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1.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-intensity statins, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and antiplatelet agents (ie, intensive medical management) reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk after myocardial infarction (MI). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the risk of CHD events or death despite receiving intensive medical management after MI. METHODS: We studied 16,853 United States adults with health insurance in the MarketScan and Medicare databases who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention while hospitalized for MI between January 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 and received intensive medical management within 30 days after hospital discharge. MI, CHD, and all-cause mortality rates from 30 days after hospital discharge through December 31, 2015 were compared with 67,412 individuals in each of three groups: (1) the general MarketScan and Medicare populations, (2) with diabetes, and (3) with a CHD history. RESULTS: Among beneficiaries intensively medically managed after their MI, recurrent MI, CHD events, and all-cause mortality rates were 47.1, 72.0, and 57.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) comparing intensively medically managed beneficiaries after MI to the general population, those with diabetes, and those with a history of CHD were 8.54 (7.52-9.70), 7.40 (6.61-8.28), and 5.45 (4.92-6.05), respectively, for recurrent MI; 7.82 (7.07-8.64), 6.27 (5.74-6.86), and 4.45 (4.10-4.82), respectively, for CHD events; and 1.15 (1.05-1.25), 1.05 (0.97-1.14), and 1.06 (0.97-1.15), respectively, for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Substantial residual risk for MI and CHD events remains despite intensive medical management after MI.

3.
Am Heart J ; 219: 70-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for managing patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) recommend statin therapy initially. Target levels/goals for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were initially included, subsequently de-emphasized in 2013, and then re-introduced as thresholds, leading to confusion in clinical practice. We designed a multicenter, observational registry of patients with ASCVD, to describe and track LDL-C treatment patterns in the United States over time. METHODS: Patients with ASCVD receiving any pharmacologic lipid-lowering therapy were eligible for enrollment in one of three cohorts: 1) currently receiving a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i), or not receiving PCSK9i with 2) LDL-C 70-99 mg/dL, or 3) LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Patients undergo a 1-year retrospective chart review, followed by chart reviews and phone interviews every 6 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 5006 patients were enrolled at 119 centers. Mean age was 68 years, 40% of patients were female, 86% were white, 80% had coronary artery disease, and 33% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among those not on a PCSK9i, high-intensity statins and ezetimibe were utilized in only 44% and 9%, respectively. Among women vs men, only 36.6% vs 48.2% received high-intensity statins (P < .001). Among patients on a PCSK9i, only one-third were receiving a statin, suggesting statin intolerance is a driver of PCSK9i use at present. CONCLUSION: Our data on current practice in the US continue to illustrate that high-intensity statins and ezetimibe are underutilized in at-risk patients outside of clinical trials, particularly women. This study will track temporal changes in treatment patterns and identify opportunities for improvement in lipid management in patients with ASCVD.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e013744, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880980

RESUMO

Background In the 2000s, adults with HIV had a higher risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) compared with those without HIV. There is uncertainty if this excess risk still exists in the United States given changes in antiretroviral therapies and increased statin use. Methods and Results We compared the risk for ASCVD events between US adults aged ≥19 years with and without HIV who had commercial or supplemental Medicare health insurance between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2016. Beneficiaries with HIV (n=82 426) were frequency matched 1:4 on age, sex, and calendar year to those without HIV (n=329 704). Beneficiaries with and without HIV were followed up through December 31, 2016, for ASCVD events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and lower extremity artery disease hospitalizations. Most beneficiaries were aged <55 years (79%) and men (84%). Over a median follow-up of 1.6 years (maximum, 6 years), there were 3287 ASCVD events, 2190 myocardial infarctions, 891 strokes, and 322 lower extremity artery disease events. The rate per 1000 person-years among beneficiaries with and without HIV was 5.53 and 3.49 for ASCVD, respectively, 3.58 and 2.34 for myocardial infarction, respectively, 1.49 and 0.94 for stroke, respectively, and 0.65 and 0.31 for lower extremity artery disease hospitalizations, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for ASCVD, myocardial infarction, stroke, and lower extremity artery disease hospitalizations comparing beneficiaries with versus without HIV was 1.29 (1.18-1.40), 1.26 (1.13-1.39), 1.30 (1.11-1.52), and 1.46 (1.11-1.92), respectively. Conclusions Adults with HIV in the United States continue to have a higher ASCVD risk compared with their counterparts without HIV.

5.
Am Heart J ; 220: 203-212, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are at higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) due to traditional and HIV- or antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related risk factors. The use of high-intensity statin therapy is often limited by comorbidities and drug-drug interactions with ART. Herein, we present the design and baseline characteristics of the BEIJERINCK study, which will assess the safety and efficacy of evolocumab in PLHIV and hypercholesterolemia/mixed dyslipidemia. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational trial that investigates monthly subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg versus placebo in PLHIV with hypercholesterolemia/mixed dyslipidemia who are treated with maximally-tolerated statin therapy. The primary outcome is the baseline to week 24 percent change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Secondary outcomes include achievement of LDL-C < 70 mg/dL and percent change in other plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. Safety will also be examined. RESULTS: This study enrolled and dosed 464 patients who had a mean age of 56.4 years and were mostly male (82.5%). Mean duration with HIV was 17.4 years, and, by design, HIV viral load at screening was ≤50 copies/mL. ASCVD was documented in 35.6% of patients. Mean LDL-C of enrolled patients at baseline was 133.3 mg/dL. Statin use was prevalent (79.3% overall) with 74.6% receiving moderate or high-intensity statins. In total, 20.7% of patients did not receive statins due to intolerance/contraindications. CONCLUSIONS: The BEIJERINCK study is the first clinical trial to examine the lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of a fully human PCSK9 monoclonal antibody inhibitor in a moderate/high cardiovascular risk population of PLHIV.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(20): 2496-2507, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) cholesterol guideline includes recommendations for intensive lipid-lowering therapy in patients at very high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate event rates among adults with a history of ASCVD who met and did not meet the definition of very high risk in the 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol guideline. METHODS: Data from U.S. adults with health insurance in the MarketScan database who had a history of ASCVD on January 1, 2016 (n = 27,775) were analyzed. Very high risk for ASCVD events was defined as a history of ≥2 major ASCVD events or 1 event and ≥2 high-risk conditions. Patients were followed through December 31, 2017, for ASCVD events, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and major adverse limb events. RESULTS: Overall, 15,366 patients (55.3%) with ASCVD met the definition of very high risk. Among patients with and without very high risk, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 53.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.1 to 56.1) and 17.0 (95% CI: 15.2 to 18.9), respectively. Among patients with ≥2 major ASCVD events and with 1 event and ≥2 high-risk conditions, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 89.8 (95% CI: 82.2 to 98.0) and 41.3 (95% CI: 38.3 to 44.4), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios for ASCVD events among patients with very high risk, overall, with ≥2 major ASCVD events and with 1 event and ≥2 high-risk conditions versus those without very high risk were 2.98 (95% CI: 2.63 to 3.37), 4.89 (95% CI: 4.22 to 5.66), and 2.33 (95% CI: 2.04 to 2.66), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol guideline directs intensive lipid-lowering therapy to adults with a very high ASCVD event rate.

7.
J Lipid Res ; 60(11): 1946-1952, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511398

RESUMO

The pharmacologic inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) lowers lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] concentrations. However, the impact of genetic PCSK9 loss-of-function variants (LOFVs) on Lp(a) is uncertain. We determined the association of PCSK9 LOFVs with Lp(a) measures among black adults. Genotyping for PCSK9 LOFVs was conducted in 10,196 black Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study participants. Among 241 participants with and 723 randomly selected participants without PCSK9 LOFVs, Lp(a) concentations, apo(a) kringle IV (KIV) repeats (a proxy for isoform size), and oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) apoB levels were measured using validated methods. Median Lp(a) concentrations among participants with and without PCSK9 LOFVs were 63.2 and 80.4 nmol/l, respectively (P = 0.016). After adjusting for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL cholesterol, and statin use, participants with versus without a PCSK9 LOFV had a lower median Lp(a) concentration [Δ = -18.8 nmol/l (95% CI: -34.2, -3.3)]. Median apo(a) isoform sizes were 24 and 23 KIV repeats (P = 0.12) among participants with and without PCSK9 LOFVs, respectively [Δ = 1.1 (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0) after adjustment]. Median OxPL-apoB levels among participants with and without PCSK9 LOFVs were 3.4 and 4.1 nM (P = 0.20), respectively [Δ = -1.2 nM (95% CI -2.4, -0.04) after adjustment]. Among black adults, PCSK9 LOFVs were associated with lower Lp(a) concentration and OxPL-apoB levels.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270529

RESUMO

AIMS: The effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy with alirocumab or evolocumab on individual clinical efficacy and safety endpoints remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of alirocumab and evolocumab in patients with dyslipidaemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment with alirocumab or evolocumab vs. placebo or other lipid-lowering therapies up to March 2018. Primary efficacy endpoints were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. We estimated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random effect models. We included 39 RCTs comprising 66 478 patients of whom 35 896 were treated with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors (14 639 with alirocumab and 21 257 with evolocumab) and 30 582 with controls. Mean weighted follow-up time across trials was 2.3 years with an exposure time of 150 617 patient-years. Overall, the effects of PCSK9 inhibition on all-cause death and cardiovascular death were not statistically significant (P = 0.15 and P = 0.34, respectively). Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitors were associated with lower risk of MI (1.49 vs. 1.93 per 100 patient-year; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.86; I2 = 0%; P < 0.0001), ischaemic stroke (0.44 vs. 0.58 per 100 patient-year; RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.89; I2 = 0%; P = 0.0005), and coronary revascularization (2.16 vs. 2.64 per 100 patient-year; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.89; I2 = 0%; P < 0.0001), compared with the control group. Use of these PCSK9 inhibitors was not associated with increased risk of neurocognitive adverse events (P = 0.91), liver enzymes elevations (P = 0.34), rhabdomyolysis (P = 0.58), or new-onset diabetes mellitus (P = 0.97). CONCLUSION: Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibition with alirocumab or evolocumab was associated with lower risk of MI, stroke, and coronary revascularization, with favourable safety profile.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339519

RESUMO

Importance: High-intensity statin use after myocardial infarction (MI) varies by patient characteristics, but little is known about differences in use by hospital or region. Objective: To explore the relative strength of associations of region and hospital and patient characteristics with high-intensity statin use after MI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort analysis used Medicare administrative claims and enrollment data to evaluate fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries 66 years or older who were hospitalized for MI from January 1, 2011, through June 30, 2015, with a statin prescription claim within 30 days of discharge. Data were analyzed from January 4, 2017, through May 12, 2019. Exposures: Beneficiary characteristics were abstracted from Medicare data. Hospital characteristics were obtained from the 2014 American Hospital Association Survey and Hospital Compare quality metrics. Nine regions were defined according to the US Census. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intensity of the first statin claim after discharge characterized as high (atorvastatin calcium, 40-80 mg, or rosuvastatin calcium, 20-40 mg/d) vs low to moderate (all other statin types and doses). Trends in high-intensity statins were examined from 2011 through 2015. Associations of region and beneficiary and hospital characteristics with high-intensity statin use from January 1, 2014, to June 15, 2015, were examined using Poisson distribution mixed models. Results: Among the 139 643 fee-for-service beneficiaries included (69 968 men [50.1%] and 69 675 women [49.9%]; mean [SD] age, 76.7 [7.5] years), high-intensity statin use overall increased from 23.4% in 2011 to 55.6% in 2015, but treatment gaps persisted across regions. In models considering region and beneficiary and hospital characteristics, region was the strongest correlate of high-intensity statin use, with 66% higher use in New England than in the West South Central region (risk ratio [RR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.47-1.87). Hospital size of at least 500 beds (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23), medical school affiliation (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17), male sex (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.13), and patient receipt of a stent (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.31-1.39) were associated with greater high-intensity statin use. For-profit hospital ownership, patient age older than 75 years, prior coronary disease, and other comorbidities were associated with lower use. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that geographic region is the strongest correlate of high-intensity statin use after MI, leading to large treatment disparities.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 548-549, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172168
13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 77, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular blood flow (MBF) impairment in patients with lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) is associated with more severe major adverse limb events (MALE). The contribution of ticagrelor, a P2Y12 antagonist and an adenosine enhancer, on blood viscosity (BV) and BV-dependent MBF in LEAD is unknown. The aim of the trial is to investigate the effects of ticagrelor on BV, and explore the association of BV-dependent MBF in participants with LEAD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover trial design that compares treatment with aspirin 81 mg/ticagrelor placebo, aspirin 81 mg/ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily and aspirin placebo/ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily on high-shear (300 s-1) and low-shear (5 s-1) BV, and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in the dorsum of the feet of participants with T2DM. RESULTS: We randomized 70 (45% female) participants aged (mean ± SD) 72 ± 9 years. The duration of LEAD was 12.3 ± 10.3 years, and 96.9% reported intermittent claudication symptoms. Use of statins was 93% (high-intensity 43%, moderate intensity 49%), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (75%) and beta-blockers (61%). Treatment with ticagrelor with or without aspirin reduced high-shear BV by 5%, in both cases, while aspirin monotherapy increased high-shear BV by 3.4% (p < 0.0001). Ticagrelor with or without aspirin reduced low-shear BV by 14.2% and 13.9% respectively, while aspirin monotherapy increased low-shear BV by 9.3% (p < 0.0001). The combination of ticagrelor and aspirin increased MBF in the left foot compared to the other two treatments (p = 0.02), but not in the right foot (p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Ticagrelor should be considered in the treatment of microvascular disease in patients with LEAD and T2DM. Trial registration Registration number: NCT02325466, registration date: December 25, 2014.


Assuntos
Viscosidade Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319848214, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084259

RESUMO

The measurement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is highly utilized by clinicians to help predict cardiovascular risk, but this measure is not causally associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. The use of Mendelian randomization studies has led to a change in investigative attention from the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration to its physiological functions. High-density lipoprotein plays key roles in important pathways related to the development of atherosclerotic disease including reverse cholesterol transport, oxidation and inflammation, and endothelial function as well as in other physiological systems including immune system modulation, cellular apoptosis, and endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis. The identification of dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein may better predict future cardiovascular events compared to numerical high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and aid in enhanced clinical risk stratification. The emergence of discrete physiological measurements of high-density lipoprotein, such as cholesterol efflux capacity and the high-density lipoprotein inflammatory index, may provide an opportunity for clinical application in the future. However, the validity of these measurements and their commercial availability remain barriers to a realistic transition to clinical medicine.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(16): 2036-2045, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns and associations with incident heart failure (HF) are not well established in the United States. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine associations of 5 dietary patterns with incident HF hospitalizations among U.S. adults. METHODS: The REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) trial is a prospective cohort of black and white adults followed from 2003 to 2007 through 2014. Inclusion criteria included completion of a food frequency questionnaire and no baseline coronary heart disease or HF. Five dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets, Southern, and alcohol/salads) were derived from principal component analysis. The primary endpoint was incident HF hospitalization. RESULTS: This study included 16,068 participants (mean age 64.0 ± 9.1 years, 58.7% women, 33.6% black participants, 34.0% residents of the stroke belt). After a median of 8.7 years of follow-up, 363 participants had incident HF hospitalizations. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of adherence to the plant-based dietary pattern was associated with a 41% lower risk of HF in multivariable-adjusted models (hazard ratio: 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.86; p = 0.004). Highest adherence to the Southern dietary pattern was associated with a 72% higher risk of HF after adjusting for age, sex, and race and for other potential confounders (education, income, region of residence, total energy intake, smoking, physical activity, and sodium intake; hazard ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 to 2.46; p = 0.005). However, the association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after further adjusting for body mass index in kg/m2, waist circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney disease. No statistically significant associations were observed with incident HF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction hospitalizations and the dietary patterns. No associations were observed with the other 3 dietary patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a plant-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with incident HF risk, whereas the Southern dietary pattern was positively associated with incident HF risk.

16.
Diabetologia ; 62(6): 948-958, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953107

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The study aimed to examine the efficacy of 12 weeks of monthly evolocumab or placebo in lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in individuals with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia and on a maximum-tolerated statin of at least moderate intensity. METHODS: For this randomised, placebo-controlled outpatient study, eligible individuals were ≥18 years old with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c <10% (86 mmol/mol), had been on stable pharmacological therapy for diabetes for ≥6 months and were taking a maximum-tolerated statin dose of at least moderate intensity. Lipid eligibility criteria varied by history of clinical cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomised 2:1 to evolocumab 420 mg s.c. or placebo. Randomisation was performed centrally via an interactive web-based or voice recognition system. Allocation was concealed using the centralised randomisation process. Treatment assignment was blinded to the sponsor study team, investigators, site staff and patients throughout the study. Co-primary endpoints were mean percentage change in LDL-C from baseline to week 12 and to the mean of weeks 10 and 12. Additional endpoints included LDL-C <1.81 mmol/l, LDL-C reduction ≥50% and other lipids. Exploratory analyses included percentage changes in fasting and post mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) lipoproteins and lipids, glucose metabolism variables and inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: In total, 421 individuals were randomised and analysed, having received evolocumab (280 participants) or placebo (141 participants) (mean [SD] age 62 [8] years; 44% women; 77% white). Evolocumab decreased LDL-C by 54.3% (1.4%) at week 12 (vs 1.1% [1.9%] decrease with placebo; p < 0.0001) and by 65.0% (1.3%) at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 (vs 0.8% [1.8%] decrease with placebo; p < 0.0001); it also decreased non-HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) by 46.9% (1.3%) at week 12 (vs 0.6% [1.8%] decrease with placebo) and by 56.6% (1.2%) at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 (vs 0.1% [1.6%] decrease with placebo). Evolocumab significantly improved levels of other lipids and allowed more participants to reach LDL-C <1.81 mmol/l or a reduction in LDL-C levels ≥50%. After an MMTT (120 min), there were favourable changes (p < 0.05; nominal, post hoc, no multiplicity adjustment) in chylomicron triacylglycerol (triglycerides), chylomicron cholesterol, VLDL-C and LDL-C. Evolocumab had no effect on glycaemic variables and was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In statin-treated individuals with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia, evolocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and non-HDL-C. Favourable changes (p < 0.05) were observed in postprandial levels of chylomicrons, VLDL-C and LDL-C. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02739984 FUNDING: This study was funded by Amgen Inc. DATA AVAILABILITY: Qualified researchers may request data from Amgen clinical studies. Complete details are available at www.amgen.com/datasharing .


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Eur Heart J ; 40(25): 2058-2073, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815669

RESUMO

Deep learning (DL) is a branch of machine learning (ML) showing increasing promise in medicine, to assist in data classification, novel disease phenotyping and complex decision making. Deep learning is a form of ML typically implemented via multi-layered neural networks. Deep learning has accelerated by recent advances in computer hardware and algorithms and is increasingly applied in e-commerce, finance, and voice and image recognition to learn and classify complex datasets. The current medical literature shows both strengths and limitations of DL. Strengths of DL include its ability to automate medical image interpretation, enhance clinical decision-making, identify novel phenotypes, and select better treatment pathways in complex diseases. Deep learning may be well-suited to cardiovascular medicine in which haemodynamic and electrophysiological indices are increasingly captured on a continuous basis by wearable devices as well as image segmentation in cardiac imaging. However, DL also has significant weaknesses including difficulties in interpreting its models (the 'black-box' criticism), its need for extensive adjudicated ('labelled') data in training, lack of standardization in design, lack of data-efficiency in training, limited applicability to clinical trials, and other factors. Thus, the optimal clinical application of DL requires careful formulation of solvable problems, selection of most appropriate DL algorithms and data, and balanced interpretation of results. This review synthesizes the current state of DL for cardiovascular clinicians and investigators, and provides technical context to appreciate the promise, pitfalls, near-term challenges, and opportunities for this exciting new area.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(8): 1202-1207, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736965

RESUMO

In a population with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, previous research indicated that approximately 86% can achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of <70 mg/dL with oral lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) only, whereas 14% would require a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor. We aim to estimate these values accounting for varying levels of statin intolerance. A simulation model described previously was used to estimate the utilization of LLT needed to achieve LDL-C <70 mg/dL via an intensification algorithm which maximized statins before adding ezetimibe or a PCSK9 inhibitor. The current analysis took into account varying background rates of statin intolerance. We defined statin intolerance as either partial (inability to tolerate high-intensity statin) or full (inability to tolerate any statin). With treatment intensification and 10% of patients having partial statin intolerance, the use of ezetimibe (± statin ± PCSK9 inhibitor) increased from 32.7% to 34.9%, and the need for a PCSK9 inhibitor (+ ezetimibe ± statin) increased from 14.0% to 15.5%. If, instead, 10% were fully statin intolerant, the use of ezetimibe (± statin ± PCSK9 inhibitor) increased from 32.7% to 38.5%, and the use of a PCSK9 inhibitor (+ ezetimibe ± statin) increased from 14.0% to 19.7%. In conclusion, in our simulation-based study, partial statin intolerance increased the need for nonstatins only modestly (by an absolute 2.2%), whereas having 10% of patients with full statin intolerance increased the need for PCSK9 inhibitors from 14% overall to approximately 20%.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210808, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels have been associated with adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized for sepsis. PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants area associated with lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Decreased LDL-C is a biomarker of acute and chronic infection and sepsis risk. We examined the association between presence of two genetic PCSK9 LOF variants and risk of infection and sepsis in community-dwelling adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from 10,924 Black participants tested for PCSK9 LOF variants in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for a serious infection. Within serious infection hospitalizations, we defined sepsis as ≥2 system inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Using multivariable Cox and logistic regression, we investigated the association between LOF variants and hospitalization for infection and sepsis events, adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, chronic medical conditions and select biomarkers. RESULTS: Among 10,924 Black participants, PCSK9 LOF variants were present in 244 (2.2%). Serious infection hospitalizations occurred in 779 participants (14 with PCSK9 variants and 765 without). The presence of PCSK9 variants was not associated with infection risk (adjusted HR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.38-1.25). Among participants hospitalized for a serious infection, the presence of PCSK9 variants was not associated with sepsis (adjusted OR 7.31; 95% CI = 0.91-58.7). CONCLUSIONS: PCSK9 LOF variants are not associated with increased risk of hospitalization for a serious infection. Among those hospitalized for a serious infection, PCSK9 LOF variants was not associated with odds of sepsis.


Assuntos
Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Sepse/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/genética , Sepse/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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