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1.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431165

RESUMO

Covariance components were estimated for growth traits (BW, birth weight; WW, weaning weight; YW, yearling weight), visual scores (BQ, breed quality; CS, conformation; MS, muscling; NS, navel; PS, finishing precocity), hip height (HH), and carcass traits (BF, backfat thickness; LMA, longissimus muscle area) measured at yearling. Genetic gains were obtained and validation models on direct and maternal effects for BW and WW were fitted. Genetic correlations of growth traits with CS, PS, MS, and HH ranged from 0.20 ± 0.01 to 0.94 ± 0.01 and were positive and low with NS (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.20 ± 0.01) and favorable with BQ (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.37 ± 0.02). Null to moderate genetic correlations were obtained between growth and carcass traits. Genetic gains were positive and significant, except for BW. An increase of 0.76 and 0.72 kg is expected for BW and WW, respectively, per unit increase in estimated breeding value (EBV) for direct effect and an additional 0.74 and 1.43, respectively, kg per unit increase in EBV for the maternal effect. Monitoring genetic gains for HH and NS is relevant to maintain an adequate body size and a navel morphological correction, if necessary. Simultaneous selection for growth, morphological, and carcass traits in line with improve maternal performance is a feasible strategy to increase herd productivity.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Fenótipo
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 260, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852073

RESUMO

This study was realized to analyze the combinations of climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables on distribution of breeding values for performance characteristics and scrotal circumference of Brangus cattle. Records of 84,703 Brangus animals, born from 2000 to 2010 distributed in 65 farms in Brazil were used. The characteristics analyzed were average daily gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling (WW and YW), visual scores of conformations (WC and YC), muscle score (WM and YM), precocity score (WP and YS), and size score (WS and YS) at weaning and yearling and scrotal circumference (SC) at yearling. Components of (co)variance estimated through the animal model employing methodology to AIREML. Mean estimates of direct heritability obtained for visual scores at weaning (WC 0.16, WM 0.16, WP 0.19, and WS 0.22) were lower than those obtained at yearling (YC 0.28, YM 0.26, YP 0.24, and YS 0.40). WW had heritability greater than YW (0.27 and 0.12) and a heritability of 0.36 obtained for SC. Canonical, discriminant, and cluster analyses were performed in the SAS® 9.4 program. Three clusters of genetic values averages per farm were formed according to climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables. Brangus animals are from states of RS, PR, SP, MG, GO, MG, and MS. The highest breeding values were strongly related to thermal amplitude and municipality area. Spatial distribution of the breeding value of Brangus animals can help in the development of environmental indices, genetic evaluations, and the choice of animals for certain environments.


Assuntos
Fatores Econômicos , Escroto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , Desmame
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(10): e20200500, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285998

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This research identified the animal model that best describes the genetic and residual variations for tick counts in yearlings from a crossbred Angus-Nellore population of 6,951 animals that are progenies of 382 bulls and 6,198 cows. Genetic values were predicted by the Bayesian inference methodology. The models tested were: Traditional Animal, and Crossbred Animal with and without segregation, considering residual homoscedastic and heteroscedastic variances. The criteria of choice were the number of parameters, deviance information, and predictive order, which indicated the best fitfor the Traditional Animal model and Crossbred Animal model (with segregation), both with residual heteroscedastic Gaussian variance. The mean values of fixed genetic effects were positive and similar in the both models, indicating that animals with higher proportion of the Angus breed had greater infestation, and the Nellore breed was an important addition for resistance to ticks. The estimated genetic variation by the heteroscedastic Gaussian Animal model for the Nellore breed was 4.54-fold higher than that estimated for the Angus breed. The estimates of heritability of the different genetic groups ranged from 0.12 to 0.15 and from 0.01 to 0.35, respectively, for the Traditional Animal model and for the heteroscedastic Gaussian crossbred model. The Spearman's rank-order correlation for the predicted genetic values was 0.94, considering all sires. However, when considering the top 10%, 20%, and 30% sires, differences in ranking were more evident (0.28 to 0.67). The Crossbred Animal model with segregation and heterogeneous residual variances was the most appropriate for genetic evaluation of tick counts on animals from Angus-Nellore crossings.


RESUMO: O objetivo neste trabalho foi identificar o modelo animal que melhor descreve a variação genética e residual para a característica contagem de carrapatos ao sobreano, em uma população multirracial Angus-Nelore constituída por 6.951 animais, filhos de 382 touros e 6.198 vacas. Os valores genéticos foram preditos a partir da metodologia de inferência Bayesiana utilizando os seguintes modelos: Animal Tradicional, Animal Multirracial sem e com segregação, considerando as variâncias residuais homo ou heterocedástica. Os critérios de escolha foram o Número de Parâmetros, a Informação de Deviance e a Ordenada Preditiva, os quais apontaram os Modelos Animal Tradicional e o Multirracial com Segregação, ambos com variância residual Gaussiana heterocedástica, como os de melhor ajuste. Os valores médios dos efeitos genéticos fixos foram positivos e similares nos dois modelos, sugerindo que os animais com maior proporção da raça Angus sofreram maior infestação e atribuindo-se, portanto, a raça Nelore importante papel na resistência ao carrapato. Verificou-se que a variância genética estimada pelo Modelo Animal Gaussiano heterocedástico para a raça Nelore foi 4,54 vezes maior do que a estimada para a raça Angus. As estimativas de herdabilidade nos diferentes grupos genéticos variaram de 0,12 a 0,15 e de 0,01 a 0,35, respectivamente, no Modelo Animal Tradicional e no Multirracial Gaussiano heterocedástico. A correlação de ordenamento de Spearman entre os valores genéticos preditos, considerando todos os reprodutores da população, foi 0,94. Contudo, ao considerar os melhores touros, TOP 10%, 20% e 30%, as diferenças com relação ao ordenamento foram mais evidentes (0,28 a 0,67). O modelo Animal Multirracial com Segregação com variâncias residuais heterogêneas foi o mais apropriado para avaliação genética da característica Contagem de Carrapatos de animais produtos do cruzamento Angus-Nelore.

4.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(9): e20200677, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249568

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of seasons and latitude on tick counting and determined the best model to estimate genetic parameters for tick count and hair coat. Records of animals naturally exposed to ticks on farms in several Brazilian states and in Paraguay were used. The ANOVA was used to verify the effects of seasons and latitude on the tick count trait. Spring was the season with the highest average, followed by summer and autumn, which showed no differences between them. The winter presented the lowest average values. Latitude -11° had the highest mean value followed by latitude -18°. The Bayesian approach was used to evaluate tick count and hair coat and to identify a suitable model for estimating genetic parameters for use in genetic evaluations. The data were analyzed using an animal model with four different specifications for "fixed" purposes. The inference was based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The criteria for selection of the Bayesian model indicated that the M1 model, which considered the breed composition in the contemporary group, was superior to the other models, both for tick count and hair coat. Heritability estimates for tick count and hair coat obtained using the M1 model were 0.14 and 0.22, respectively. The rank correlations between the models for tick count and hair coat were estimated and reordering was verified for tick count. The estimated genetic correlation between tick count and hair coat traits was negative (-0.12). These findings suggest that different genes regulate tick count and hair coat.


RESUMO: Os objetivos foram avaliar os efeitos das estações e latitude na contagem de carrapatos e determinar o melhor modelo para estimar parâmetros genéticos para contagem de carrapatos e pelame. Foram utilizados registros de animais expostos naturalmente a carrapatos em fazendas em vários estados brasileiros e no Paraguai. A ANOVA foi utilizada para verificar os efeitos das estações e da latitude na característica de contagem de carrapatos. A primavera foi a estação com a maior média, seguida pelo verão e outono, que não mostraram diferenças entre eles. O inverno apresentou os menores valores médios. A latitude -11° teve o maior valor médio seguido pela latitude -18°. A abordagem bayesiana foi usada para avaliar a contagem de carrapatos e o pelame e identificar o modelo adequado para estimar parâmetros genéticos e para uso em avaliações genéticas. Os dados foram analisados usando um modelo animal com quatro especificações diferentes para efeitos "fixos". A inferência foi baseada em uma cadeia de Markov Monte Carlo (MCMC). Os critérios de seleção do modelo bayesiano indicaram que o modelo M1, que considerou a composição racial no grupo contemporâneo, foi superior aos demais modelos, tanto na contagem de carrapatos e para pelame. As estimativas de herdabilidade para contagem de carrapatos e pelame obtidas usando o modelo M1 foram de 0,14 e 0,22, respectivamente. As correlações de ranking entre os modelos para a contagem de carrapatos e pelame foram estimadas e a reordenação foi verificada para a contagem de carrapatos. A correlação genética estimada entre a contagem de carrapatos e pelame foi negativa (-0,12). Esses achados sugerem que genes diferentes regulam a contagem de carrapatos e pelame.

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