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1.
Radiother Oncol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838170

RESUMO

AIM: To identify the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions on the risk of toxicity following radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa) and propose a new method for polygenic risk score incorporating SNP-SNP interactions (PRSi). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis included the REQUITE PCa cohort that received external beam RT and was followed for 2 years. Late toxicity endpoints were: rectal bleeding, urinary frequency, haematuria, nocturia, decreased urinary stream. Among 43 literature-identified SNPs, the 30% most strongly associated with each toxicity were tested. SNP-SNP combinations (named SNP-allele sets) seen in ≥10% of the cohort were condensed into risk (RS) and protection (PS) scores, respectively indicating increased or decreased toxicity risk. Performance of RS and PS was evaluated by logistic regression. RS and PS were then combined into a single PRSi evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Among 1,387 analysed patients, toxicity rates were 11.7% (rectal bleeding), 4.0% (urinary frequency), 5.5% (haematuria), 7.8% (nocturia) and 17.1% (decreased urinary stream). RS and PS combined 8 to 15 different SNP-allele sets, depending on the toxicity endpoint. Distributions of PRSi differed significantly in patients with/without toxicity with AUCs ranging from 0.61 to 0.78. PRSi was better than the classical summed PRS, particularly for the urinary frequency, haematuria and decreased urinary stream endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Our method incorporates SNP-SNP interactions when calculating PRS for radiotherapy toxicity. Our approach is better than classical summation in discriminating patients with toxicity and should enable incorporating genetic information to improve normal tissue complication probability models.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica , Autorrelato
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Advances in germline genetic testing have led to a surge in identification of ATM variant carriers among breast cancer patients, raising numerous questions regarding use of breast radiotherapy (RT) in this population. METHODS: A literature search utilizing PubMed identified articles assessing association(s) between germline ATM variant status and risk of toxicity following breast RT. An expert panel of breast radiation oncologists, genetic counselors and basic scientists convened to review the association between ATM variants and radiation-induced toxicity or secondary malignancy risk and determine any impact on breast RT recommendations. RESULTS: Carriers of pathogenic variants in ATM have a 2-4-fold increased risk for developing breast cancer. ATM variants do not consistently increase risk of toxicities following RT, except possibly among patients with the single nucleotide variant, c5557G>A (rs1801516) in whom a small increased risk for the development of both acute and late radiation effects has been identified. In most breast cancer patients with ATM variants, the excess 5-year absolute risk of developing a secondary contralateral breast cancer (CBC) following radiation is extremely low. The exception is in women younger than 45 years old with deleterious rare ATM missense variants, who may be at higher risk for developing a radiation-induced CBC over time. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant radiation is safe for most breast cancer patients who harbor ATM variants. The possible exceptions are patients with the variant c5557G>A (rs1801516) and patients younger than 45 years old with certain rare deleterious ATM variants who may be at higher risk for developing CBC. These latter patients should be counseled regarding this potential risk, and every effort should be made to minimize contralateral breast dose. However, the inconsistency of published data limits precise recommendations, magnifying the need for further prospective study and the development of a centralized database cataloging RT outcomes and genetic status.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

5.
Front Oncol ; 10: 575909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216838

RESUMO

Background: Acute skin toxicity is a common and usually transient side-effect of breast radiotherapy although, if sufficiently severe, it can affect breast cosmesis, aftercare costs and the patient's quality-of-life. The aim of this study was to develop predictive models for acute skin toxicity using published risk factors and externally validate the models in patients recruited into the prospective multi-center REQUITE (validating pREdictive models and biomarkers of radiotherapy toxicity to reduce side-effects and improve QUalITy of lifE in cancer survivors) study. Methods: Patient and treatment-related risk factors significantly associated with acute breast radiation toxicity on multivariate analysis were identified in the literature. These predictors were used to develop risk models for acute erythema and acute desquamation (skin loss) in three Radiogenomics Consortium cohorts of patients treated by breast-conserving surgery and whole breast external beam radiotherapy (n = 2,031). The models were externally validated in the REQUITE breast cancer cohort (n = 2,057). Results: The final risk model for acute erythema included BMI, breast size, hypo-fractionation, boost, tamoxifen use and smoking status. This model was validated in REQUITE with moderate discrimination (AUC 0.65), calibration and agreement between predicted and observed toxicity (Brier score 0.17). The risk model for acute desquamation, excluding the predictor tamoxifen use, failed to validate in the REQUITE cohort. Conclusions: While most published prediction research in the field has focused on model development, this study reports successful external validation of a predictive model using clinical risk factors for acute erythema following radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. This model retained discriminatory power but will benefit from further re-calibration. A similar model to predict acute desquamation failed to validate in the REQUITE cohort. Future improvements and more accurate predictions are expected through the addition of genetic markers and application of other modeling and machine learning techniques.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

7.
Front Oncol ; 10: 541281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178576

RESUMO

Background: REQUITE (validating pREdictive models and biomarkers of radiotherapy toxicity to reduce side effects and improve QUalITy of lifE in cancer survivors) is an international prospective cohort study. The purpose of this project was to analyse a cohort of patients recruited into REQUITE using a deep learning algorithm to identify patient-specific features associated with the development of toxicity, and test the approach by attempting to validate previously published genetic risk factors. Methods: The study involved REQUITE prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy who had complete 2-year follow-up. We used five separate late toxicity endpoints: ≥grade 1 late rectal bleeding, ≥grade 2 urinary frequency, ≥grade 1 haematuria, ≥ grade 2 nocturia, ≥ grade 1 decreased urinary stream. Forty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already reported in the literature to be associated with the toxicity endpoints were included in the analysis. No SNP had been studied before in the REQUITE cohort. Deep Sparse AutoEncoders (DSAE) were trained to recognize features (SNPs) identifying patients with no toxicity and tested on a different independent mixed population including patients without and with toxicity. Results: One thousand, four hundred and one patients were included, and toxicity rates were: rectal bleeding 11.7%, urinary frequency 4%, haematuria 5.5%, nocturia 7.8%, decreased urinary stream 17.1%. Twenty-four of the 43 SNPs that were associated with the toxicity endpoints were validated as identifying patients with toxicity. Twenty of the 24 SNPs were associated with the same toxicity endpoint as reported in the literature: 9 SNPs for urinary symptoms and 11 SNPs for overall toxicity. The other 4 SNPs were associated with a different endpoint. Conclusion: Deep learning algorithms can validate SNPs associated with toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The method should be studied further to identify polygenic SNP risk signatures for radiotherapy toxicity. The signatures could then be included in integrated normal tissue complication probability models and tested for their ability to personalize radiotherapy treatment planning.

8.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(5): 897-904, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083651

RESUMO

Purpose: A genetic test predicting susceptibility for the development of toxicities after prostate cancer radiation therapy is in development. This test intends to help physicians with treatment decision making. Methods and Materials: Radiation oncologists were surveyed using a web-based questionnaire to gauge their interest in using a genetic test predictive of increased risk of radiation therapy toxicities as an aid in determining therapy for men with prostate cancer. Responses were summarized using frequencies, and a χ2 test compared responses among participants. Multivariable ordinal regression identified factors associated with anticipated adoption or nonadoption of such a genetic test by radiation oncologists. Results: Among 204 radiation oncologists (64% from the United States, 36% from other countries), 86.3% would order a genetic test and 80.2% said the test would be useful for treatment discussions. There was wide acceptance (76.7%) to offer a genetic test to all patients considering radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Additionally, 98.1% indicated that patients would be receptive to the test information. There were no significant differences in the likelihood of ordering a genetic test based on practice setting, familiarity with scientific literature, time spent on research, or geographic location (all P > .05). Conclusions: Radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer are interested in and willing to order a genetic test predictive of susceptibility to radiation therapy toxicity to aid their treatment decision making.

9.
Brachytherapy ; 19(5): 567-573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763013

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brachytherapy boost improves biochemical recurrence rates in men with high-risk prostate cancer (HRPC). Few data are available on whether one isotope is superior to another. We compared the oncologic and morbidity outcomes of I-125 and Pd-103 in men with HRPC receiving brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Of 797 patients with HRPC, 190 (23.8%) received I-125 or 607 received Pd-103 with a median of 45 Gy of external beam irradiation. Freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastases (FFMs), cause-specific survival (CSS), and morbidity were compared for the two isotopes by the ANOVA and the χ2 test with survival determined by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. RESULTS: Men treated with I-125 had a higher stage (p < 0.001), biological equivalent dose (BED) (p < 0.001), and longer hormone therapy (neoadjuvant hormone therapy, p < 0.001), where men treated with Pd-103 had a higher Gleason score (GS, p < 0.001) and longer followup (median 8.3 vs. 5.3 years, p < 0.001). Ten-year FFBF, FFM, and CSS for I-125 vs. Pd-103 were 77.5 vs. 80.2% (p = 0.897), 94.7 vs. 91.9% (p = 0.017), and 95.4 vs. 91.8% (p = 0.346), respectively. Men with T3 had superior CSS (94.1 vs. 79.5%, p = 0.001) with I-125. Significant covariates by Cox regression for FFBF were prostate specific antigen (PSA), the GS, and the BED (p < 0.001), for FFM PSA (p < 0.001) and GS (p = 0.029), and for CSS PSA, the GS (p < 0.001) and the BED (p = 0.022). Prostate cancer mortality was 7/62 (15.6%) for BED ≤ 150 Gy, 18/229 (7.9%) for BED >150-200 Gy, and 20/470 (5.9%) for BED >200 Gy (p = 0.029). Long-term morbidity was not different for the two isotopes. CONCLUSIONS: Brachytherapy boost with I-125 and Pd-103 appears equally effective yielding 10-year CSS of over 90%. I-125 may have an advantage in T3 disease. Higher doses yield the most favorable survival.

10.
Med Phys ; 47(5): e203-e217, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418335

RESUMO

Machine learning (ML) provides a broad framework for addressing high-dimensional prediction problems in classification and regression. While ML is often applied for imaging problems in medical physics, there are many efforts to apply these principles to biological data toward questions of radiation biology. Here, we provide a review of radiogenomics modeling frameworks and efforts toward genomically guided radiotherapy. We first discuss medical oncology efforts to develop precision biomarkers. We next discuss similar efforts to create clinical assays for normal tissue or tumor radiosensitivity. We then discuss modeling frameworks for radiosensitivity and the evolution of ML to create predictive models for radiogenomics.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 179-190, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A total of 10%-20% of patients develop long-term toxicity following radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Identification of common genetic variants associated with susceptibility to radiotoxicity might improve risk prediction and inform functional mechanistic studies. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies (n = 3871) in men of European ancestry who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiotoxicities (increased urinary frequency, decreased urinary stream, hematuria, rectal bleeding) were graded prospectively. We used grouped relative risk models to test associations with approximately 6 million genotyped or imputed variants (time to first grade 2 or higher toxicity event). Variants with two-sided Pmeta less than 5 × 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Bayesian false discovery probability provided an additional measure of confidence. Statistically significant variants were evaluated in three Japanese cohorts (n = 962). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the European ancestry cohorts identified three genomic signals: single nucleotide polymorphism rs17055178 with rectal bleeding (Pmeta = 6.2 × 10-10), rs10969913 with decreased urinary stream (Pmeta = 2.9 × 10-10), and rs11122573 with hematuria (Pmeta = 1.8 × 10-8). Fine-scale mapping of these three regions was used to identify another independent signal (rs147121532) associated with hematuria (Pconditional = 4.7 × 10-6). Credible causal variants at these four signals lie in gene-regulatory regions, some modulating expression of nearby genes. Previously identified variants showed consistent associations (rs17599026 with increased urinary frequency, rs7720298 with decreased urinary stream, rs1801516 with overall toxicity) in new cohorts. rs10969913 and rs17599026 had similar effects in the photon-treated Japanese cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study increases the understanding of the architecture of common genetic variants affecting radiotoxicity, points to novel radio-pathogenic mechanisms, and develops risk models for testing in clinical studies. Further multinational radiogenomics studies in larger cohorts are worthwhile.

14.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(4): 698-712, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381960

RESUMO

The advent of affordable and rapid next-generation DNA sequencing technology, along with the US Supreme Court ruling invalidating gene patents, has led to a deluge of germline and tumor genetic variant tests that are being rapidly incorporated into clinical cancer decision-making. A major concern for clinicians is whether the presence of germline mutations may increase the risk of radiation toxicity or secondary malignancies. Because scarce clinical data exist to inform decisions at this time, the American Society for Radiation Oncology convened a group of radiation science experts and clinicians to summarize potential issues, review relevant data, and provide guidance for adult patients and their care teams regarding the impact, if any, that genetic testing should have on radiation therapy recommendations. During the American Society for Radiation Oncology workshop, several main points emerged, which are discussed in this manuscript: (1) variants of uncertain significance should be considered nondeleterious until functional genomic data emerge to demonstrate otherwise; (2) possession of germline alterations in a single copy of a gene critical for radiation damage responses does not necessarily equate to increased risk of radiation-induced toxicity; (3) deleterious ataxia-telangiesctasia gene mutations may modestly increase second cancer risk after radiation therapy, and thus follow-up for these patients after indicated radiation therapy should include second cancer screening; (4) conveying to patients the difference between relative and absolute risk is critical to decision-making; and (5) more work is needed to assess the impact of tumor somatic alterations on the probability of response to radiation therapy and the potential for individualization of radiation doses. Data on radiosensitivity related to specific genetic mutations is also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radio-Oncologistas , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Adulto , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Consenso , Reparo do DNA/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Síndrome , Terminologia como Assunto
16.
Radiother Oncol ; 138: 59-67, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: REQUITE aimed to establish a resource for multi-national validation of models and biomarkers that predict risk of late toxicity following radiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to provide summary descriptive data. METHODS: An international, prospective cohort study recruited cancer patients in 26 hospitals in eight countries between April 2014 and March 2017. Target recruitment was 5300 patients. Eligible patients had breast, prostate or lung cancer and planned potentially curable radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was prescribed according to local regimens, but centres used standardised data collection forms. Pre-treatment blood samples were collected. Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 (lung) or 24 (breast/prostate) months and summary descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: The study recruited 2069 breast (99% of target), 1808 prostate (86%) and 561 lung (51%) cancer patients. The centralised, accessible database includes: physician- (47,025 forms) and patient- (54,901) reported outcomes; 11,563 breast photos; 17,107 DICOMs and 12,684 DVHs. Imputed genotype data are available for 4223 patients with European ancestry (1948 breast, 1728 prostate, 547 lung). Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) assay data are available for 1319 patients. DNA (n = 4409) and PAXgene tubes (n = 3039) are stored in the centralised biobank. Example prevalences of 2-year (1-year for lung) grade ≥2 CTCAE toxicities are 13% atrophy (breast), 3% rectal bleeding (prostate) and 27% dyspnoea (lung). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive centralised database and linked biobank is a valuable resource for the radiotherapy community for validating predictive models and biomarkers. PATIENT SUMMARY: Up to half of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and irradiation of surrounding healthy tissue is unavoidable. Damage to healthy tissue can affect short- and long-term quality-of-life. Not all patients are equally sensitive to radiation "damage" but it is not possible at the moment to identify those who are. REQUITE was established with the aim of trying to understand more about how we could predict radiation sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and summary of the data and material available. In the REQUITE study 4400 breast, prostate and lung cancer patients filled out questionnaires and donated blood. A large amount of data was collected in the same way. With all these data and samples a database and biobank were created that showed it is possible to collect this kind of information in a standardised way across countries. In the future, our database and linked biobank will be a resource for research and validation of clinical predictors and models of radiation sensitivity. REQUITE will also enable a better understanding of how many people suffer with radiotherapy toxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 208-216, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centers with men ages 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: (i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); (ii) fatty acids and ratios; (iii) amino acids; (iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Metaboloma , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Reino Unido
18.
Int J Part Ther ; 5(1): 103-113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505881

RESUMO

Radiogenomics is the study of genomic factors that are associated with response to radiation therapy. In recent years, progress has been made toward identifying genetic risk factors linked with late radiation-induced adverse effects. These advances have been underpinned by the establishment of an international Radiogenomics Consortium with collaborative studies that expand cohort sizes to increase statistical power and efforts to improve methodologic approaches for radiogenomic research. Published studies have predominantly reported the results of research involving patients treated with photons using external beam radiation therapy. These studies demonstrate our ability to pool international cohorts to identify common single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with risk for developing normal tissue toxicities. Progress has also been achieved toward the discovery of genetic variants associated with radiation therapy-related subsequent malignancies. With the increasing use of charged particle therapy (CPT), there is a need to establish cohorts for patients treated with these advanced technology forms of radiation therapy and to create biorepositories with linked clinical data. While some genetic variants are likely to impact toxicity and second malignancy risks for both photons and charged particles, it is plausible that others may be specific to the radiation modality due to differences in their biological effects, including the complexity of DNA damage produced. In recognition that the formation of patient cohorts treated with CPT for radiogenomic studies is a high priority, efforts are underway to establish collaborations involving institutions treating cancer patients with protons and/or carbon ions as well as consortia, including the Proton Collaborative Group, the Particle Therapy Cooperative Group, and the Pediatric Proton Consortium Registry. These important radiogenomic CPT initiatives need to be expanded internationally to build on experience gained from the Radiogenomics Consortium and epidemiologists investigating normal tissue toxicities and second cancer risk.

20.
Front Oncol ; 8: 228, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977864

RESUMO

Due to the rapid increase in the availability of patient data, there is significant interest in precision medicine that could facilitate the development of a personalized treatment plan for each patient on an individual basis. Radiation oncology is particularly suited for predictive machine learning (ML) models due to the enormous amount of diagnostic data used as input and therapeutic data generated as output. An emerging field in precision radiation oncology that can take advantage of ML approaches is radiogenomics, which is the study of the impact of genomic variations on the sensitivity of normal and tumor tissue to radiation. Currently, patients undergoing radiotherapy are treated using uniform dose constraints specific to the tumor and surrounding normal tissues. This is suboptimal in many ways. First, the dose that can be delivered to the target volume may be insufficient for control but is constrained by the surrounding normal tissue, as dose escalation can lead to significant morbidity and rare. Second, two patients with nearly identical dose distributions can have substantially different acute and late toxicities, resulting in lengthy treatment breaks and suboptimal control, or chronic morbidities leading to poor quality of life. Despite significant advances in radiogenomics, the magnitude of the genetic contribution to radiation response far exceeds our current understanding of individual risk variants. In the field of genomics, ML methods are being used to extract harder-to-detect knowledge, but these methods have yet to fully penetrate radiogenomics. Hence, the goal of this publication is to provide an overview of ML as it applies to radiogenomics. We begin with a brief history of radiogenomics and its relationship to precision medicine. We then introduce ML and compare it to statistical hypothesis testing to reflect on shared lessons and to avoid common pitfalls. Current ML approaches to genome-wide association studies are examined. The application of ML specifically to radiogenomics is next presented. We end with important lessons for the proper integration of ML into radiogenomics.

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