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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 159, 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm of infancy that most commonly occurs on the extremities and trunk but can arise at variable sites of the body. Retroperitoneal lipoblastomas are particularly rare but can grow to enormous size, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult with diverse, mostly malignant differential diagnoses that would lead to aggressive therapy. Since lipoblastoma is a benign tumor that has an excellent prognosis after resection, correct diagnosis is crucial. CASE PRESENTATION: A case of a large retroperitoneal tumor of a 24-month old infant that was clinically suspicious of a malignant tumor is presented. Due to proximity to the right kidney, clinically most probably a nephroblastoma or clear cell sarcoma of the kidney was suspected. Radiological findings were ambiguous. Therefore, the mass was biopsied, and histology revealed an adipocytic lesion. Although mostly composed of mature adipocytes, in view of the age of the patient, the differential diagnosis of a (maturing) lipoblastoma was raised, which was supported by molecular analysis demonstrating a HAS2-PLAG1 fusion. The tumor was completely resected, and further histopathological workup led to the final diagnosis of a 13 cm large retroperitoneal maturing lipoblastoma. The child recovered promptly from surgery and showed no evidence of recurrence so far. CONCLUSION: Although rare, lipoblastoma should be included in the differential diagnoses of retroperitoneal tumors in infants and children, and molecular diagnostic approaches could be a helpful diagnostic adjunct in challenging cases.

3.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(4): e267-e277, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: R-MegaCHOEP was the first phase 3 study comparing high-dose chemotherapy plus rituximab followed by autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) with conventional chemotherapy plus rituximab in first-line therapy for patients aged 60 years or younger with high-risk aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Little is known about the long-term outcomes of these patients. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of conventional chemotherapy versus high-dose chemotherapy after 10 years of follow-up in the R-MegaCHOEP trial. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done across 61 centres in Germany, patients aged 18-60 years with newly diagnosed, high-risk (age-adjusted International Prognostic Index [IPI] 2 or 3) aggressive B-cell lymphoma were randomly assigned (1:1, using Pocock minimisation) to eight cycles of conventional chemotherapy (cyclosphosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisolone) plus rituximab (R-CHOEP-14) or four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy plus rituximab followed by autologous HSCT (R-MegaCHOEP). The trial was unmasked. Patients were stratified by age-adjusted IPI factors, presence of bulky disease (tumour mass ≥7·5 cm diameter), and treatment centre. The primary endpoint was event-free survival, analysed here 10 years after randomisation. 10-year overall survival, progression-free survival, conditional survival, relapse patterns, secondary malignancies, and molecular characteristics were also analysed. All analyses were done on the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00129090. FINDINGS: Between March 3, 2003, and April 7, 2009, 275 patients were randomly assigned to R-CHOEP-14 (n=136) or R-MegaCHOEP (n=139). 130 patients in the R-CHOEP-14 group and 132 patients in the R-MegaCHOEP group were included in the intention-to-treat population. After a median follow-up of 9·3 years (IQR 5·1-11·1), 10-year event-free survival was 51% (95% CI 42-61) in the R-MegaCHOEP group and 57% (47-67) in the R-CHOEP-14 group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·3 [95% CI 0·9-1·8], p=0·23). 10-year progression-free survival was 59% (50-68) in the R-MegaCHOEP group and 60% (51-70) in the R-CHOEP-14 group (adjusted HR 1·1 [0·7-1·7], p=0·64). 10-year overall survival was 66% (57-76) in the R-MegaCHOEP group and 72% (63-81) in the R-CHOEP-14 group (adjusted HR 1·3 [0·8-2·1], p=0·26). Relapse occurred in 30 (16% [95% CI 11-22]) of 190 patients who had complete remission or unconfirmed complete remission; 17 (17%) of 100 patients in the R-CHOEP-14 group and 13 (14%) of 90 patients in the R-MegaCHOEP group. Seven (23%) of 30 patients had low-grade histology at relapse and had better outcomes compared with patients who relapsed with aggressive histologies. Lymphoma affected the CNS in 18 (28%) of 64 patients with treatment failure. 22 secondary malignancies were reported in the intention-to-treat population; in 12 (9%) of 127 patients in the R-CHOEP-14 group and ten (8%) of 126 patients in the R-MegaCHOEP group. INTERPRETATION: Event-free survival and overall survival were similar between groups after 10 years of follow-up; outcomes were not improved in the R-MegaCHOEP group by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HSCT. Patients who relapsed with aggressive histology showed a high incidence of CNS involvement and poor prognosis. For these patients, novel therapies are greatly warranted. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe (German Cancer Aid).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Segurança , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/uso terapêutico , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
4.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655392

RESUMO

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a B cell lymphoma composed of monomorphic medium-sized blastic cells with basophilic cytoplasm and a high proliferation index. BL has a characteristic immunophenotype of CD10 and BCL6 positive and BCL2 negative and harbours MYC gene rearrangements (MYCR) in >90% of the cases. Owing to its highly aggressive nature, intensified chemotherapy regimens are usually administered, requiring an exact diagnosis. Since the diagnosis usually warrants an integration of morphologic, immunophenotypic and genetic findings and because there is a morphologic overlap with the new WHO category of high-grade B cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (HGBL, NOS) and some cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we wanted to test the distinctiveness of the CD10+, BCL6+, BCL2- and MYCR positive immunopheno-genotype in a large cohort of >1000 DLBCL and HGBL. Only 9/982 DLBCL classified by an expert panel of haematopathologists (0.9%) displayed a single MYCR and were CD10+, BCL6+ and BCL2-. In a similar fashion, only one out of 32 HGBL, NOS (3%) displayed the "Burkitt-like" genetic/immunophenotypic constitution. The samples of non-BL showing the BL-typic immunopheno-genotype, interestingly, harboured higher copy number variations (CNV) by OncoScan analysis (mean 7.3 CNVs/sample; range: 2-13 vs. 2.4; range 0-6) and were also distinct from pleomorphic BL cases regarding their mutational spectrum by NGS analysis. This implies that the characteristic immunophenotype of BL, in concert with a single MYCR, is uncommon in these aggressive lymphomas, and that this constellation favours BL.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668876

RESUMO

Since the approval of ibrutinib for relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), the treatment of this rare mature B-cell neoplasm has taken a great leap forward. Despite promising efficacy of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, resistance arises inevitably and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we aimed to decipher the response of a sensitive MCL cell line treated with ibrutinib using time-resolved single-cell RNA sequencing. The analysis uncovered five subpopulations and their individual responses to the treatment. The effects on the B cell receptor pathway, cell cycle, surface antigen expression, and metabolism were revealed by the computational analysis and were validated by molecular biological methods. The observed upregulation of B cell receptor signaling, crosstalk with the microenvironment, upregulation of CD52, and metabolic reprogramming towards dependence on oxidative phosphorylation favor resistance to ibrutinib treatment. Targeting these cellular responses provide new therapy options in MCL.

7.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575947

RESUMO

Extramedullary disease (EMD) represents a high-risk state of multiple myeloma (MM) associated with poor prognosis. While most anti-myeloma therapeutics demonstrate limited efficacy in this setting, some studies exploring the utility of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells reported promising results. We have recently designed SLAMF7-directed CAR T cells for the treatment of MM. SLAMF7 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on myeloma cells that plays a role in myeloma cell homing to the bone marrow. Currently, the only approved anti-SLAMF7 therapeutic is the monoclonal antibody elotuzumab, but its efficacy in EMD has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of elotuzumab-based combination therapy in a cohort of 15 patients with EMD. Moreover, since the presence of the target antigen is an indispensable prerequisite for effective targeted therapy, we investigated the SLAMF7 expression on extramedullary located tumor cells before and after treatment. We observed limited efficacy of elotuzumab-based combination therapies, with an overall response rate of 40% and a progression-free and overall survival of 3.8 and 12.9 months, respectively. Before treatment initiation, all available EMD tissue specimens (n = 3) demonstrated a strong and consistent SLAMF7 surface expression by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, to investigate a potential antigen reduction under therapeutic selection pressure, we analyzed samples of de novo EMD (n = 3) outgrown during elotuzumab treatment. Again, immunohistochemistry documented strong and consistent SLAMF7 expression in all samples. In aggregate, our data point towards a retained expression of SLAMF7 in EMD and encourage the development of more potent SLAMF7-directed immunotherapies, such as CAR T cells.

8.
Nat Med ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619368

RESUMO

B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a target for various immunotherapies and a biomarker for tumor load in multiple myeloma (MM). We report a case of irreversible BCMA loss in a patient with MM who was enrolled in the KarMMa trial ( NCT03361748 ) and progressed after anti-BCMA CAR T cell therapy. We identified selection of a clone with homozygous deletion of TNFRSF17 (BCMA) as the underlying mechanism of immune escape. Furthermore, we found heterozygous TNFRSF17 loss or monosomy 16 in 37 out of 168 patients with MM, including 28 out of 33 patients with hyperhaploid MM who had not been previously treated with BCMA-targeting therapies, suggesting that heterozygous TNFRSF17 deletion at baseline could theoretically be a risk factor for BCMA loss after immunotherapy.

9.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 223-234, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined-modality treatment consisting of chemotherapy and consolidation radiotherapy is standard of care for patients with early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the use of radiotherapy can have long-term sequelae, which is of particular concern, as Hodgkin lymphoma is frequently diagnosed in young adults with a median age of approximately 30 years. In the German Hodgkin Study Group HD17 trial, we investigated whether radiotherapy can be omitted without loss of efficacy in patients who have a complete metabolic response after receiving two cycles of escalated doses of etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin, and regular doses of bleomycin, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (eBEACOPP) plus two cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy (2 + 2). METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, patients (aged 18-60 years) with newly diagnosed early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma (all histologies) and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less were enrolled at 224 hospitals and private practices in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either standard combined-modality treatment, consisting of the 2 + 2 regimen (eBEACOPP consisted of 1250 mg/m2 intravenous cyclophosphamide on day 1, 35 mg/m2 intravenous doxorubicin on day 1, 200 mg/m2 intravenous etoposide on days 1-3, 100 mg/m2 oral procarbazine on days 1-7, 40 mg/m2 oral prednisone on days 1-14, 1·4 mg/m2 intravenous vincristine on day 8 [maximum dose of 2 mg per cycle], and 10 mg/m2 intravenous bleomycin on day 8; ABVD consisted of 25 mg/m2 intravenous doxorubicin, 10 mg/m2 intravenous bleomycin, 6 mg/m2 intravenous vinblastine, and 375 mg/m2 intravenous dacarbazine, all given on days 1 and 15) followed by 30 Gy involved-field radiotherapy (standard combined-modality treatment group) or PET4-guided treatment, consisting of the 2 + 2 regimen followed by 30 Gy of involved-node radiotherapy only in patients with positive PET at the end of four cycles of chemotherapy (PET4; PET4-guided treatment group). Randomisation was done centrally and used the minimisation method and seven stratification factors (centre, age, sex, clinical symptoms, disease localisation, albumin concentration, and bulky disease), and patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation until central review of the PET4 examination had been completed. With the final analysis presented here, the primary objective was to show non-inferiority of the PET4-guided strategy in a per-protocol analysis of the primary endpoint of progression-free survival. We defined non-inferiority as an absolute difference of 8% in the 5-year progression-free survival estimates between the two groups. Safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01356680. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2012, and March 21, 2017, we enrolled and randomly assigned 1100 patients to the standard combined-modality treatment group (n=548) or to the PET4-guided treatment group (n=552); two patients in each group were found ineligible after randomisation. At a median follow-up of 46·2 months (IQR 32·7-61·2), 5-year progression-free survival was 97·3% (95% CI 94·5-98·7) in the standard combined-modality treatment group and 95·1% (92·0-97·0) in the PET4-guided treatment group (hazard ratio 0·523 [95% CI 0·226-1·211]). The between-group difference was 2·2% (95% CI -0·9 to 5·3) and excluded the non-inferiority margin of 8%. The most common grade 3 or 4 acute haematological adverse events were leucopenia (436 [83%] of 528 patients in the standard combined-modality treatment group vs 443 [84%] of 529 patients in the PET4-guided treatment group) and thrombocytopenia (139 [26%] vs 176 [33%]), and the most frequent acute non-haematological toxic effects were infection (32 [6%] vs 40 [8%]) and nausea or vomiting (38 [7%] vs 29 [6%]). The most common acute radiotherapy-associated adverse events were dysphagia (26 [6%] in the standard combined-modality treatment group vs three [2%] in the PET4-guided treatment group) and mucositis (nine [2%] vs none). 229 serious adverse events were reported by 161 (29%) of 546 patients in the combined-modality treatment group, and 235 serious adverse events were reported by 164 (30%) of 550 patients in the PET4-guided treatment group. One suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction (infection) leading to death was reported in the PET4-guided treatment group. INTERPRETATION: PET4-negativity after treatment with 2 + 2 chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma allows omission of consolidation radiotherapy without a clinically relevant loss of efficacy. PET4-guided therapy could thereby reduce the proportion of patients at risk of the late effects of radiotherapy. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Procarbazina/administração & dosagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Blood ; 137(5): 646-660, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538798

RESUMO

Richter's transformation (RT) is an aggressive lymphoma that occurs upon progression from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Transformation has been associated with genetic aberrations in the CLL phase involving TP53, CDKN2A, MYC, and NOTCH1; however, a significant proportion of RT cases lack CLL phase-associated events. Here, we report that high levels of AKT phosphorylation occur both in high-risk CLL patients harboring TP53 and NOTCH1 mutations as well as in patients with RT. Genetic overactivation of Akt in the murine Eµ-TCL1 CLL mouse model resulted in CLL transformation to RT with significantly reduced survival and an aggressive lymphoma phenotype. In the absence of recurrent mutations, we identified a profile of genomic aberrations intermediate between CLL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Multiomics assessment by phosphoproteomic/proteomic and single-cell transcriptomic profiles of this Akt-induced murine RT revealed an S100 protein-defined subcluster of highly aggressive lymphoma cells that developed from CLL cells, through activation of Notch via Notch ligand expressed by T cells. Constitutively active Notch1 similarly induced RT of murine CLL. We identify Akt activation as an initiator of CLL transformation toward aggressive lymphoma by inducing Notch signaling between RT cells and microenvironmental T cells.

11.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528622

RESUMO

Chromosomal breakpoints involving the MYC gene locus, frequently referred to as MYC rearrangements (MYC - R+), are a diagnostic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma and recurrent in many other subtypes of B-cell lymphomas including follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other high-grade B-cell lymphomas and are associated with an aggressive clinical course. In remarkable contrast, in MCL, only few MYC - R+ cases have yet been described. In the current study, we have retrospectively analysed 16 samples (MYC - R+, n = 15, MYC - R-, n = 1) from 13 patients and describe their morphological, immunophenotypic and (molecular) genetic features and clonal evolution patterns. Thirteen out of fifteen MYC - R+ samples showed a non-classical cytology including pleomorphic (centroblastic, immunoblastic), anaplastic or blastoid. MYC translocation partners were IG-loci in 4/11 and non-IG loci in 7/11 analysed cases. The involved IG-loci included IGH in 3 cases and IGL in one case. PAX5 was the non-IG partner in 2/7 patients. The MYC - R+ MCL reported herein frequently displayed characteristics associated with an aggressive clinical course including high genomic-complexity (6/7 samples), frequent deletions involving the CDKN2A locus (7/10 samples), high Ki-67 proliferation index (12/13 samples) and frequent P53 expression (13/13 samples). Of note, in 4/14 samples, SOX11 was not or only focally expressed and 3/13 samples showed focal or diffuse TdT-positivity presenting a diagnostic challenge as these features could point to a differential diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and/or lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukaemia.

12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009210, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596248

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is best known for infection of B cells, in which it usually establishes an asymptomatic lifelong infection, but is also associated with the development of multiple B cell lymphomas. EBV also infects epithelial cells and is associated with all cases of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). EBV is etiologically linked with at least 8% of gastric cancer (EBVaGC) that comprises a genetically and epigenetically distinct subset of GC. Although we have a very good understanding of B cell entry and lymphomagenesis, the sequence of events leading to EBVaGC remains poorly understood. Recently, ephrin receptor A2 (EPHA2) was proposed as the epithelial cell receptor on human cancer cell lines. Although we confirm some of these results, we demonstrate that EBV does not infect healthy adult stem cell-derived gastric organoids. In matched pairs of normal and cancer-derived organoids from the same patient, EBV only reproducibly infected the cancer organoids. While there was no clear pattern of differential expression between normal and cancer organoids for EPHA2 at the RNA and protein level, the subcellular location of the protein differed markedly. Confocal microscopy showed EPHA2 localization at the cell-cell junctions in primary cells, but not in cancer cell lines. Furthermore, histologic analysis of patient tissue revealed the absence of EBV in healthy epithelium and presence of EBV in epithelial cells from inflamed tissue. These data suggest that the EPHA2 receptor is not accessible to EBV on healthy gastric epithelial cells with intact cell-cell contacts, but either this or another, yet to be identified receptor may become accessible following cellular changes induced by inflammation or transformation, rendering changes in the cellular architecture an essential prerequisite to EBV infection.

13.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579803

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) is an integral component in the primary staging of most lymphomas. However, its utility is limited in marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) due to inconsistent FDG avidity. One diagnostic alternative could be the targeting of CXC-motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), shown to be expressed by MZL cells. This study investigated the value of adding CXCR4-directed 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT to conventional staging. Methods: 22 newly diagnosed MZL patients were staged conventionally and with 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT. Lesions exclusively identified by 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT were biopsied as standard of reference and compared to imaging results. The impact of CXCR4-directed imaging on staging results and treatment protocol was assessed. Results: 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT correctly identified all patients with viable MZL and was superior to conventional staging (P < 0.001). CXCR4-directed imaging results were validated by confirmation of MZL in 21/24 PET-guided biopsy samples. Inclusion of 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT in primary staging significantly impacted staging results in almost half, and treatment protocols in one third of patients (upstaging, n = 7; downstaging, n = 3; treatment change, n = 8; P < 0.03). Conclusion: 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT is a suitable tool in primary staging of MZL and holds the potential to improve existing diagnostic algorithms.

14.
J Cutan Pathol ; 48(5): 625-631, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous vaccination or desensitization may induce persistent nodules at the injection sites. Without the knowledge of prior injection, histopathological work-up may be challenging. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to contribute to the histopathological work-up of unclear subcutaneous nodules, especially their differentiation from cutaneous lymphoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data and histopathological slides of four patients with subcutaneous nodules, which were suspected to suffer from cutaneous T- or B-cell lymphoma. Sections of these cases and 12 negative controls were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and a standardized immunohistochemical panel of B- and T-cell markers including EBER in situ hybridization as well as electron microscopy. RESULTS: In all cases, large histiocytes with granular cytoplasm compatible with intracellular aluminum hydroxide were present. EBER in situ hybridization revealed positive staining of these granular histiocytes while staining was absent in negative controls. LIMITATIONS: Post hoc completion of medical history revealed that vaccination or specific immunotherapy had been applied before at the biopsy site in only three out of four patients; one patient was lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: EBER in situ hybridization is an adjunctive tool to differentiate aluminum-induced granuloma/lymphoid hyperplasia from other forms of pseudolymphoma and cutaneous B- or T-cell lymphomas.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 150-160, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638373

RESUMO

The sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartic domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) has been demonstrated to predict the response to high-dose cytarabine consolidation treatment in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Here, we evaluated SAMHD1 as potential biomarker for the response to high-dose cytarabine in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients. We quantified SAMHD1 protein expression and determined the mutation status in patients of the MCL Younger and Elderly trials (n = 189), who had received high-dose cytarabine- or fludarabine-based polychemotherapy. Additionally, we quantified SAMHD1 expression in B cell lymphoma cell lines and exposed them to cytarabine, fludarabine, and clinically relevant combinations. Across both trials investigated, SAMHD1 mutations had a frequency of 7.1% (n = 13) and did not significantly affect the failure-free survival (FFS, P = .47). In patients treated with high-dose cytarabine- or fludarabine-containing regimes, SAMHD1 expression was not significantly associated with FFS or complete remission rate. SAMHD1 expression in B cell lymphoma cell lines, however, inversely correlated with their in vitro response to cytarabine as single agent (R = .65, P = .0065). This correlation could be reversed by combining cytarabine with other chemotherapeutics, such as oxaliplatin and vincristine, similar to the treatment regime of the MCL Younger trial. We conclude that this might explain why we did not observe a significant association between SAMHD1 protein expression and the outcome of MCL patients upon cytarabine-based treatment.

16.
J Exp Med ; 218(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986812

RESUMO

Posttranslational modification with SUMO is known to regulate the activity of transcription factors, but how SUMOylation of individual proteins might influence immunity is largely unexplored. The NFAT transcription factors play an essential role in antigen receptor-mediated gene regulation. SUMOylation of NFATc1 represses IL-2 in vitro, but its role in T cell-mediated immune responses in vivo is unclear. To this end, we generated a novel transgenic mouse in which SUMO modification of NFATc1 is prevented. Avoidance of NFATc1 SUMOylation ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as well as graft-versus-host disease. Elevated IL-2 production in T cells promoted T reg expansion and suppressed autoreactive or alloreactive immune responses. Mechanistically, increased IL-2 secretion counteracted IL-17 and IFN-γ expression through STAT5 and Blimp-1 induction. Then, Blimp-1 repressed IL-2 itself, as well as the induced, proliferation-associated survival factor Bcl2A1. Collectively, these data demonstrate that prevention of NFATc1 SUMOylation fine-tunes T cell responses toward lasting tolerance. Thus, targeting NFATc1 SUMOylation presents a novel and promising strategy to treat T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

17.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-15, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353431

RESUMO

In order to differentiate prognostic subgroups of patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma, we analyzed the expression of 800 miRNAs with the NanoString nCounter human miRNA assay on a cohort of 228 FFPE samples of patients enrolled in the RICOVER-60 and MegaCHOEP trials. We identified significant miRNA signatures for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) by LASSO-penalized linear Cox-regression. High expression levels of miR-130a-3p and miR-423-5p indicate a better prognosis, whereas high levels of miR-374b-5p, miR-590-5p, miR-186-5p, and miR-106b-5p increase patients' risk levels for OS. Regarding PFS high expression of miR-365a-5p in addition to the other two miRNAs improves the prognosis and high levels of miR374a-5p, miR-106b-5p, and miR-590-5p, connects with increased risk and poor prognosis. We identified miRNA signatures to subdivide patients into two different risk groups. These prognostic models may be used in risk stratification in future clinical trials and help making personalized therapy decisions.

18.
Blood ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232972

RESUMO

Aberrant B-cell receptor (BCR)/NF-kB signaling is a hallmark feature of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL), especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Recurrent mutations in this cascade, e.g. in CD79B, CARD11, or NFKBIZ, and also in the Toll-like receptor pathway transducer MyD88, all deregulate NF-kB, but their differential impact on lymphoma development and biology remains to be determined. We functionally investigate here primary mouse lymphomas that formed in recipient mice of Eµ-myc transgenic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) stably transduced with naturally occurring NF-kB mutants. While most mutants supported Myc-driven lymphoma formation through repressed apoptosis, CARD11- or MyD88-mutant lymphoma cells selectively presented with a macrophage-activating secretion profile, which, in turn, strongly enforced TGF-b-mediated senescence in the lymphoma cell compartment. However, MyD88- or CARD11-mutant Eµ-myc lymphomas exhibited high-level expression of the immune checkpoint mediator PD-L1, thus preventing their efficient clearance by adaptive host immunity. Conversely, these mutant-specific dependencies were therapeutically exploitable by anti-PD1 checkpoint blockade, leading to direct T-cell-mediated lysis of predominantly but not exclusively senescent lymphoma cells. Importantly, mouse-based mutant MyD88- and CARD11-derived signatures marked DLBCL subgroups exhibiting mirroring phenotypes with respect to the triad of senescence induction, macrophage attraction, and evasion of cytotoxic T-cell immunity. Complementing genomic subclassification approaches, our functional, cross-species investigation unveils pathogenic principles and therapeutic vulnerabilities applicable to and testable in human DLBCL subsets that may inform future personalized treatment strategies.

19.
Histopathology ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165992

RESUMO

AIMS: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare aggressive B-cell lymphoma frequently arising at extranodal sites in the setting of immunosuppression. The diagnosis of PBL is complex, owing to a frequent solid or cohesive growth pattern and often unusual immunophenotype. Several case reports have described the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in PBL introducing a diagnostic pitfall. In the largest series available to date, our goal was to determine the frequency of CK reactivity in PBL. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 72 PBL, we identified reactivity for CK8/18 in 11/72 cases (15%) and AE1/3 in 6/65 cases (9%), clearly contrasting with a control series of non-PBL aggressive B-cell lymphomas (1/96 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas), as well as with data in the literature describing only occasional CK expression in hematological neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate reactivity for CK in a substantial number (15%) of PBL. In view of its particular morphological features and frequent negativity for the common leukocyte antigen and B-cell markers, this feature represents a pitfall in the routine diagnostic work-up of PBL and requires more extensive immunohistochemical and molecular characterization of cases entering the differential diagnosis.

20.
Blood ; 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140819

RESUMO

Richter's transformation (RT) is an aggressive lymphoma which occurs upon progression from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Transformation has been associated with genetic aberrations in the CLL-phase involving TP53, CDKN2A, MYC, and NOTCH1, however a significant proportion of RT cases lack CLL-phase associated events. Here, we report that high levels of AKT phosphorylation occurs both in high-risk CLL patients harboring TP53 and NOTCH1 mutations as well as in RT patients. Genetic over-activation of Akt in the murine Eµ-TCL1 CLL mouse model resulted in CLL to RT with significantly reduced survival and an aggressive lymphoma phenotype. In the absence of recurrent mutations, we identified a profile of genomic aberrations intermediate between CLL and DLBCL. Multi-omics assessment by phosphoproteomic/proteomic and single-cell transcriptomic profiles of this Akt-induced murine RT revealed a S100-protein-defined subcluster of highly aggressive lymphoma cells, which developed from CLL cells, through activation of Notch via Notch ligand expressed by T cells. Constitutively active Notch1 similarly induced RT of murine CLL. We identify Akt activation as an initiator of CLL transformation towards aggressive lymphoma by inducing Notch signaling between RT cells and microenvironmental T cells.

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