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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037653

RESUMO

AIMS: In CARMELINA®, linagliptin demonstrated cardiovascular and renal safety in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with high renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated safety and efficacy of this dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in older participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects aged ≥18 years with T2D and established CVD with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) >30 mg/g, and/or prevalent kidney disease, were randomized to linagliptin or placebo added to usual care. The primary endpoint (time to first occurrence of 3P-MACE: cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke) and other outcomes were evaluated across age groups <65 (n = 2968), 65 to <75 (n = 2800) and ≥75 years (n = 1211). RESULTS: Mean age was 65.9 years (17.4% and 5.9% aged ≥75 and 80, respectively) and median follow-up was 2.2 years. The hazard ratio (HR) for 3P-MACE with linagliptin versus placebo was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 1.17] with no significant interaction between age and treatment effect (P = 0.0937). HRs for participants aged <65, 65 to <75 and ≥75 years were 1.11 (95% CI 0.89, 1.40), 1.09 (0.89, 1.33) and 0.76 (0.57, 1.02), respectively. Linagliptin did not increase the risk of adverse kidney outcomes or hospitalization for heart failure across age groups. The incidence of adverse events, including hypoglycaemia, increased with age but was similar with linagliptin and placebo despite glycated haemoglobin A1c reduction with linagliptin. CONCLUSIONS: Linagliptin did not increase risk for cardiovascular events or hypoglycaemia and kidney function remained stable in older people with T2D and established CVD with albuminuria and/or kidney disease.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 161-168, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of RVT-1502, a novel oral glucagon receptor antagonist, in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 166) on a stable dose of metformin were randomized (1:1:1:1) to placebo or RVT-1502 5, 10, or 15 mg once daily for 12 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c for each dose of RVT-1502 compared with placebo. Secondary end points included change from baseline in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and safety assessments. RESULTS: Over 12 weeks, RVT-1502 significantly reduced HbA1c relative to placebo by 0.74%, 0.76%, and 1.05% in the 5-, 10-, and 15-mg groups (P < 0.001), respectively, and FPG decreased by 2.1, 2.2, and 2.6 mmol/L (P < 0.001). The proportions of subjects achieving an HbA1c <7.0% were 19.5%, 39.5%, 39.5%, and 45.0% with placebo and RVT-1502 5, 10, and 15 mg (P ≤ 0.02 vs. placebo). The frequency of hypoglycemia was low, and no episodes were severe. Mild increases in mean aminotransferase levels remaining below the upper limit of normal were observed with RVT-1502 but were reversible and did not appear to be dose related, with no other liver parameter changes. Weight and lipid changes were similar between RVT-1502 and placebo. RVT-1502-associated mild increases in blood pressure were not dose related or consistent across time. CONCLUSIONS: Glucagon receptor antagonism with RVT-1502 significantly lowers HbA1c and FPG, with a safety profile that supports further clinical development with longer-duration studies (NCT02851849).

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650161

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Intermediate-term glycemic control metrics fulfill a need for measures beyond hemoglobin A1C. OBJECTIVE: Compare glycated albumin (GA), a 14-day blood glucose measure, with other glycemic indices. DESIGN: 24-week prospective study of assay performance. SETTING: 8 US clinics. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects with type 1 (n = 73) and type 2 diabetes (n = 77) undergoing changes to improve glycemic control (n = 98) or with stable diabetes therapy (n = 52). INTERVENTIONS: GA, fructosamine, and A1C measured at prespecified intervals. Mean blood glucose (MBG) calculated using weekly self-monitored blood glucose profiles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: Pearson correlation between GA and fructosamine. Secondary: magnitude (Spearman correlation) and direction (Kendall correlation) of change of glycemic indices in the first 3 months after a change in diabetes management. RESULTS: GA was more concordant (60.8%) with changes in MBG than fructosamine (55.5%) or A1C (45.5%). Across all subjects and visits, the GA Pearson correlation with fructosamine was 0.920. Pearson correlations with A1C were 0.655 for GA and 0.515 for fructosamine (P < .001) and with MBG were 0.590 and 0.454, respectively (P < .001). At the individual subject level, Pearson correlations with both A1C and MBG were higher for GA than for fructosamine in 56% of subjects; only 4% of subjects had higher fructosamine correlations with A1C and MBG. GA had a higher Pearson correlation with A1C and MBG in 82% and 70% of subjects, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with fructosamine, GA correlates significantly better with both short-term MBG and long-term A1C and may be more useful than fructosamine in clinical situations requiring monitoring of intermediate-term glycemic control (NCT02489773).

4.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(3): 303-314, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608552

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the impact of relevant patient-level characteristics on the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, once-weekly semaglutide in subjects with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exploratory post hoc analyses of pooled SUSTAIN 1-5 (phase 3a) randomized, controlled trials examined the change from baseline in HbA1c and body weight (BW), and the proportions of subjects achieving the composite endpoint (HbA1c < 7.0% [53 mmol/mol]), without weight gain or severe/blood glucose-confirmed symptomatic hypoglycaemia at week 30 with semaglutide (0.5/1.0 mg) across clinically relevant patient subgroups: baseline HbA1c (≤7.5%, >7.5%-8.0%, >8.0%-8.5%, >8.5%-9.0% and > 9.0%), background medications, diabetes duration and pancreatic beta-cell function. RESULTS: Mean HbA1c (% point) reductions increased from lowest to highest HbA1c subgroups (-0.9%, -1.2%,-1.5%, -1.7% and -2.3% [effect of subgroup within treatment: P = 0.247] for semaglutide 0.5 mg, and -1.1%, -1.4%, -1.9%, -2.1% and -2.7% [P = 0.045] for semaglutide 1.0 mg), with mean HbA1c ranges at week 30 of 6.3%-7.3% and 6.1%-6.9%, respectively. The corresponding BW reductions generally decreased with increasing baseline HbA1c (-4.4, -3.9, -3.9, -3.3 and -2.9 kg [P = 0.004], and -6.4, -5.9, -5.2, -4.5 and -4.8 kg [P < 0.001], respectively). HbA1c and BW reductions were consistently greater for semaglutide 1.0 mg versus 0.5 mg across background medication, diabetes duration and pancreatic beta-cell function subgroups. Adverse events with semaglutide were consistent with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist class, with gastrointestinal events the most common. CONCLUSIONS: Semaglutide was consistently efficacious across the continuum of diabetes care in a broad spectrum of patient subgroups with a range of clinical characteristics.

5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(3): 346-354, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646724

RESUMO

AIM: To further investigate glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia in BRIGHT, focusing on the titration period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BRIGHT was a multicentre, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group, 24-week study in insulin-naïve patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes initiated on glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) (N = 466) or degludec (IDeg-100) (N = 463). Predefined efficacy and safety outcomes were investigated during the initial 12-week titration period. In addition, patients' characteristics and clinical outcomes were assessed descriptively, stratified by confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/L) hypoglycaemia incidence during the initial titration period. RESULTS: At week 12, HbA1c was comparable between Gla-300 (7.32%) and IDeg-100 (7.23%), with similar least squares (LS) mean reductions from baseline (-1.37% and - 1.39%, respectively; LS mean difference of 0.02; 95% confidence interval: -0.08 to 0.12). Patients who experienced hypoglycaemia during the initial titration period had numerically greater HbA1c reductions by week 12 than patients who did not (-1.46% vs. -1.28%), and higher incidence of anytime (24 hours; 73.3% vs. 35.7%) and nocturnal (00:00-06:00 hours; 30.0% vs. 11.9%) hypoglycaemia between weeks 13-24. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Gla-300 resulted in similar glycaemic control as IDeg-100 during the initial 12-week titration period of the BRIGHT study, when less anytime (24 hours) hypoglycaemia with Gla-300 versus IDeg-100 has been reported. Experiencing hypoglycaemia shortly after initiating Gla-300 or IDeg-100 may be associated with hypoglycaemia incidence in the longer term, potentially impacting glycaemic management.

6.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(3): 427-433, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858718

RESUMO

AIM: To confirm the observed reduction in HbA1c for the 2.5 mg dose in EASE-3 by modelling and simulation analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Independent of data from EASE-3 that tested 2.5 mg, we simulated the effect of a 2.5 mg dose through patient-level, exposure-response modelling in the EASE-2 clinical study. A primary semi-mechanistic model evaluated efficacy considering clinical insulin dose adjustments made after treatment initiation that potentially limited HbA1c reductions. The model was informed by pharmacokinetic, insulin dose, mean daily glucose and HbA1c data, and was verified by comparing the simulations with the observed HbA1c change in EASE-3. One of two empagliflozin phase 3 trials in type 1 diabetes (EASE-3 but not EASE-2) included a lower 2.5 mg dose. A placebo-corrected HbA1c reduction of 0.28% was demonstrated without the increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis observed at higher doses (10 mg and 25 mg). Since only one trial included the lower dose, we aimed to confirm the observed reduction in HbA1c for the 2.5 mg dose by modelling and simulation analyses. RESULTS: The simulated 26-week mean HbA1c change was -0.41% without insulin dose adjustment and -0.29% at 26 weeks with insulin dose adjustment. A simplified (descriptive) model excluding insulin dose and mean daily glucose confirmed the -0.29% HbA1c change that would have been observed had the EASE-2 population received a 2.5 mg dose for 26/52 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The HbA1c benefit of low-dose empagliflozin directly observed in the EASE-3 trial was confirmed by two modelling and simulation approaches.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 42(11): 2108-2116, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fixed-ratio combinations of basal insulin plus glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) allow concomitant administration of two proven complementary injectable therapies for type 2 diabetes. This study investigated switching to a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine plus lixisenatide (iGlarLixi) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving daily or weekly GLP-1 RA therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: LixiLan-G, a randomized, open-label, 26-week trial, compared switching to iGlarLixi versus continuing prior GLP-1 RA in patients with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c 7-9% (53-75 mmol/mol) taking maximum tolerated doses of a GLP-1 RA daily (60% on liraglutide once daily or exenatide twice daily) or weekly (40% on dulaglutide, exenatide extended release, or albiglutide) with metformin with or without pioglitazone and with or without sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. Adherence to randomized treatment was closely monitored throughout the study. RESULTS: iGlarLixi (n = 257) reduced HbA1c more than continued GLP-1 RA therapy (n = 257) from a baseline 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) in both to 6.7% (50 mmol/mol) and 7.4% (57 mmol/mol), respectively, at 26 weeks (least squares mean difference -0.6%; P < 0.0001). More iGlarLixi patients achieved HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol) (62% vs. 26%; P < 0.0001) and the composite of HbA1c <7% without documented symptomatic hypoglycemia (<54 mg/dL). Nausea and vomiting rates as well as numbers of documented symptomatic hypoglycemia events per patient-year were generally low but greater with iGlarLixi versus continued GLP-1 RA therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Switching to iGlarLixi improves glucose control for patients with type 2 diabetes insufficiently controlled on a maximum tolerated dose of a GLP-1 RA plus oral antihyperglycemic agents.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 42(12): 2272-2281, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analog oral semaglutide and the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to once-daily open-label treatment with oral semaglutide 14 mg (n = 412) or empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 410) in a 52-week trial. Key end points were change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c (primary) and body weight (confirmatory secondary). Two estimands addressed efficacy-related questions: treatment policy (regardless of trial product discontinuation or rescue medication) and trial product (on trial product without rescue medication) in all randomized patients. RESULTS: Four hundred (97.1%) patients in the oral semaglutide group and 387 (94.4%) in the empagliflozin group completed the trial. Oral semaglutide provided superior reductions in HbA1c versus empagliflozin at week 26 (treatment policy -1.3% vs. -0.9% [-14 vs. -9 mmol/mol], estimated treatment difference [ETD] -0.4% [95% CI -0.6, -0.3] [-5 mmol/mol (-6, -3)]; P < 0.0001). The treatment difference in HbA1c significantly favored oral semaglutide at week 26 for the trial product estimand (-1.4% vs. -0.9% [-15 vs. -9 mmol/mol], ETD -0.5% [95% CI -0.7, -0.4] [-6 mmol/mol (-7, -5)]; P < 0.0001) and at week 52 for both estimands (P < 0.0001). Superior weight loss was not confirmed at week 26 (treatment policy), but oral semaglutide was significantly better than empagliflozin at week 52 (trial product -4.7 vs. -3.8 kg; P = 0.0114). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with oral semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: Oral semaglutide was superior to empagliflozin in reducing HbA1c but not body weight at 26 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on metformin. At week 52, HbA1c and body weight (trial product estimand) were significantly reduced versus empagliflozin. Oral semaglutide was well tolerated within the established safety profile of GLP-1 receptor agonists.

9.
JAMA ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536101

RESUMO

Importance: Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In placebo-controlled cardiovascular safety trials, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin demonstrated noninferiority, but it has not been tested against an active comparator. Objective: This trial assessed cardiovascular outcomes of linagliptin vs glimepiride (sulfonylurea) in patients with relatively early type 2 diabetes and risk factors for or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trial, with participant screening from November 2010 to December 2012, conducted at 607 hospital and primary care sites in 43 countries involving 6042 participants. Adults with type 2 diabetes, glycated hemoglobin of 6.5% to 8.5%, and elevated cardiovascular risk were eligible for inclusion. Elevated cardiovascular risk was defined as documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, multiple cardiovascular risk factors, aged at least 70 years, and evidence of microvascular complications. Follow-up ended in August 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 5 mg of linagliptin once daily (n = 3023) or 1 to 4 mg of glimepiride once daily (n = 3010) in addition to usual care. Investigators were encouraged to intensify glycemic treatment, primarily by adding or adjusting metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, or insulin, according to clinical need. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke with the aim to establish noninferiority of linagliptin vs glimepiride, defined by the upper limit of the 2-sided 95.47% CI for the hazard ratio (HR) of linagliptin relative to glimepiride of less than 1.3. Results: Of 6042 participants randomized, 6033 (mean age, 64.0 years; 2414 [39.9%] women; mean glycated hemoglobin, 7.2%; median duration of diabetes, 6.3 years; 42% with macrovascular disease; 59% had undergone metformin monotherapy) were treated and analyzed. The median duration of follow-up was 6.3 years. The primary outcome occurred in 356 of 3023 participants (11.8%) in the linagliptin group and 362 of 3010 (12.0%) in the glimepiride group (HR, 0.98 [95.47% CI, 0.84-1.14]; P < .001 for noninferiority), meeting the noninferiority criterion but not superiority (P = .76). Adverse events occurred in 2822 participants (93.4%) in the linagliptin group and 2856 (94.9%) in the glimepiride group, with 15 participants (0.5%) in the linagliptin group vs 16 (0.5%) in the glimepiride group with adjudicated-confirmed acute pancreatitis. At least 1 episode of hypoglycemic adverse events occurred in 320 (10.6%) participants in the linagliptin group and 1132 (37.7%) in the glimepiride group (HR, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.21-0.26]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with relatively early type 2 diabetes and elevated cardiovascular risk, the use of linagliptin compared with glimepiride over a median 6.3 years resulted in a noninferior risk of a composite cardiovascular outcome. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01243424.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 42(10): 1930-1938, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is associated with cognitive dysfunction and an increased dementia risk, particularly in individuals with concomitant cardiovascular and/or kidney disease. Incretin therapies may modulate this risk via glycemic and nonglycemic pathways. We explored if the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor linagliptin could prevent cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes with cardiorenal disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The CArdiovascular and Renal Microvascular outcomE study with LINAgliptin (CARMELINA)-COG substudy was an integral part of CARMELINA (NCT01897532) that randomized participants with cardiorenal disease to linagliptin 5 mg or placebo once daily (1:1), in addition to standard of care. The primary cognitive outcome was the occurrence of accelerated cognitive decline at the end of treatment, defined as a regression-based index score ≤16th percentile on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or a composite measure of attention and executive functioning and analyzed in participants with a baseline MMSE ≥24. Effects across subgroups by baseline factors, as well as absolute cognitive changes, were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 6,979 participants in CARMELINA, CARMELINA-COG included 1,545 (mean ± SD age, 68 ± 8 years; MMSE, 28.3 ± 1.7; estimated glomerular filtration rate, 52 ± 23 mL/min/1.73 m2; and HbA1c, 7.8 ± 0.9% [61.4 ± 10.1 mmol/mol]). Over a median treatment duration of 2.5 years, accelerated cognitive decline occurred in 28.4% (linagliptin) vs. 29.3% (placebo) (odds ratio 0.96 [95% CI 0.77, 1.19]). Consistent effects were observed across subgroups by baseline characteristics. Absolute cognitive performance changes were also similar between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a large international cardiovascular outcome trial in people with type 2 diabetes and cardiorenal disease, linagliptin did not modulate cognitive decline over 2.5 years.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1733-1741, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-weekly efpeglenatide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), in early type 2 diabetes (T2D) (drug naive or on metformin monotherapy). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: EXCEED 203 was a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-ranging study of efpeglenatide once weekly referenced to open-label liraglutide 1.8 mg (exploratory analysis). Participants, ∼90% on metformin monotherapy, were randomized to one of five efpeglenatide doses (0.3, 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg q.w.; n = 181), placebo (n = 37), or liraglutide (≤1.8 mg daily; n = 36). The primary efficacy end point was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 13. RESULTS: From a baseline HbA1c of 7.7-8.0% (61.0-63.9 mmol/mol), all efpeglenatide doses ≥1 mg significantly reduced HbA1c versus placebo (placebo-adjusted least squares [LS] mean changes 0.6-1.2%, P < 0.05 for all) to a final HbA1c of 6.3-6.8% (45.4-50.6 mmol/mol); masked efpeglenatide 4 mg was noninferior to open-label liraglutide. Greater proportions treated with efpeglenatide ≥1 mg than placebo achieved HbA1c <7% (61-72% vs. 24%, P < 0.05 for all), and greater reductions in body weight were observed with efpeglenatide 3 and 4 mg versus placebo (placebo-adjusted LS mean differences -1.4 and -2.0 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). Rates of nausea and vomiting were consistent with other GLP-1 RAs and rapidly subsided after the initial 2 weeks. No neutralizing antibodies were detected with efpeglenatide. CONCLUSIONS: Efpeglenatide once weekly led to significant reductions in HbA1c and weight, with a safety profile consistent with the GLP-1 RA class in patients with early T2D mostly on metformin monotherapy.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1716-1723, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor (SGLTi) therapy has been evaluated in type 1 diabetes (T1D) trials, patient reactions to benefits and risks are unknown. Using established methodology, we evaluated patient preferences for different adjunct-to-insulin therapy options in T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: An online survey, completed by 701 respondents with T1D (231 U.S., 242 Canada, and 228 Germany), used conjoint analysis to present six hypothetical, masked, pairwise drug profile choices composed of different benefit-risk attributes and effect ranges. Data used in analyses were derived from actual phase 3 trials of a low-dose SGLTi (comparable to oral empagliflozin 2.5 mg q.d.), a high-dose SGLTi (comparable to oral sotagliflozin 400 mg q.d.), and an available adjunct-to-insulin therapy (comparable to subcutaneous pramlintide 60 µg t.i.d.). RESULTS: Conjoint analysis identified diabetic ketoacidosis risk as most important to patients (23% relative score; z test, P < 0.05); ranked second were HbA1c reduction (14%), risk of severe hypoglycemia (13%), oral versus injectable treatment (12%), and risk of genital infection (12%). Next was risk of nausea (11%), followed by weight reduction (8%) and the risk of diarrhea (7%). A low-dose SGLTi drug profile was identified by conjoint analysis as the top patient preference (83% of participants; z test, P < 0.05) versus high-dose SGLTi (8%) or pramlintide (9%). Separate from conjoint analysis, when respondents were asked to choose their preferred adjunct-to-insulin therapy (masked to drug name/dose), 69%, 17%, 6%, and 9% of respondents chose low-dose SGLTi, high-dose SGLTi, pramlintide, and insulin therapy alone, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose SGLTi profile was the favored adjunct-to-insulin therapy by persons with T1D.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1724-1732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This trial compared the efficacy and safety of the first oral glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, oral semaglutide, as monotherapy with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes managed by diet and exercise alone. Two estimands addressed two efficacy-related questions: a treatment policy estimand (regardless of trial product discontinuation or rescue medication use) and a trial product estimand (on trial product without rescue medication use) in all randomized patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a 26-week, phase 3a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted in 93 sites in nine countries. Adults with type 2 diabetes insufficiently controlled with diet and exercise were randomized (1:1:1:1) to once-daily oral semaglutide 3 mg, 7 mg, 14 mg, or placebo. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c. The confirmatory secondary end point was change from baseline to week 26 in body weight. RESULTS: In the 703 patients randomized (mean age 55 years, 50.8% male, and mean baseline HbA1c 8.0% [64 mmol/mol]), oral semaglutide reduced HbA1c (placebo-adjusted treatment differences at week 26: treatment policy estimand, -0.6% [3 mg], -0.9% [7 mg], and -1.1% [14 mg]; trial product estimand, -0.7% [3 mg], -1.2% [7 mg], and -1.4% [14 mg]; P < 0.001 for all) and body weight (treatment policy, -0.1 kg [3 mg], -0.9 kg [7 mg], and -2.3 kg [14 mg, P < 0.001]; trial product, -0.2 kg [3 mg], -1.0 kg [7 mg, P = 0.01], and -2.6 kg [14 mg, P < 0.001]). Mild-to-moderate transient gastrointestinal events were the most common adverse events with oral semaglutide. Trial product discontinuations occurred in 2.3-7.4% with oral semaglutide and 2.2% with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, oral semaglutide monotherapy demonstrated superior and clinically relevant improvements in HbA1c (all doses) and body weight loss (14 mg dose) versus placebo, with a safety profile consistent with other GLP-1 receptor agonists.

15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(9): 2152-2162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144431

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with low-dose dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin added to metformin in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 24-week, double-blind trial (NCT02681094) randomized 883 patients (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.5-10.0%) on metformin ≥1500 mg/d to add-on dapagliflozin 5 mg/d plus saxagliptin 5 mg/d or to add-on of either monocomponent. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline. RESULTS: Baseline mean ± SD patient characteristics were: age 56.7 ± 10.5 years; HbA1c 8.2 ± 0.9%; and diabetes duration 7.6 ± 6.1 years. Triple therapy significantly decreased HbA1c versus dual therapy (-1.03% vs. -0.63% [dapagliflozin] vs. -0.69% [saxagliptin]; P < .0001). More patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% with triple versus dual therapy (41.6% vs. 21.8% [dapagliflozin; P < .0001] vs. 29.8% [saxagliptin; P = .0018]). Triple therapy significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (-1.5 mmol/L vs. -1.1 mmol/L [dapagliflozin; P = .0135] vs. -0.7 mmol/L [saxagliptin; P < .0001]) and body weight (-2.0 kg vs. -0.4 kg [saxagliptin; P < .0001]), and ß-hydroxybutyrate levels were lower than with dapagliflozin plus metformin (mean difference -0.51; P = .0009). Urinary tract/genital infections and hypoglycaemia occurred in <5.0% and 5.8% of patients, respectively, with triple therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Triple therapy with once-daily dapagliflozin 5 mg, saxagliptin 5 mg and metformin significantly improved glycaemic control versus dual therapy with either agent added to metformin in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, and was generally well tolerated.

16.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 21(5): 273-285, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025878

RESUMO

Background: Barriers to mealtime insulin include complexity, fear of injections, and lifestyle interference. This multicenter, randomized controlled trial evaluated efficacy, safety, and self-reported outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes, inadequately controlled on basal insulin, initiating and managing mealtime insulin with a wearable patch versus an insulin pen. Methods: Adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 278, age: 59.2 ± 8.9 years), were randomized to patch (n = 139) versus pen (n = 139) for 48 weeks, with crossover at week 44. Baseline insulin was divided 1:1 basal: bolus. Using a pattern-control logbook, subjects adjusted basal and bolus insulin weekly using fasting and premeal glucose targets. Results: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) change (least squares mean ± standard error) from baseline to week 24 (primary endpoint) improved (P < 0.0001) in both arms, -1.7% ± 0.1% and -1.6% ± 0.1% for patch and pen (-18.6 ± 1.1 and -17.5 ± 1.1 mmol/mol), and was maintained at 44 weeks. The coefficient of variation of 7-point self-monitoring blood glucose decreased more (P = 0.02) from baseline to week 44 for patch versus pen. There were no differences in adverse events, including hypoglycemia (three severe episodes per arm), and changes in weight and insulin doses. Subject-reported treatment satisfaction, quality of life, experience ratings at week 24, and device preferences at week 48 significantly favored the patch. Most health care providers preferred patch for mealtime insulin. Conclusions: Bolus insulin delivered by patch and pen using an algorithm-based weekly insulin dose titration significantly improved HbA1c in adults with type 2 diabetes, with improved subject and health care provider experience and preference for the patch.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Injeções Intramusculares , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Diabetes Care ; 42(5): 919-930, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of the dual sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 and SGLT2 inhibitor sotagliflozin in combination with insulin on glucose time in range (TIR) and glucose excursions, postprandial glucose (PPG), and other glycemic metrics in adults with type 1 diabetes using masked continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data sets from the inTandem1 (clinical trial reg. no. NCT02384941) and inTandem2 (clinical trial reg. no. NCT02421510) double-blind randomized trials evaluating sotagliflozin versus placebo in adults with type 1 diabetes treated with optimized insulin were pooled for analyses of masked CGM data from a subset of participants in each trial. The pooled cohort included patients randomized to receive placebo (n = 93), sotagliflozin 200 mg (n = 89), or sotagliflozin 400 mg (n = 96). The primary outcome was change from baseline to week 24 in glucose TIR (3.9-10.0 mmol/L [70-180 mg/dL]). Secondary end points included time below and above the target range and 2-h PPG level assessed after a standardized mixed meal. RESULTS: Mean percentage of glucose TIR/percentage time spent at <3.9 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL) during week 24 was 51.6%/5.9%, 57.8%/5.5%, and 64.2%/5.5% with placebo, sotagliflozin 200 mg, and sotagliflozin 400 mg, respectively, which corresponded to a placebo-adjusted change from a baseline of +5.4%/-0.3% (P = 0.026; +1.3/-0.1 h/day) for sotagliflozin 200 mg and +11.7%/-0.1% (P < 0.001; +2.8/-0.02 h/day) for sotagliflozin 400 mg. Placebo-adjusted PPG reductions were 1.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L (35 ± 13 mg/dL; P = 0.004) and 2.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L (50 ± 13 mg/dL; P < 0.001) with sotagliflozin 200 and 400 mg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combined with optimized insulin in type 1 diabetes, sotagliflozin significantly increased glucose TIR without increasing time spent at <3.9 mmol/L and reduced PPG, thereby improving glycemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glicosídeos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
JAMA ; 321(15): 1466-1480, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903796

RESUMO

Importance: Phase 3 trials have not compared oral semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, with other classes of glucose-lowering therapy. Objective: To compare efficacy and assess long-term adverse event profiles of once-daily oral semaglutide vs sitagliptin, 100 mg added on to metformin with or without sulfonylurea, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, phase 3a trial conducted at 206 sites in 14 countries over 78 weeks from February 2016 to March 2018. Of 2463 patients screened, 1864 adults with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin with or without sulfonylurea were randomized. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive once-daily oral semaglutide, 3 mg (n = 466), 7 mg (n = 466), or 14 mg (n = 465), or sitagliptin, 100 mg (n = 467). Semaglutide was initiated at 3 mg/d and escalated every 4 weeks, first to 7 mg/d then to 14 mg/d, until the randomized dosage was achieved. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and the key secondary end point was change in body weight, both from baseline to week 26. Both were assessed at weeks 52 and 78 as additional secondary end points. End points were tested for noninferiority with respect to HbA1c (noninferiority margin, 0.3%) prior to testing for superiority of HbA1c and body weight. Results: Among 1864 patients randomized (mean age, 58 [SD, 10] years; mean baseline HbA1c, 8.3% [SD, 0.9%]; mean body mass index, 32.5 [SD, 6.4]; n=879 [47.2%] women), 1758 (94.3%) completed the trial and 298 prematurely discontinued treatment (16.7% for semaglutide, 3 mg/d; 15.0% for semaglutide, 7 mg/d; 19.1% for semaglutide, 14 mg/d; and 13.1% for sitagliptin). Semaglutide, 7 and 14 mg/d, compared with sitagliptin, significantly reduced HbA1c (differences, -0.3% [95% CI, -0.4% to -0.1%] and -0.5% [95% CI, -0.6% to -0.4%], respectively; P < .001 for both) and body weight (differences, -1.6 kg [95% CI, -2.0 to -1.1 kg] and -2.5 kg [95% CI, -3.0 to -2.0 kg], respectively; P < .001 for both) from baseline to week 26. Noninferiority of semaglutide, 3 mg/d, with respect to HbA1c was not demonstrated. Week 78 reductions in both end points were statistically significantly greater with semaglutide, 14 mg/d, vs sitagliptin. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin with or without sulfonylurea, oral semaglutide, 7 mg/d and 14 mg/d, compared with sitagliptin, resulted in significantly greater reductions in HbA1c over 26 weeks, but there was no significant benefit with the 3-mg/d dosage. Further research is needed to assess effectiveness in a clinical setting. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02607865.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(5): 1073-1078, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690856

RESUMO

In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a guidance to industry statement concerning evaluation of the cardiovascular (CV) safety of new antihyperglycaemic therapies for type 2 diabetes. Fifteen CV outcome trials assessing three novel classes of antihyperglycaemic therapies, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors, were completed by the end of 2018 and several others are ongoing. In addition, one comparative insulin trial also has been completed. None of these trials reported an increase in risk for major adverse CV events (MACE), and six agents have demonstrated CV benefits. This experience has led to the first FDA-approved indications for antihyperglycaemic medications to reduce the risk of CV death (empagliflozin) and to reduce the risk of MACE (liraglutide, canagliflozin), both indications specific to patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Because of the aggregate results from dedicated CV outcomes trials conducted in response to the FDA guidance statement, the contemporary paradigm for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes has evolved substantially. However, the guidance has substantially increased the cost of developing new medications to address this important disease that afflicts hundreds of millions of adults worldwide, with reduction in quality of life as well as in life expectancy. The cost burden of drug development of medications proven effective that may directly impact cost to patients and to their insurers might be alleviated by modifications to the present guidance statement. These include areas of trial design, aspects of trial operation, expansion of composite outcomes to include broader component CV outcomes and continued evolution of analytic methodology. The guidance statement will benefit from consideration of a number of modifications to support continued innovation and, of course, the safety of marketed medications for type 2 diabetes. However, the requirement to assess each new antihyperglycaemic medication in at least one large-scale standard randomized clinical outcomes trial should remain, so that clinicians can be reassured about the favourable efficacy/safety profiles of the medications they prescribe.

20.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 105(5): 1213-1223, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457671

RESUMO

Model-based meta-analysis was used to compare glycemic control, weight changes, and hypoglycemia risk across 24 antihyperglycemic drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes. Electronic searches identified 229 randomized controlled studies comprising 121,914 patients. To ensure fair and unbiased treatment comparisons, the analyses adjusted for important differences between studies, including duration of treatment, baseline glycated hemoglobin, and drug dosages. At the approved doses, glycemic control was typically greatest with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), and least with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Weight loss was highly variable across GLP-1RAs but was similar across sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Large weight increases were observed with sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones. Hypoglycemia risk was highest with sulfonylureas, although gliclazide was notably lower. Hypoglycemia risk for DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones was generally very low but increased slightly for both GLP-1RAs and metformin. In summary, important differences between and within drug classes were identified.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/classificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco
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