognitive adverse effects. However, recent data suggest that low amplitude seizure therapy (LAP-ST) has no or minimal cognitive adverse effects. The aims of this report were to examine the efficacy of LAP-ST in PTSD and to compare LAP-ST with standard right unilateral (RUL) ECT using a pilot randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Patients were randomized to LAP-ST or RUL ECT. Posttraumatic stress disorder was assessed using clinical interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and symptom severity with PTSD Checklist (PCL). The scores pertaining to PCL were analyzed using descriptive analysis for this pilot study. RESULTS: Eleven patients consented to be enrolled. Seven were randomly allocated to LAP-ST or RUL ECT. Five completed the study and had completed PCL before and after the course. In both groups, PTSD symptoms showed fast improvement. The effect size of improvement seems promising. The mean baseline PCL score for patients in the LAP-ST group was 42.5 (SD = 16.26) and the mean end point PCL score after treatment was 31 (SD = 15.56). The mean baseline PCL score for patients in the standard RUL ECT group was 64.7 (SD = 1.15) and the mean end point was 41 (SD = 15.62). CONCLUSIONS: Both LAP-ST and standard RUL ECT showed reduction in PTSD symptoms with fast improvement. This first PTSD LAP-ST study adds support to the prior LAP-ST proof-of-concept clinical trial that LAP-ST can produce effective therapeutic outcomes. Replication of this trial is warranted in larger clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02583490).

4.
Brain Stimul ; 13(5): 1416-1425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focal Electrically-Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST) is a form of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) that spatially focuses the electrical stimulus to initiate seizure activity in right prefrontal cortex. Two open-label non-comparative studies suggested that FEAST has reduced cognitive side effects when compared to historical data from other forms of ECT. In two different ECT clinics, we compared the efficacy and cognitive side effects of FEAST and Right Unilateral Ultrabrief Pulse (RUL-UBP) ECT. METHODS: Using a non-randomized, open-label design, 39 depressed adults were recruited after referral for ECT. Twenty patients received FEAST (14 women; age 45.2 ± 12.7), and 19 received RUL-UBP ECT (16 women; age 43.2 ± 16.4). Key cognitive outcome measures were the postictal time to reorientation and the Columbia University Autobiographical Memory Interview: Short-Form (CUAMI-SF). Antidepressant effects were assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24). RESULTS: In the Intent-to-treat sample, a repeated measures mixed model suggested no between group difference in HRSD24 score over time (F1,35 = 0.82, p = 0.37), while the response rate favored FEAST (FEAST: 65%; RUL-UBP ECT: 57.9%), and the remission rate favored RUL-UBP ECT (FEAST: 35%; RUL-UBP ECT: 47.4%). The FEAST group had numeric superiority in average time to reorientation (FEAST: 6.6 ± 5.0 min; RUL-UBP ECT: 8.8 ± 5.8 min; Cohens d = 0.41), and CUAMI-SF consistency score (FEAST: 69.2 ± 14.2%; RUL-UBP ECT: 63.9 ± 9.9%; Cohens d = 0.43); findings that failed to meet statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: FEAST exerts similar efficacy relative to an optimal form of conventional ECT and may have milder cognitive side effects. A blinded, randomized, non-inferiority trial is needed.

5.
Brain Stimul ; 13(5): 1284-1295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) technique is often changed after insufficient improvement, yet there has been little research on switching strategies. OBJECTIVE: To document clinical outcome in ECT nonresponders who were received a second course using high dose, brief pulse, bifrontotemporal (HD BP BL) ECT, and compare relapse rates and cognitive effects relative to patients who received only one ECT course and as a function of the type of ECT first received. METHODS: Patients were classified as receiving Weak, Strong, or HD BP BL ECT during three randomized trials at Columbia University. Nonresponders received HD BP BL ECT. In a separate multi-site trial, Optimization of ECT, patients were randomized to right unilateral or BL ECT and nonresponders also received further treatment with HD BP BL ECT. RESULTS: Remission rates with a second course of HD BP BL ECT were high in ECT nonresponders, approximately 60% and 40% in the Columbia University and Optimization of ECT studies, respectively. Clinical outcome was independent of the type of ECT first received. A second course with HD BP BL ECT resulted in greater retrograde amnesia immediately, two months, and six months following ECT. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest samples of ECT nonresponders studied to date, a second course of ECT had marked antidepressant effects. Since the therapeutic effects were independent of the technique first administered, it is possible that many patients may benefit simply from longer courses of ECT. Randomized trials are needed to determine whether, when, and how to change treatment technique in ECT.

6.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(8): 1311-1319, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329435

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbance is significantly associated with suicidal ideation. However, the majority of past research has examined the relationship between insomnia and suicidality. The current exploratory study examined the relationship of circadian rhythm dysregulation (eveningness, seasonality, and rhythmicity) with suicidality. METHODS: We examined the association of insomnia, eveningness, seasonality, and rhythmicity with suicidal ideation in 103 participants with depression, insomnia, and suicidality within a larger 8-week double-blinded randomized control trial primarily examining whether cautious use of zolpidem extended-release or placebo reduced suicidal ideation. All participants additionally received an open-label selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Methodological strengths of the current analyses included consideration of multiple sleep-wake constructs, adjustment for relevant covariates, investigation of relationships over the course of treatment, and use of both self-report measures and objective measurement with actigraphy. RESULTS: Over the course of treatment, self-reported eveningness and greater insomnia severity were independently correlated with greater suicidal ideation, whereas actigraphic delayed sleep timing was related to suicidal ideation at a trend level. At the end of treatment, those with greater suicidal ideation demonstrated lower actigraphic activity levels. There were no significant relationships between self-reported seasonality and actigraphic measures of sleep disturbance and suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported delays in sleep timing, objectively lower activity levels, and self-reported insomnia severity correlated independently with greater suicidal ideation in those with depression, insomnia, and suicidality. These exploratory findings highlight the need to consider sleep-wake constructs more broadly in those with suicidality in future research studies in order to improve more definitively both assessment and intervention efforts. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Name: Reducing Suicidal Ideation through Insomnia Treatment; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01689909; Identifier: NCT01689909 Rumble ME, McCall MV, Dickson DA, Krystal AD, Rosenquist PB, Benca RM. An exploratory analysis of the association of circadian rhythm dysregulation and insomnia with suicidal ideation over the course of treatment in individuals with depression, insomnia, and suicidal ideation. J Clin Sleep Med. 2020;16(8):XXX-XXX.

7.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(3): 304-316, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited information regarding the tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with pharmacotherapy in elderly adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Addressing this gap, we report acute neurocognitive outcomes from Phase 1 of the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study. METHODS: Elderly adults (age ≥60) with MDD received an acute course of 6 times seizure threshold right unilateral ultrabrief pulse (RUL-UB) ECT. Venlafaxine was initiated during the first treatment week and continued throughout the study. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and 72 hours following the last ECT session. Statistical significance was defined as a two-sided p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 240 elderly adults were enrolled. Neurocognitive performance acutely declined post ECT on measures of psychomotor and verbal processing speed, autobiographical memory consistency, short-term verbal recall and recognition of learned words, phonemic fluency, and complex visual scanning/cognitive flexibility. The magnitude of change from baseline to end for most neurocognitive measures was modest. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterize the neurocognitive effects of combined RUL-UB ECT and venlafaxine in elderly adults with MDD and provides new evidence for the tolerability of RUL-UB ECT in an elderly sample. Of the cognitive domains assessed, only phonemic fluency, complex visual scanning, and cognitive flexibility qualitatively declined from low average to mildly impaired. While some acute changes in neurocognitive performance were statistically significant, the majority of the indices as based on the effect sizes remained relatively stable.

8.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(11): 957-965, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether targeted treatment of insomnia with controlled-release zolpidem (zolpidem-CR) in suicidal adults with insomnia would provide a reduction in suicidal ideation superior to placebo. METHODS: Reducing Suicidal Ideation Through Insomnia Treatment was an 8-week three-site double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group randomized controlled trial of zolpidem-CR hypnotic therapy compared with placebo, in conjunction with an open-label selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Participants were medication-free 18- to 65-year-olds with major depressive disorder, insomnia, and suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was the main outcome, measured first by the Scale for Suicide Ideation and second by the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). RESULTS: A total of 103 participants were randomly assigned to receive zolpidem-CR (N=51) or placebo (N=52) (64 women and 39 men; mean age=40.5 years). Zolpidem-CR had a robust anti-insomnia effect, especially in patients with the most severe insomnia symptoms. No significant treatment effect was observed on the Scale for Suicide Ideation (least squares mean estimate=-0.56, SE=0.83, 95% CI=-2.19, 1.08), but the reduction in scores was significantly positively related to improvement in insomnia after accounting for the effect of other depression symptoms. The C-SSRS indicated that zolpidem-CR had a significant treatment effect (least squares mean estimate=-0.26, SE=0.12, 95% CI=-0.50, -0.02). The advantage for zolpidem-CR in reducing suicidal ideation on the C-SSRS was greater in patients with more severe insomnia. No deaths or suicide attempts occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results do not support the routine prescription of hypnotic medication for mitigating suicidal ideation in all depressed outpatients with insomnia, they suggest that coprescription of a hypnotic during initiation of an antidepressant may be beneficial in suicidal outpatients, especially in patients with severe insomnia.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Ideação Suicida , Zolpidem/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Heliyon ; 5(5): e01709, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193114

RESUMO

Overactivity of the noradrenergic (NE) system within the central nervous system (CNS) has been postulated as a key pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The activity of the enzyme salivary α-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as an indirect measure of CNS NE activity, and sAA is elevated in PTSD. As an antagonist of the α-1 NE receptor, prazosin would be expected to alter sAA values in PTSD patients. However, given its short half-life, it is not clear whether bedtime doses would have an effect on daytime sAA. In the present study, we assayed daytime sAA in 20 suicidal PTSD patients who were randomized to prazosin versus placebo at bedtime-only, and found no effect in daytime sAA. These findings are consistent with studies showing an advantage for twice daily dosing of prazosin in PTSD.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 116: 147-150, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238203

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the rate of previously undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of suicidal patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). One hundred and twenty-five suicidal adults with MDD were recruited into a RCT. None were suspected to have OSA. Fourteen percent met diagnostic criteria for OSA. The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) was predicted by increasing age, male sex, and higher Body Mass Index. However, neither the degree of daytime sleepiness nor the degree of insomnia predicted AHI severity. A high degree of suspicion is warranted for OSA in suicidal patients with MDD, and for patients with treatment-resistant depression. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01689909.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
12.
Brain Sci ; 9(5)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035665

RESUMO

Background: Although treatment guidelines support use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for acute suicidality, it is associated with cognitive side effects. The effect of Low Amplitude Seizure Therapy (LAP-ST) on suicidality is unknown. Our prior precision LAP-ST (pLAP-ST) performing titrating in the current domain has provided initial proof of concept data in humans of its advantage in terms of reduction of cognitive side effects. The aims of this report are to: 1) compare LAP-ST (at 500mA) versus standard Right Unilateral (RUL) ECT (at 900 mA) in terms of magnitude of remission of suicidality in a randomized allocation and 2) compare the speed of remission of suicidality between LAP-ST versus RUL ECT. Methods: Patients were randomized to either LAP-ST or RUL ECT. The scores pertaining to the suicidal ideation (SI) item on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were analyzed using descriptive analysis and no confirmatory statistical analysis was performed due to a priori sample size limitations for this pilot study. SI item remission was defined as 2 or below on this item. Results: Eleven patients with major depressive episode (MDE) of mainly unipolar or bipolar disorders signed consent. Of these, 7 were eligible and were randomized and included in the analysis; all were actively suicidal at baseline (suicide item above 2), except 1 patient who had suicide item at 2 in the RUL ECT group. Suicidality remitted on average by session 3 and remission occurred for all patients by session 4. The SI mean score improvement from baseline to endpoint for LAP-ST was 5.1 and for RUL ECT was 3.0. Conclusions: LAP-ST has larger effect size and speed of remission of suicidality compared to standard RUL ECT. Future studies are warranted for replicating these findings. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02583490).

15.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 38(6): 618-621, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335633

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Observational studies show an association between nightmares and suicide. Prazosin is proposed as a nightmare treatment. This pilot, randomized clinical trial tested whether treatment of nightmares with prazosin would reduce suicidal ideas in suicidal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Twenty adult, suicidal PTSD patients with nightmares were blindly and randomly assigned 1:1 to escalating doses of prazosin versus placebo at bedtime only for 8 weeks. All participants had comorbid mood disorders and received stable doses of mood disorder medication. Outcomes of interest were measured weekly and included severity of suicidal ideation, nightmares, PTSD, insomnia, and depression. Longitudinal mixed-effects models assessed change in outcomes over time. FINDINGS/RESULTS: All psychometric measures improved over 8 weeks. However, nighttime measures of nightmares and insomnia showed significantly less improvement in the prazosin group, whereas there was no significant change in daytime measures of suicidal ideation and daytime-only PTSD symptoms. Two patients required emergency psychiatric hospitalization, but there were no suicide attempts and no deaths. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed an effect of nighttime-only prazosin on nighttime symptoms of insomnia and nightmares in suicidal PTSD patients who are experiencing nightmares. Surprisingly, the effect was in the direction opposite of what we expected. Furthermore, prazosin showed no signal on daytime measures including suicidal ideation. The results do not support a larger study of nighttime-only prazosin in suicidal PTSD patients but leave open the possibility of benefit from daytime administration of prazosin.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/farmacologia , Sonhos/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prazosina/farmacologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Ideação Suicida , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prazosina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações
16.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 41(3): 355-371, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098650

RESUMO

The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for those suffering from major depressive disorder is well-evidenced, time-honored, and recognized by most treatment guidelines. However, since its inception ECT has been used by practitioners for a broader range of neuropsychiatric conditions. This article reviews the highly variable evidence supporting the use of ECT in conditions other than depression, such as schizophrenia, bipolar manic states, catatonia, Parkinson disease, and post-traumatic stress disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Catatonia/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Humanos
17.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(2)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antidepressant medications have a variety of effects on sleep, apart from their antidepressant effects. It is unknown whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has effects on perceived sleep in depressed patients. This secondary analysis examines the effects of ECT on perceived sleep, separate from its antidepressant effects. METHODS: Elderly patients with major depressive disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, received open-label high-dose, right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, combined with venlafaxine, as part of participating in phase 1 of the National Institute of Mental Health-supported study Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE). Phase 1 of PRIDE participant enrollment period extended from February 2009 to August 2014. Depression severity was measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 item (HDRS24), and measures of insomnia severity were extracted from the HDRS24. Participants were characterized at baseline as either "high-insomnia" or "low-insomnia" subtypes, based upon the sum of the 3 HDRS24 sleep items as either 4-6 or 0-3, respectively. Insomnia scores were followed during ECT and were adjusted for the sum of all the HDRS24 non-sleep items. Generalized linear models were used for longitudinal analysis of insomnia scores. RESULTS: Two hundred forty patients participated, with 48.3% in the high-insomnia and 51.7% in the low-insomnia group. Although there was a reduction in the insomnia scores in the high-insomnia group, only 12.4% of them experienced remission of insomnia after a course of ECT, despite an increase in utilization of sleep aids across the course of ECT, from 8.6% to 23.2%. The degree of improvement in insomnia symptoms paralleled the degree of improvement in non-insomnia symptoms. A "low" amount of improvement on the sum of the HDRS non-insomnia items (HDRS-sleep) was accompanied by a "low" amount of improvement in insomnia scores (change of -1.6 ± 1.2, P < .0001), while a "high" amount of improvement on the sum of the HDRS non-insomnia items was accompanied by a "higher" amount of improvement in insomnia scores (change of -3.1 ± 1.6, P < .0001). After adjustment for non-insomnia symptoms, there was no change in insomnia in the low-insomnia group. CONCLUSIONS: We found that ECT, combined with venlafaxine, has a modest anti-insomnia effect that is linked to its antidepressant effect. Most patients will have some degree of residual insomnia after ECT, and will require some consideration of whether additional, targeted assessment and treatment of insomnia is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01028508.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina , Idoso , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/efeitos adversos
18.
J Affect Disord ; 227: 721-730, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data have demonstrated seasonal and circadian patterns of suicidal deaths. Several reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed the relationship between sleep disturbance and suicidality. However, these reviews/meta-analyses have not focused on seasonal and circadian dysfunction in relation to suicidality, despite the common presence of this dysfunction in patients with mood disorders. Thus, the current literature review analyzed studies investigating person-specific chronotype, seasonality, and rhythmicity in relation to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. METHODS: Study authors reviewed articles related to individual-level chronotype, seasonality, and rhythmicity and suicidality that were written in English and not case reports or reviews. RESULTS: This review supports a relationship between an eveningness chronotype, greater seasonality, and decreased rhythmicity with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in those with unipolar depression, as well as in other psychiatric disorders and in children/adolescents. LIMITATIONS: These findings need to be explored more fully in mood disordered populations and other psychiatric populations, in both adults and children, with objective measurement such as actigraphy, and with chronotype, seasonality, and rhythmicity as well as broader sleep disturbance measurement all included so the construct(s) most strongly linked to suicidality can be best identified. CONCLUSIONS: Eveningness, greater seasonality, and less rhythmicity should be considered in individuals who may be at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors and may be helpful in further tailoring assessment and treatment to improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Actigrafia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Ideação Suicida
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 97: 65-69, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195125

RESUMO

We examined whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plus medications ("STABLE + PHARM" group) had superior HRQOL compared with medications alone ("PHARM" group) as continuation strategy after successful acute right unilateral ECT for major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) would be higher during continuation treatment in the "STABLE + PHARM" group versus the "PHARM" group. The overall study design was called "Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly" (PRIDE). Remitters to the acute course of ECT were re-consented to enter a 6 month RCT of "STABLE + PHARM" versus "PHARM". Measures of depressive symptoms and cognitive function were completed by blind raters; SF-36 measurements were patient self-report every 4 weeks. Participants were 120 patients >60 years old. Patients with dementia, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or substance abuse were excluded. The "PHARM" group received venlafaxine and lithium. The "STABLE + PHARM" received the same medications, plus 4 weekly outpatient ECT sessions, with additional ECT session as needed. Participants were mostly female (61.7%) with a mean age of 70.5 ± 7.2 years. "STABLE + PHARM" patients received 4.5 ± 2.5 ECT sessions during Phase 2. "STABLE + PHARM" group had 7 point advantage (3.5-10.4, 95% CI) for Physical Component Score of SF-36 (P < 0.0001), and 8.2 point advantage (4.2-12.2, 95% CI) for Mental Component Score (P < 0.0001). Additional ECT resulted in overall net health benefit. Consideration should be given to administration of additional ECT to prevent relapse during the continuation phase of treatment of MDD. CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV: NCT01028508.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
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