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2.
Fertil Steril ; 116(1): 4-12, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148588

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to gather 9 thought leaders and their team members to present their ideas about the future of in vitro fertilization and the andrology laboratory. Although we have seen much progress and innovation in the laboratory over the years, there is still much to come, and this article looks at what these leaders think will be important in the future development of technology and processes in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Andrologia/tendências , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Fertilização In Vitro/tendências , Infertilidade/terapia , Medicina Reprodutiva/tendências , Andrologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Automação Laboratorial , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/legislação & jurisprudência , Difusão de Inovações , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/legislação & jurisprudência , Previsões , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Medicina Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
Fertil Steril ; 116(1): 2-3, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148585

RESUMO

The in vitro fertilization and andrology laboratories are at the center of assisted reproductive technologies and the place where technicians and embryologists manipulate gametes and preimplantation-stage embryos with the goal of achieving the best embryo for transfer. Through the years, these laboratories have seen developments in technique, technology, and testing. The goal of this Views and Interviews series is to bring together the thought leaders in the field and envision what the laboratories will look like in the next 10 years.


Assuntos
Andrologia/tendências , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Fertilização In Vitro/tendências , Infertilidade/terapia , Medicina Reprodutiva/tendências , Difusão de Inovações , Feminino , Previsões , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Gravidez
4.
Hum Reprod ; 36(7): 1932-1940, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128044

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do the length of follicular phase estradiol exposure and the total length of the follicular phase affect pregnancy and live birth outcomes in natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: An estradiol level >100 pg/ml for ≤4 days including the LH surge day is associated with worse pregnancy and live birth outcomes; however, the total length of the follicular phase is not associated with pregnancy and live birth outcomes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: An estradiol level that increases above 100 pg/ml and continues to increase is indicative of the selection and development of a dominant follicle. In programmed FET cycles, a limited duration of follicular phase estradiol of <9 days results in worse pregnancy rates, but a prolonged exposure to follicular phase estradiol for up to 4 weeks does not affect pregnancy outcomes. It is unknown how follicular phase characteristics affect pregnancy outcomes in natural FET cycles. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study included infertile patients in an academic hospital setting who underwent their first natural frozen autologous Day-5 embryo transfer cycle in our IVF clinic between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2018. Donor oocyte and gestational carrier cycles were excluded. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The primary outcomes of this study were pregnancy and live birth rates. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the cohorts' median number of days from the estradiol level of >100 pg/ml before the LH surge: Group 1 (≤4 days; n = 1052 patients) and Group 2 (>4 days; n = 839 patients). Additionally, patients were stratified into two groups based on the cohorts' median cycle day of LH surge: Group 1 (follicular length ≤15 days; n = 1287 patients) and Group 2 (follicular length >15 days; n = 1071 patients). A subgroup analysis of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) embryo transfer cycles was performed. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted a priori for patient age, number of embryos transferred, and use of PGT-A, was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% CI. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In the length of elevated estradiol analysis, the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was statistically significantly lower in patients with an elevated estradiol to surge of ≤4 days (65.6%) compared to patients with an elevated estradiol to surge of >4 days (70.9%; OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.06-1.58)). The live birth rate per embryo transfer was also statistically significantly lower in patients with an elevated estradiol to surge of ≤4 days (46.6%) compared to patients with an elevated estradiol to surge of >4 days (52.0%; OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.02-1.48)). In the follicular phase length analysis, the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was similar between patients with a follicular length of ≤15 days (65.4%) and patients with a follicular length of >15 days (69.0%; OR 1.12 (95% CI 0.94-1.33)): the live birth rate was also similar between groups (45.5% vs 51.5%, respectively; OR 1.14 (95% CI 0.97-1.35)). In all analyses, once a pregnancy was achieved, the length of the follicular phase or the length of elevated oestradiol >100 pg/ml no longer affected the pregnancy outcomes. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The retrospective design of this study is subject to possible selection bias in regard to which patients at our clinic were recommended to undergo a natural FET compared to a fresh embryo transfer or programmed FET. To decrease the heterogeneity of our study population, we only included patients who had blastocyst embryo transfers; therefore, it is unknown whether similar results would be observed in patients with cleavage-stage embryo transfers. The retrospective nature of the study design did not allow randomized to a specific ovarian stimulation or ovulation trigger protocol. However, all patients were managed with the standardized protocols at a single center, which strengthens the external validity of our results when compared to a study that only evaluates one specific stimulation protocol. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our observations provide cycle-level characteristics that can be applied during a natural FET cycle to help optimize embryo transfer success rates. Physicians should consider the parameter of number of days that oestradiol is >100 pg/ml prior to the LH surge when determining whether to proceed with embryo transfer in a natural cycle. This cycle-specific characteristic may also help to provide an explanation for some failed transfer cycles. Importantly, our findings should not be used to determine whether to recommend a natural or a programmed FET cycle for a patient, but rather, to identify natural FET cycles that are not optimal to proceed with embryo transfer. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No financial support, funding, or services were obtained for this study. The authors do not report any potential conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Fase Folicular , Resultado da Gravidez , Transferência Embrionária , Estradiol , Feminino , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Indução da Ovulação , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the optimal follicle size at trigger in clomiphene citrate-based IVF protocols. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study performed in at a single academic institution that included first IVF cycles with clomiphene citrate-based protocols at our center between 01/01/2013-03/31/2019. Patients were dichotomized by whether they had ≥2 follicles >20 mm on trigger day. Group A consisted of patients with <2 follicles >20 mm on trigger day and Group B consisted of patients with ≥2 follicles >20 mm on trigger day. The primary outcome was the number of mature oocytes retrieved. Secondary outcomes included pregnancy and live birth rates. RESULTS: A total of 635 patients were included: (Group A = 399 patients and Group B = 236 patients). The median (IQR) diameter of the largest follicle was 20.0 mm (19.0-21.0) in Group A and 22.7 mm (21.8-24.0) in Group B (p < 0.001). Among the entire cohort, mean number of oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in Group B (9.9 ± 6.5; RR 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.14)) compared to Group A (9.2 ± 6.3). In a subgroup analysis of patients in the upper quartile for age (≥41.7 years), Group B had significantly more oocytes retrieved (8.1 ± 5.9 vs. 6.7 ± 4.5; RR 1.23 (95% CI 1.10-1.38)), more mature oocytes retrieved (6.0 ± 4.0 vs. 5.2 ± 3.4; RR 1.16 (95% CI 1.02-1.33)), and more zygotes (4.7 ± 3.5 vs. 3.6 ± 2.8; RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.13-1.55)). In the secondary analysis, pregnancy and live birth rates after fresh transfer were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In clomiphene citrate-based IVF protocols, administering the ovulatory trigger at larger follicle sizes yielded more total oocytes retrieved without a significant difference in mature oocyte number. In older patients, larger follicle sizes at trigger yielded more mature oocytes and zygotes per retrieval. Based on these results, in older patients it may be advantageous to administer the ovulatory trigger in clomiphene-based IVF cycles when two or more follicles measures >20 mm. However, this benefit was not observed when assessed among all ages combined.

6.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(6): 1181-1186, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931372

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Do women of racial minorities aged 40 years or older have similar reproductive and obstetric outcomes as white women undergoing IVF? DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study conducted at a single academic university-affiliated centre. The study population included women aged 40 years or older undergoing their first IVF cycle with fresh cleavage-stage embryo transfer stratified by racial minority status: minority (black or Asian) versus white. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live birth rate were the primary outcomes. Preterm delivery (<37 weeks) and small for gestational age were the secondary outcomes. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 2050 cycles in women over the age of 40 years were analysed, 561 (27.4%) of which were undertaken by minority women and 1489 (72.6%) by white women. Minority women were 30% less likely to achieve a pregnancy compared with their white (non-Hispanic) counterparts (adjusted OR 0.68, CI 0.54 to 0.87). Once pregnant, however, the odds of live birth were similar (adjusted OR 1.23, CI 0.91 to 1.67). Minority women were significantly more likely to have lower gestational ages at time of delivery (38.5 versus 39.2 weeks, P = 0.009) and were more likely to have extreme preterm birth delivery 24-28 weeks (5.5 versus 1.0%, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: Minority women of advanced reproductive age are less likely to achieve a pregnancy compared with white (non-Hispanic) women. Once pregnancy is achieved, however, live birth rates are similar albeit with minority women experiencing higher rates of preterm delivery.

7.
Fertil Steril ; 115(5): 1347-1349, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of combined transvaginal and transabdominal oocyte retrieval in a patient with an ectopic ovary and unicornuate uterus. DESIGN: Video case report with demonstration of oocyte retrieval technique. SETTING(S): University-affiliated fertility center. PATIENT(S): A 35-year-old woman, gravida 0, with a 6-month history of infertility who presented to our center for fertility evaluation. Hysterosalpingography revealed a left unicornuate uterus and patent left fallopian tube magnetic resonance imaging and laparoscopy showed a right ectopic ovary located in the upper abdomen. Her partner was a 36-year-old male with isolated teratozoospermia. The couple did not conceive with intrauterine insemination. INTERVENTION(S): Ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Transvaginal retrieval of oocytes from the right ovary was not deemed possible due the anatomic location of the ovary, intervening blood vessels, and limited mobility of the ovary. Institutional review board approval was not required for this case report as per our institution's policy; patient consent was obtained for publication of the case. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Transabdominal retrieval of oocytes from the right ovary and transvaginal retrieval of oocytes from the left ovary. RESULT(S): The couple underwent two IVF cycles. Nine oocytes were retrieved during the first IVF cycle: seven transabdominal (right ovary) and two transvaginal (left ovary). All oocytes were mature, and five blastocysts were cryopreserved. Eight oocytes were retrieved during the second IVF cycle, of which five oocytes were retrieved transabdominally from the right ovary, and three oocytes were retrieved transvaginally from the left ovary. All oocytes were mature, and four blastocysts were cryopreserved. A single thawed embryo was transferred in the natural menstrual cycle, which resulted in the live birth of a full-term baby boy weighing 2,410 grams. CONCLUSION(S): The current case highlights the safety and feasibility of combined transvaginal and transabdominal oocyte retrieval in patients with an ectopic ovary located in the upper abdomen.


Assuntos
Coristoma/cirurgia , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Ovário , Doenças Peritoneais/cirurgia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/cirurgia , Útero/anormalidades , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Coristoma/complicações , Coristoma/terapia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infertilidade/terapia , Nascido Vivo , Masculino , Doenças Peritoneais/terapia , Gravidez , Teratozoospermia/complicações , Teratozoospermia/terapia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/complicações , Anormalidades Urogenitais/terapia , Útero/cirurgia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the psychosocial response of the infertile population whose care was curtailed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey was administered to 117 infertile patients at our center who had their infertility treatment delayed due to suspension of care at our hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey consisted of 52-question multiple-choice questions including the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) instruments. Characteristics of respondents who "agreed" (strongly agree and agree) that "delaying treatment has permanently impacted my chances at future conception" were compared with participants who "disagreed" (neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree) using Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: In total, 79.5% agreed that delaying treatment has permanently impacted their chances at future conception. There were no discernible demographic differences between patients who "agreed" versus "disagreed" with the above statement. The mean LOT-R score was 14.1 (5.1) with an optimism score of 6.8 (2.6) and a pessimism score of 7.3 (2.9). The mean HADS depression score was 5.4 (3.4) with 28.2% reporting scores in the borderline-abnormal to abnormal range. The mean HADS anxiety score was 9.0 (3.9) with 64.6% reporting scores in the borderline-abnormal to abnormal range. Nearly one third of respondents (36.8%) reported wanting to "expedite/be more aggressive with treatment," whereas only 5.1% wanted to postpone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Women undergoing ART during the COVID-19 pandemic express significant concern and signs of distress about how delays in care affect their future reproductive potential.

9.
Fertil Steril ; 116(2): 373-379, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if increasing paternal age has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcomes in paired donor egg recipients who received oocytes from the same donor in the same stimulation cycle. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Reproductive Medicine Center. PATIENT(S): The study included 154 recipients who received oocytes from a split donor oocyte cycle and received sperm from men in discrepant age groups (group A: <45 years old; group B: ≥45 years old). INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Implantation rate, pregnancy loss rate, pregnancy rate, and live birth rate. RESULT(S): The median paternal age was 41 years old for group A and 48 years old for group B. The pregnancy rate was 81% in group A compared with 69% in group B. The live birth rate was 65% in group A compared with 53% in group B. The rate of pregnancy loss was 19% in group A and 23% in group B. The implantation rate was 69% in group A compared with 66% in group B. The adjusted odds of pregnancy were found to be 65% lower for patients in the older partner age group (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13, 0.95). The adjusted odds of live birth rate (odds ratio [OR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20, 1.00), implantation rate (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.43, 1.92), and rate of pregnancy loss (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.5, 4.5) favored the younger partner age group; however, these results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION(S): In this model that controlled for oocyte quality to the greatest degree possible by using paired recipients from the same donor from the same stimulation cycle, we found that increased paternal age had a negative effect on pregnancy rates.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Doação de Oócitos , Idade Paterna , Taxa de Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 38(8): 2073-2086, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize, by specific biomarkers and nucleic acid sequencing, the structural and genomic sperm characteristics of partial (PG) and complete globozoospermic (CG) men in order to identify the best reproductive treatment. METHODS: We assessed spermatozoa from 14 consenting men ultrastructurally, as well as for histone content, sperm chromatin integrity, and sperm aneuploidy. Additional genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic evaluations were carried out to further characterize the CG cohort. The presence of oocyte-activating sperm cytosolic factor (OASCF) was measured by a phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) immunofluorescence assay. Couples were treated in subsequent cycles either by conventional ICSI or by ICSI with assisted gamete treatment (AGT) using calcium ionophore (Ionomycin, 19657, Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO, USA). RESULTS: Ultrastructural assessment confirmed complete acrosome deficiency in all spermatozoa from CG men. Histone content, sperm chromatin integrity, and sperm aneuploidy did not differ significantly between the PG (n = 4) and CG (n = 10) cohorts. PLCζ assessment indicated a positive presence of OASCF in 4 PG couples, who underwent subsequent ICSI cycles that yielded a 36.1% (43/119) fertilization with a 50% (2/4) clinical pregnancy and delivery rate. PLCζ assessment failed to detect OASCF for 8 CG patients who underwent 9 subsequent ICSI cycles with AGT, yielding a remarkable improvement of fertilization (39/97; 40.2%) (P = 0.00001). Embryo implantation (6/21; 28.6%) and clinical pregnancies (5/7; 71.4%) were also enhanced, resulting in 4 deliveries. Gene mutations (DPY19L2, SPATA16, PICK1) were identified in spermatozoa from CG patients. Additionally, CG patients unable to sustain a term pregnancy had gene mutations involved in zygote development (NLRP5) and postnatal development (BSX). CG patients who successfully sustained a pregnancy had a mutation (PIWIL1) related to sperm phenotype. PLCZ1 was both mutated and underexpressed in these CG patients, regardless of reproductive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Sperm bioassays and genomic studies can be used to characterize this gamete's capacity to support embryonic development and to tailor treatments maximizing reproductive outcome.

13.
Fertil Steril ; 115(5): 1232-1238, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the time from oocyte retrieval to frozen embryo transfer (FET) in the natural cycle affects reproductive or neonatal outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Five hundred and seventy-six consecutive freeze-all cycles from January 2011 to December 2018 followed by natural cycle FET of a single blastocyst. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Primary outcome of live birth; secondary outcomes of preterm delivery (24-37 weeks) and small for gestational age (SGA) with a multivariable logistic regression performed with adjustment for age, infertility diagnosis, ovulatory trigger type, and preimplantation genetic testing (PGT). RESULT(S): Before adjustment for confounding, we found a statistically significantly different live-birth rate (57.7% vs. 48.6%) for natural cycle FET occurring in the first versus second menstrual cycle, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, performing a natural cycle FET of a single blastocyst in the second compared with the first menstrual cycle did not statistically significantly impact the odds of live-birth rate. After adjustment for age, diagnosis, and ovulatory trigger type, only PGT was associated with statistically significantly increased odds of live birth compared with no PGT. There were no differences in the incidence of SGA (male, 6.6% vs. 2.3%; female, 9.8% vs. 11.1%) or preterm delivery (1.6% vs. 5.6%) between both groups. CONCLUSION(S): Performing a natural cycle FET of a single blastocyst in the second compared with the first menstrual cycle after ovarian stimulation did not statistically significantly impact the odds of live birth or neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Recuperação de Oócitos , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Recuperação de Oócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542154

RESUMO

Cells derived from pluripotent sources in vitro must resemble those found in vivo as closely as possible at both transcriptional and functional levels in order to be a useful tool for studying diseases and developing therapeutics. Recently, differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) with blood-brain barrier (BBB)-like properties has been reported. These cells have since been used as a robust in vitro BBB model for drug delivery and mechanistic understanding of neurological diseases. However, the precise cellular identity of these induced brain microvascular endothelial cells (iBMECs) has not been well described. Employing a comprehensive transcriptomic metaanalysis of previously published hPSC-derived cells validated by physiological assays, we demonstrate that iBMECs lack functional attributes of ECs since they are deficient in vascular lineage genes while expressing clusters of genes related to the neuroectodermal epithelial lineage (Epi-iBMEC). Overexpression of key endothelial ETS transcription factors (ETV2, ERG, and FLI1) reprograms Epi-iBMECs into authentic endothelial cells that are congruent with bona fide endothelium at both transcriptomic as well as some functional levels. This approach could eventually be used to develop a robust human BBB model in vitro that resembles the human brain EC in vivo for functional studies and drug discovery.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-fli-1/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-fli-1/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo
15.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 38(2): 413-419, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study sought to identify the initiation of placental hormonal production as defined by the production of endogenous estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in a cohort of patients undergoing programmed endometrial preparation cycles with single embryo transfers resulting in live-born singletons. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients undergoing either programmed frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) with autologous oocytes or donor egg recipient (DER) cycles with fresh embryos were screened for inclusion. Only patients who underwent a single embryo transfer, had a single gestational sac, and a resultant live-born singleton were included. All patients were treated with E2 patches and intramuscular progesterone injections. Main outcome measures were serial E2 and P4, with median values calculated for cycle days 28 (baseline), or 4w0d gestational age (GA), through 60, or 8w4d GA. The baseline cycle day (CD) 28 median value was compared to each daily median cycle day value using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: A total of 696 patients, 569 using autologous oocytes in programmed FET cycles and 127 using fresh donor oocytes, from 4/2013 to 4/2019 met inclusion criteria. Serum E2 and P4 levels stayed consistent initially and then began to increase daily. Compared to baseline CD 28 E2 (415 pg/mL), the serum E2 was significantly elevated at 542 pg/mL (P < 0.001) beginning on CD 36 (5w1d GA). With respect to baseline CD 28 P4 (28.1 ng/mL), beginning on CD 48 (6w6d GA), the serum P4 was significantly elevated at 31.6 ng/mL (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that endogenous placental estradiol and progesterone production may occur by CD 36 and CD 48, respectively, earlier than traditionally thought.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo/metabolismo , Fertilização In Vitro , Hormônios Placentários/biossíntese , Progesterona/biossíntese , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Corpo Lúteo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criopreservação , Transferência Embrionária/tendências , Endométrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Nascido Vivo/genética , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Hormônios Placentários/genética , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/genética
17.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 28(1): 142-145, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599164

RESUMO

We present a case of a tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) in a patient with an initially undetectable serum ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) level. A 33-year-old woman in a same-sex relationship underwent timed donor intrauterine insemination. Her serum ß-hCG level was <5 mIU/mL 14 days after the intrauterine insemination. She reported menstrual bleeding 3 days after her negative pregnancy test and returned to the office 10 days later to begin a new treatment cycle. Her serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and ß-hCG were 119 pg/mL, 6.1 ng/mL and 1157 mIU/mL, respectively. Transvaginal ultrasonography did not show an intrauterine pregnancy. Her ß-hCG level increased to 1420 mIU/mL the next day. She was diagnosed with a pregnancy of unknown location and treated with methotrexate. Her ß-hCG levels continued to increase despite 3 methotrexate doses, necessitating laparoscopy. The diagnostic laparoscopy demonstrated approximately 100 mL of hemoperitoneum in the posterior cul-de-sac with an intact right fallopian tube that was dilated at its distal end by the EP. A total right salpingectomy was performed. Her ß-hCG level was <5 mIU/mL 3 weeks later. The current case supports that although rare, an undetectable serum ß-hCG level does not completely rule out the diagnosis of an EP.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/sangue , Gravidez Tubária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Diagnóstico Tardio , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Hemoperitônio/sangue , Hemoperitônio/diagnóstico , Hemoperitônio/etiologia , Hemoperitônio/cirurgia , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez/efeitos adversos , Gravidez Tubária/sangue , Gravidez Tubária/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez Tubária/cirurgia , Salpingectomia/métodos
18.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 38(1): 101-123, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most widely utilized assisted reproductive technique (ART) worldwide. In this feature, we review the early assisted fertilization attempts that eventually led to the development of ICSI, and discuss its current utilization in cases of male and non-male factor infertility. METHODS: We researched the literature related to the development, indications, and current use of ICSI, such as sperm structural abnormalities, male genetic indications, surgically retrieved sperm, high sperm chromatin fragmentation, oocyte dysmorphism, and preimplantation genetic testing (PGT). We also describe the potential future applications of ICSI. RESULTS: This review summarizes the early micromanipulation techniques that led to the inception of ICSI. We also explore its current indications, including non-male factor infertility, where its use is more controversial. Finally, we consider the benefits of future advancements in reproductive biology that may incorporate ICSI, such as in vitro spermatogenesis, neogametogenesis, and heritable genome editing. CONCLUSION: The versatility, consistency, and reliability of ICSI have made it the most prevalently utilized ART procedure worldwide.

19.
Fertil Steril ; 115(4): 984-990, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal lead follicle size for hCG trigger in clomiphene citrate (CC)-intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University-affiliated center. PATIENT(S): Patients <40 years of age with ovulatory dysfunction or unexplained infertility undergoing their first CC-IUI cycle. INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation induction, hCG trigger, and IUI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was the primary outcome and was plotted against lead follicle size in increments of 1 mm. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for associations between lead follicle size and CPR were calculated from a multivariable logistic regression model. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated for CPR as a function of lead follicle size. RESULT(S): 1,676 cycles were included. The overall CPR was 13.8% (232/1,676). There was no difference in baseline demographics or ovulation induction parameters of patients who did or did not conceive. The odds of clinical pregnancy were 2.3 and 2.2 times higher with lead follicle sizes of 21.1-22.0 mm and >22.0 mm, respectively, compared with the referent category of 19.1-20.0 mm. Lead follicle size was an independent predictor of CPR, even after accounting for confounders. A lead follicle size of 22.1 mm corresponded to a sensitivity and specificity of 80.1% and 90.4% for clinical pregnancy, respectively, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.89. CONCLUSION(S): hCG administration at a lead follicle size of 21.1-22.0 mm is associated with higher odds of clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing their first CC-IUI cycles for ovulatory dysfunction or unexplained infertility.

20.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(2): 366-374, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243662

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the impact of low body mass index (BMI) on live birth rates and obstetric outcomes in infertile women treated with IVF and fresh embryo transfer? DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of infertile patients in an academic hospital setting who underwent their first oocyte retrieval with planned autologous fresh embryo transfer between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2018. The primary study outcome was live birth rate. Secondary outcomes were IVF treatment and delivery outcomes. Underweight patients were stratified into a significantly underweight group (body mass index [BMI] <17.5 kg/m2) and a mildly underweight group (BMI 17.5-18.49 kg/m2), and were compared with a normal-weight group (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). RESULTS: A total of 5229 patients were included (significantly underweight, 76; mildly underweight, 231; normal weight, 4922), resulting in 4798 embryo transfers. After oocyte retrieval, there were no significant differences between groups for total oocytes, mature oocyte yield and number of supernumerary blastocysts cryopreserved. Among women who had an embryo transfer, there were no significant differences in the live birth rates in significantly (31.0%, odds ratio [OR] 0.67, confidence interval [0.95, CI] 0.40-1.13) and mildly (37.7%, OR 0.95, CI 0.73-1.33) underweight patients compared with normal-weight patients (35.9%). Additionally, there were no statistically significant increased risks of preterm delivery, Caesarean delivery or a low birthweight (<2500 g) neonate. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly and significantly underweight infertile women have similar pregnancy and live birth rates to normal-weight patients after IVF treatment. In addition, underweight patients do not have an increased risk of preterm delivery (<37 weeks), Caesarean delivery or a low birthweight neonate.

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