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1.
Eur J Dermatol ; 29(5): 468-476, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789272

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a predominantly T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorder with a characteristic sequence of Th1 and Th2 inflammation resulting in fibrosis. The contribution of differentiated memory T-cell subpopulations and methylation of CpG regions of Th1- or Th2-specific transcription factor genes on the inflammatory cytokine signature in SSc is not well understood. The study aimed to investigate phenotypic differentiation, the cytokine signature, sensitivity of memory T cells to in vitro suppression by autologous regulatory T cells (Tregs), and methylation of Th1- and Th2-specific transcription factor genes in patients with limited (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) compared to healthy donors (HD). Phenotype/intracellular cytokine production and methylation of Th1- and Th2-specific transcription factor genes were determined by flow cytometry and epigenetic analysis, respectively, and compared between patients with lcSSc, dcSSc and HD. Discrimination of CD4+ T cells that lack CCR7 expression revealed that CCR7- CD4+ memory T cells and effectors are producers of intracellular TNFα, IL-13 and IL-4, particularly in dcSSc. A proportional increase in CCR7- memory T cells was demonstrated by SSc-derived CD4+ T-cells after insufficient suppression by Tregs. A higher level of methylation of GATA3 or STAT4 (Th2- and Th1-specific transcription factor genes, respectively) was observed in dcSSc. An abundance of specific CD4+ memory T-cell subpopulations strongly contributes to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in dcSSc. Our results suggest that therapeutic concepts should focus more intensively on the memory phenotype to control T cell-mediated inflammation in SSc patients.

2.
Blood ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697802

RESUMO

The genetic background of follicular lymphomas (FL) diagnosed in advanced clinical stages III/IV, frequently characterized by the t(14;18), has been substantially unraveled. Molecular features as exemplified in the m7FLIPI are important tools in risk stratification. In contrast, little information is available concerning localized-stage FL (clinical stages I/II), comprising approximately 20% of newly diagnosed FL in which the t(14;18) detection rate is only ~50%. To investigate the genetic background of localized-stage FL, patient cohorts of both advanced-stage and localized-stage FL, uniformly treated within phase III trials of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (GLSG), were comparatively analyzed. Targeted gene expression (GE) profiling of 184 genes using the nCounter technology was performed in 110 localized-stage and 556 advanced-stage FL. By penalized Cox regression, a prognostic GE signature could not be identified in patients with advanced-stage FL, consistent with results from global tests and univariate regression. In contrast, it was possible to define robust GE signatures discriminating localized-stage and advanced-stage FL (AUC: 0.98) by penalized logistic regression. Of note, 3% of samples harboring an 'advanced-stage signature' in the localized-stage cohort demonstrated inferior failure-free survival (hazard ratio, HR, 7.1, p=0.0003). Likewise, in the advanced-stage cohort, 7% of samples with a 'localized-stage signature' had prolonged failure-free (HR 2.3, p=0.017) and overall survival (HR 3.4, p=0.072). These data support the concept of a biological difference between localized-stage and advanced-stage FL that might contribute to the superior outcome of localized FL.

3.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(11): 1413-1424, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685988

RESUMO

Tumours depend on altered rates of protein synthesis for growth and survival, which suggests that mechanisms controlling mRNA translation may be exploitable for therapy. Here, we show that loss of APC, which occurs almost universally in colorectal tumours, strongly enhances the dependence on the translation initiation factor eIF2B5. Depletion of eIF2B5 induces an integrated stress response and enhances translation of MYC via an internal ribosomal entry site. This perturbs cellular amino acid and nucleotide pools, strains energy resources and causes MYC-dependent apoptosis. eIF2B5 limits MYC expression and prevents apoptosis in APC-deficient murine and patient-derived organoids and in APC-deficient murine intestinal epithelia in vivo. Conversely, the high MYC levels present in APC-deficient cells induce phosphorylation of eIF2α via the kinases GCN2 and PKR. Pharmacological inhibition of GCN2 phenocopies eIF2B5 depletion and has therapeutic efficacy in tumour organoids, which demonstrates that a negative MYC-eIF2α feedback loop constitutes a targetable vulnerability of colorectal tumours.

4.
Leukemia ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690822

RESUMO

The proximal DNA damage response kinase ATM is frequently inactivated in human malignancies. Germline mutations in the ATM gene cause Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), characterized by cerebellar ataxia and cancer predisposition. Whether ATM deficiency impacts on tumor initiation or also on the maintenance of the malignant state is unclear. Here, we show that Atm reactivation in initially Atm-deficient B- and T cell lymphomas induces tumor regression. We further find a reduced T cell abundance in B cell lymphomas from Atm-defective mice and A-T patients. Using T cell-specific Atm-knockout models, as well as allogeneic transplantation experiments, we pinpoint impaired immune surveillance as a contributor to cancer predisposition and development. Moreover, we demonstrate that Atm-deficient T cells display impaired proliferation capacity upon stimulation, due to replication stress. Altogether, our data indicate that T cell-specific restoration of ATM activity or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may prevent lymphomagenesis in A-T patients.

5.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601693

RESUMO

Oncogenic RAS provides crucial survival signaling for up to half of multiple myeloma cases, but has so far remained a clinically undruggable target. RAL is a member of the RAS superfamily of small GTPases and is considered to be a potential mediator of oncogenic RAS signaling. In primary multiple myeloma, we found RAL to be overexpressed in the vast majority of samples when compared with pre-malignant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or normal plasma cells. We analyzed the functional effects of RAL abrogation in myeloma cell lines and found that RAL is a critical mediator of survival. RNAi-mediated knockdown of RAL resulted in rapid induction of tumor cell death, an effect which was independent from signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinase, but appears to be partially dependent on Akt activity. Notably, RAL activation was not correlated with the presence of activating RAS mutations and remained unaffected by knockdown of oncogenic RAS. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis yielded distinct RNA expression signatures after knockdown of either RAS or RAL. Combining RAL depletion with clinically relevant anti-myeloma agents led to enhanced rates of cell death. Our data demonstrate that RAL promotes multiple myeloma cell survival independently of oncogenic RAS and, thus, this pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in its own right.

6.
Leukemia ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530861

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a disease with heterogeneous outcome. Stromal signatures have been correlated to survival in DLBCL. Their use, however, is hampered by the lack of assays for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material (FFPE). We constructed a lymphoma-associated macrophage interaction signature (LAMIS) interrogating features of the microenvironment using a NanoString assay applicable to FFPE. The clinical impact of the signature could be validated in a cohort of 466 patients enrolled in prospective clinical trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Patients with high expression of the signature (LAMIShigh) had shorter EFS, PFS, and OS. Multivariate analyses revealed independence from IPI factors in EFS (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, p-value = 0.001), PFS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.5, p-value = 0.001) and OS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.7, p-value = 0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusted for the IPI factors showed the signature to be independent from COO, MYC rearrangements and double expresser status (DE). LAMIShigh and simultaneous DE status characterized a patient subgroup with dismal prognosis and early relapse. Our data underline the importance of the microenvironment in prognosis. Combined analysis of stromal features, the IPI and DE may provide a new rationale for targeted therapy.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(31): 2835-2845, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined-modality treatment (CMT) with 2× ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and small-field radiotherapy is standard of care for patients with early-stage favorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, the role of radiotherapy has been challenged. Positron emission tomography (PET) after 2× ABVD (PET-2) might help to predict individual outcomes and guide treatment. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2015, we recruited patients age 18 to 75 years with newly diagnosed, early-stage favorable HL for this international randomized phase III trial. Patients were assigned to standard CMT of 2× ABVD and 20-Gy involved-field radiotherapy or PET-guided treatment, omitting involved-field radiotherapy after negative PET-2 (Deauville score < 3). Primary objectives were to exclude inferiority of 10% or more in 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) of ABVD alone compared with CMT in a per-protocol analysis among PET-2-negative patients (noninferiority margin for hazard ratio, 3.01) and to confirm PET-2 positivity (Deauville score ≥ 3) as a risk factor for PFS among CMT-treated patients. RESULTS: We enrolled 1,150 patients. Median follow-up was 45 months. Among 628 PET-2-negative, per-protocol-treated patients, 5-year PFS was 93.4% (95% CI, 90.4% to 96.5%) with CMT and 86.1% (95% CI, 81.4% to 90.9%) with ABVD (difference 7.3% [95% CI, 1.6% to 13.0%]; hazard ratio, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.02 to 3.12]). Five-year overall survival was 98.1% (95% CI, 96.5% to 99.8%) with CMT and 98.4% (95% CI, 96.5% to 100.0%) with ABVD. Among 693 patients who were assigned to CMT, 5-year PFS was 93.2% (95% CI, 90.2% to 96.2%) among PET-2-negative patients and 88.4% (95% CI, 84.2% to 92.6%) in PET-2-positive patients (P = .047). When using the more common liver cutoff (Deauville score, 4) for PET-2 positivity, the difference was more pronounced (5-year PFS, 93.1% [95% CI, 90.7% to 95.5%] v 80.9% [95% CI, 72.2% to 89.7%]; P = .0011). CONCLUSION: In early-stage favorable HL, a positive PET after two cycles ABVD indicates a high risk for treatment failure, particularly when a Deauville score of 4 is used as a cutoff for positivity. In PET-2-negative patients, radiotherapy cannot be omitted from CMT without clinically relevant loss of tumor control.

8.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562134

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell malignancies with approximately one-third of cases designated as PTCL-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Using gene expression profiling (GEP), we have previously defined two major molecular subtypes of PTCL-NOS; PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21 that have distinct biological differences in oncogenic pathways and prognosis. In the current study, we generated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithm to identify the two subtypes in paraffin tissue using antibodies to key transcriptional factors (GATA3 and TBX21) and their target proteins (CCR4 and CXCR3). In a training cohort of 49 cases of PTCL-NOS with corresponding GEP data, the two subtypes identified by the IHC algorithm matched the GEP results with high sensitivity (85%) and showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) (p=0.03). The IHC algorithm classification showed high inter-observer reproducibility among pathologists and was validated in a second PTCL-NOS cohort (n=124), where a significant difference in OS between the PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21 subtypes was confirmed (p=0.003). In multivariate analysis, a high International Prognostic Index score (3-5) and the PTCL-GATA3 subtype identified by IHC were independent adverse predictors of OS (p= 0.0015). Additionally, the two IHC-defined subtypes were significantly associated with distinct morphological features (p<0.001), and there was a significant enrichment of an activated CD8+ cytotoxic phenotype in the PTCL-TBX21 subtype (p= 0.03). The IHC algorithm will aid in identifying the two subtypes in clinical practice, which will aid the future clinical management of patients and facilitate risk stratification in clinical trials.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900743, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) occurs in approximately 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and has been associated with poor prognosis in many studies. The impact of MYC-R on prognosis may be influenced by the MYC partner gene (immunoglobulin [IG] or a non-IG gene). We evaluated a large cohort of patients through the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium to validate the prognostic significance of MYC-R (single-, double-, and triple-hit status) in DLBCL within the context of the MYC partner gene. METHODS: The study cohort included patients with histologically confirmed DLBCL morphology derived from large prospective trials and patient registries in Europe and North America who were uniformly treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy or the like. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and IG heavy and light chain loci was used, and results were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5,117 patients were identified of whom 2,383 (47%) had biopsy material available to assess for MYC-R. MYC-R was present in 264 (11%) of 2,383 patients and was associated with a significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival, with a strong time-dependent effect within the first 24 months after diagnosis. The adverse prognostic impact of MYC-R was only evident in patients with a concurrent rearrangement of BCL2 and/or BCL6 and an IG partner (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.6; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The negative prognostic impact of MYC-R in DLBCL is largely observed in patients with MYC double hit/triple-hit disease in which MYC is translocated to an IG partner, and this effect is restricted to the first 2 years after diagnosis. Our results suggest that diagnostic strategies should be adopted to identify this high-risk cohort, and risk-adjusted therapeutic approaches should be refined further.

11.
Am J Hematol ; 94(11): 1208-1213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396979

RESUMO

Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) can present with different histopathological growth patterns. The impact of these histopathological growth patterns on relapse characteristics is unknown. We therefore analyzed paired biopsies obtained at initial diagnosis and relapse from 33 NLPHL patients who had received first-line treatment within German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial protocols, and from a second cohort of 41 relapsed NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies. Among the 33 GHSG patients, 21 patients presented with a typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis, whereas 12 patients had a variant histology. The histopathological growth patterns at initial diagnosis and at relapse were consistent in 67% of cases. A variant histology at initial diagnosis was associated with a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence (2.8 vs 5.2 years; P = .0219). A similar tendency towards a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence was observed for patients presenting with a variant histology at relapse, irrespective of the growth pattern at initial diagnosis. Results obtained from the 41 NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies were comparable (median time to lymphoma recurrence for variant histology vs typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis: 1.5 vs 7.0 years). In conclusion, the histopathological growth pattern remains consistent at relapse in the majority of NLPHL cases, and has major impact on the time of relapse.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 187(5): 627-637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407320

RESUMO

Mutations in SOCS1 are frequent in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. In the latter, SOCS1 mutations affect the length of the encoded protein (major mutations) and are associated with shorter patient survival. Two independent studies examined the prognostic impact of SOCS1 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and showed differing results. This may be due to the small number of included patients, the heterogeneity of patients' demographics and the distinct treatment schemes in these studies. To overcome the size limitations of these previous studies, we assessed SOCS1 mutations in the RICOVER-60 cohort. The cohort uniformly consists of elderly patients (aged 61-80 years) treated with the CHOP-14 scheme (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone at 14-day intervals) with or without an additional rituximab treatment. Patient outcomes were analysed with regard to overall SOCS1 mutation frequency, major and minor mutations and a novel impact-based classifier - against the treatment modalities. Patients harbouring putative pathogenic SOCS1 mutations showed significant reduced overall survival within the CHOP plus rituximab group. Hence, putative pathogenic SOCS1 mutations seem to efface the beneficial effect of the therapeutic CD20 antibody. Comparing published data of whole exome and transcriptome sequencing of a large DLBCL cohort confirmed that predicted deleterious SOCS1 mutations forecast pre-eminent survival in early onset DLBCL.

14.
Diagn Pathol ; 14(1): 80, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma is an uncommon type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, occurring usually in the form of nodules within the subcutaneous fat tissue of the extremities or trunk. In the literature, subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is described as a distinct type of T-cell lymphoma with a variable clinical behavior, depending on molecular phenotype of T-cell receptor (TCR) and on the presence or absence of hemophagocytic syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a bioptic and autoptic case of a 65-years old Caucasian man with panniculitic T-cell lymphoma with morphological and immunohistochemical features of SPTCL, limited to the retroperitoneal and mesenteric mass, i.e. without any cutaneous involvement, and associated with severe hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. CONCLUSION: A panniculitic T-cell lymphoma with morphological and molecular features of SPTCL, which is limited to mesentery, i.e. does not involve subcutaneous fat, seems to be exceedingly rare.

15.
J Mol Biol ; 431(15): 2884-2893, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150736

RESUMO

Precision medicine requires in vitro models which will both faithfully recapitulate the features of an individual's disease and enable drug testing on a wide variety of samples covering the greatest range of phenotypes possible for a particular disease. Organoid technology has immense potential to fulfill this demand, but it will be necessary to develop robust protocols that enable the generation of organoids in a dependable manner from nearly every patient. Here we provide a user's guide, including detailed step-by-step protocols, to the establishment, isolation and verification of gastric cancer organoids. Selection strategies include omission of growth factors, addition of drugs, isolation of distinct phenotypes and generation of monoclonal lines. For confirmation of cancer identity, we use sequencing, drug selection, karyotyping and histology. While we specify these protocols for human gastric cancer organoids here, the methods described are applicable to organoids derived from other tissues as well.

16.
Cell Rep ; 27(12): 3533-3546.e7, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216474

RESUMO

YAP and TAZ, downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway, are important regulators of proliferation. Here, we show that the ability of YAP to activate mitotic gene expression is dependent on the Myb-MuvB (MMB) complex, a master regulator of genes expressed in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. By carrying out genome-wide expression and binding analyses, we found that YAP promotes binding of the MMB subunit B-MYB to the promoters of mitotic target genes. YAP binds to B-MYB and stimulates B-MYB chromatin association through distal enhancer elements that interact with MMB-regulated promoters through chromatin looping. The cooperation between YAP and B-MYB is critical for YAP-mediated entry into mitosis. Furthermore, the expression of genes coactivated by YAP and B-MYB is associated with poor survival of cancer patients. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism by which YAP and MMB regulate mitotic gene expression and suggest a link between two cancer-relevant signaling pathways.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(497)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217338

RESUMO

The activated B cell (ABC-like) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by chronic activation of signaling initiated by immunoglobulin µ (IgM). By analyzing the DNA copy number profiles of 1000 DLBCL tumors, we identified gains of 18q21.2 as the most frequent genetic alteration in ABC-like DLBCL. Using integrative analysis of matched gene expression profiling data, we found that the TCF4 (E2-2) transcription factor gene was the target of these alterations. Overexpression of TCF4 in ABC-like DLBCL cell lines led to its occupancy on immunoglobulin (IGHM) and MYC gene enhancers and increased expression of these genes at the transcript and protein levels. Inhibition of TCF4 activity with dominant-negative constructs was synthetically lethal to ABC-like DLBCL cell lines harboring TCF4 DNA copy gains, highlighting these gains as an attractive potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, the TCF4 gene was one of the top BRD4-regulated genes in DLBCL cell lines. BET proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) ARV771 extinguished TCF4, MYC, and IgM expression and killed ABC-like DLBCL cells in vitro. In DLBCL xenograft models, ARV771 treatment reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival. This work highlights a genetic mechanism for promoting immunoglobulin signaling in ABC-like DLBCL and provides a functional rationale for the use of BET inhibitors in this disease.

18.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 27, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germinal center-derived B cell lymphomas are tumors of the lymphoid tissues representing one of the most heterogeneous malignancies. Here we characterize the variety of transcriptomic phenotypes of this disease based on 873 biopsy specimens collected in the German Cancer Aid MMML (Molecular Mechanisms in Malignant Lymphoma) consortium. They include diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), Burkitt's lymphoma, mixed FL/DLBCL lymphomas, primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma, IRF4-rearranged large cell lymphoma, MYC-negative Burkitt-like lymphoma with chr. 11q aberration and mantle cell lymphoma. METHODS: We apply self-organizing map (SOM) machine learning to microarray-derived expression data to generate a holistic view on the transcriptome landscape of lymphomas, to describe the multidimensional nature of gene regulation and to pursue a modular view on co-expression. Expression data were complemented by pathological, genetic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: We present a transcriptome map of B cell lymphomas that allows visual comparison between the SOM portraits of different lymphoma strata and individual cases. It decomposes into one dozen modules of co-expressed genes related to different functional categories, to genetic defects and to the pathogenesis of lymphomas. On a molecular level, this disease rather forms a continuum of expression states than clearly separated phenotypes. We introduced the concept of combinatorial pattern types (PATs) that stratifies the lymphomas into nine PAT groups and, on a coarser level, into five prominent cancer hallmark types with proliferation, inflammation and stroma signatures. Inflammation signatures in combination with healthy B cell and tonsil characteristics associate with better overall survival rates, while proliferation in combination with inflammation and plasma cell characteristics worsens it. A phenotypic similarity tree is presented that reveals possible progression paths along the transcriptional dimensions. Our analysis provided a novel look on the transition range between FL and DLBCL, on DLBCL with poor prognosis showing expression patterns resembling that of Burkitt's lymphoma and particularly on 'double-hit' MYC and BCL2 transformed lymphomas. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptome map provides a tool that aggregates, refines and visualizes the data collected in the MMML study and interprets them in the light of previous knowledge to provide orientation and support in current and future studies on lymphomas and on other cancer entities.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1459, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926794

RESUMO

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common B-cell lymphoma in children. Within the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), we performed whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of 39 sporadic BL. Here, we unravel interaction of structural, mutational, and transcriptional changes, which contribute to MYC oncogene dysregulation together with the pathognomonic IG-MYC translocation. Moreover, by mapping IGH translocation breakpoints, we provide evidence that the precursor of at least a subset of BL is a B-cell poised to express IGHA. We describe the landscape of mutations, structural variants, and mutational processes, and identified a series of driver genes in the pathogenesis of BL, which can be targeted by various mechanisms, including IG-non MYC translocations, germline and somatic mutations, fusion transcripts, and alternative splicing.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/genética , Genoma Humano , Transcriptoma/genética , Adolescente , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/química , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Translocação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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