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1.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; : 1-14, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682156

RESUMO

Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is a serious and pervasive problem, affecting 12-78% of pediatric patients, based on retrospective studies. The study objective was to prospectively collect a cohort of well-phenotyped patients receiving vincristine in order to accurately classify and grade their neurotoxicity. All children in British Columbia with leukemia or lymphoma requiring vincristine between 2013 and 2016 were approached for consent. Those recruited were assessed by occupational and physiotherapists at baseline, mid and endpoint of their treatment. Assessments included the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - 2nd ed. (BOT-2), strength, "Timed up and go" test and vibration sensibility. Seventy-two patients consented (age: 2.0-18.7 years). The majority were below average for age on one or more BOT-2 domains at midpoint (N = 32/45, 71%), which decreased by the endpoint (N = 19/41, 46%, p = .049). Six patients showed severe VIPN throughout treatment (N = 6/53, 11%), defined as a BOT-2 score well below average. Muscle strength for wrist extension/flexion, anterior tibialis and peronei decreased significantly between baseline (Median = 5) and midpoint (Median = 4), with no significant change noted by endpoint. Most patients had normal vibration sensibility in lower (N = 30/60, 50%) and upper limbs (N = 26/38, 68%). In conclusion, with no differences between time points. VIPN is highly prevalent among patients with pediatric cancer, causing significant morbidity and functional deficits. Identification of risk factors would allow for resource appropriation to patients at higher risk, as well as potentially permitting dose escalation in patients with low toxicity to improve survival.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 534-548, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422819

RESUMO

Early-infantile encephalopathies with epilepsy are devastating conditions mandating an accurate diagnosis to guide proper management. Whole-exome sequencing was used to investigate the disease etiology in four children from independent families with intellectual disability and epilepsy, revealing bi-allelic GOT2 mutations. In-depth metabolic studies in individual 1 showed low plasma serine, hypercitrullinemia, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia. The epilepsy was serine and pyridoxine responsive. Functional consequences of observed mutations were tested by measuring enzyme activity and by cell and animal models. Zebrafish and mouse models were used to validate brain developmental and functional defects and to test therapeutic strategies. GOT2 encodes the mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. GOT2 enzyme activity was deficient in fibroblasts with bi-allelic mutations. GOT2, a member of the malate-aspartate shuttle, plays an essential role in the intracellular NAD(H) redox balance. De novo serine biosynthesis was impaired in fibroblasts with GOT2 mutations and GOT2-knockout HEK293 cells. Correcting the highly oxidized cytosolic NAD-redox state by pyruvate supplementation restored serine biosynthesis in GOT2-deficient cells. Knockdown of got2a in zebrafish resulted in a brain developmental defect associated with seizure-like electroencephalography spikes, which could be rescued by supplying pyridoxine in embryo water. Both pyridoxine and serine synergistically rescued embryonic developmental defects in zebrafish got2a morphants. The two treated individuals reacted favorably to their treatment. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for the biochemical abnormalities in GOT2 deficiency that may also hold for other MAS defects.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1116-1126, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104771

RESUMO

Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although the length of this repeat is inversely correlated with age of onset (AOO), it does not fully explain the variability in AOO. We assessed the sequence downstream of the CAG repeat in HTT [reference: (CAG)n-CAA-CAG], since variants within this region have been previously described, but no study of AOO has been performed. These analyses identified a variant that results in complete loss of interrupting (LOI) adenine nucleotides in this region [(CAG)n-CAG-CAG]. Analysis of multiple HD pedigrees showed that this LOI variant is associated with dramatically earlier AOO (average of 25 years) despite the same polyglutamine length as in individuals with the interrupting penultimate CAA codon. This LOI allele is particularly frequent in persons with reduced penetrance alleles who manifest with HD and increases the likelihood of presenting clinically with HD with a CAG of 36-39 repeats. Further, we show that the LOI variant is associated with increased somatic repeat instability, highlighting this as a significant driver of this effect. These findings indicate that the number of uninterrupted CAG repeats, which is lengthened by the LOI, is the most significant contributor to AOO of HD and is more significant than polyglutamine length, which is not altered in these individuals. In addition, we identified another variant in this region, where the CAA-CAG sequence is duplicated, which was associated with later AOO. Identification of these cis-acting modifiers have potentially important implications for genetic counselling in HD-affected families.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083486

RESUMO

Although previous research identified candidate genetic polymorphisms associated with cisplatin nephrotoxicity, varying outcome definitions potentially contributed to the variability in the effect size and direction of this relationship. We selected genetic variants that have been significantly associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in more than one published study (SLC22A2 rs316019; ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986; ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181) and performed a replication analysis to confirm associations between these genetic polymorphisms and cisplatin nephrotoxicity using various outcome definitions. We included 282 germ cell testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin from 2009-2014, aged >17 years recruited by the Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety. Nephrotoxicity was defined using four grading tools: (1) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.03 for acute kidney injury (AKI) or CTCAE-AKI; (2) adjusted cisplatin-induced AKI; (3) elevation of serum creatinine; and (4) reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Significant associations were only found when using the CTCAE v4.03 definition: genotype CA of the ERCC1 rs3212986 was associated with decreased risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 0.24; 95% CI:0.08-0.70; p = 0.009) compared to genotype CC. In contrast, addition of allele A at SLC22A2 rs316019 was associated with increased risk (ORadj = 4.41; 95% CI:1.96-9.88; p < 0.001) while genotype AC was associated with a higher risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 5.06; 95% CI:1.69-15.16; p = 0.004) compared to genotype CC. Our study showed that different case definitions led to variability in the genetic risk ascertainment of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Therefore, consensus on a set of clinically relevant outcome definitions that all such studies should follow is needed.

6.
Emotion ; 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021112

RESUMO

Who benefits most from helping others? Previous research suggests that common polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) predict whether people behave generously and experience increases in positive mood in response to socially focused experiences in daily life. Building on these findings, we conducted an experiment with a large, ethnically homogenous sample (N = 437) to examine whether individual differences in three frequently studied single nucleotide polymorphisms of OXTR (rs53576, rs2268498, rs2254298) also predict differences in the positive mood benefits of financial generosity. Consistent with past research, participants who were randomly assigned to purchase items for others (vs. themselves) reported greater positive affect. Contrary to predictions, using Bayesian statistics, we found conclusive evidence that the benefits of generosity were not moderated by individual differences in OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms. The current work highlights the importance of publishing null results to build cumulative knowledge linking neurobiological factors to positive emotional experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(2): 350-359, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012503

RESUMO

Cisplatin is a highly effective chemotherapeutic. Unfortunately, its use is limited by cisplatin-induced ototoxicity (CIO). Substantial research has been performed to uncover the genetic variants associated with CIO; however, there has been a lack of consistency in the results that have been reported. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current state of CIO genomics research, delving into the shortcomings of past research, and providing recommendations for future avenues of study.

8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1747-1755, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2), a recently recognized autosomal recessive disease, present with various systemic vascular and inflammatory manifestations, often with young age at disease onset or with early onset of recurrent strokes. Their clinical features and histologic findings overlap with those of childhood-onset polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), a primary "idiopathic" systemic vasculitis. Despite similar clinical presentation, individuals with DADA2 may respond better to biologic therapy than to traditional immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to screen an international registry of children with systemic primary vasculitis for variants in ADA2. METHODS: The coding exons of ADA2 were sequenced in 60 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of PAN, cutaneous PAN, or unclassifiable vasculitis (UCV), any chronic vasculitis with onset at age 5 years or younger, or history of stroke. The functional consequences of the identified variants were assessed by ADA2 enzyme assay and immunoblotting. RESULTS: Nine children with DADA2 (5 with PAN, 3 with UCV, and 1 with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis) were identified. Among them, 1 patient had no rare variants in the coding region of ADA2 and 8 had biallelic, rare variants (minor allele frequency <0.01) with a known association with DADA2 (p.Gly47Arg and p.Gly47Ala) or a novel association (p.Arg9Trp, p.Leu351Gln, and p.Ala357Thr). The clinical phenotype varied widely. CONCLUSION: These findings support previous observations indicating that DADA2 has extensive genotypic and phenotypic variability. Thus, screening ADA2 among children with vasculitic rash, UCV, PAN, or unexplained, early-onset central nervous system disease with systemic inflammation may enable an earlier diagnosis of DADA2.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 380(15): 1433-1441, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970188

RESUMO

We report an inborn error of metabolism caused by an expansion of a GCA-repeat tract in the 5' untranslated region of the gene encoding glutaminase (GLS) that was identified through detailed clinical and biochemical phenotyping, combined with whole-genome sequencing. The expansion was observed in three unrelated patients who presented with an early-onset delay in overall development, progressive ataxia, and elevated levels of glutamine. In addition to ataxia, one patient also showed cerebellar atrophy. The expansion was associated with a relative deficiency of GLS messenger RNA transcribed from the expanded allele, which probably resulted from repeat-mediated chromatin changes upstream of the GLS repeat. Our discovery underscores the importance of careful examination of regions of the genome that are typically excluded from or poorly captured by exome sequencing.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Ataxia/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Glutaminase/deficiência , Glutaminase/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mutação , Atrofia/genética , Cerebelo/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Glutamina/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
EBioMedicine ; 40: 655-662, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behaviour problems are prevalent among children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation), and have been associated with morphine exposure. Morphine accumulation in the brain is determined by genetic variations related to morphine biotransformation. The objective of the study was to investigate whether morphine-biotransformation genotypes contribute to individual differences in long-term effects of morphine on behaviour at 18 months corrected age (CA). METHODS: 198 children born very preterm (24-32 weeks gestation) were followed from birth and seen at 18 months CA. Relationships between child behavior (Internalizing, Externalizing on the Child Behavior Checklist), morphine exposure, neonatal clinical variables, and morphine biotransformation gene variants in ABCB1, UGT1A9, UGT 2B7*2, ABCC2, ABCC3, SLCO1B1, CYP3A4, COMT were examined. FINDINGS: Neonatal clinical predictors and genotypes accounted for 39% of the overall variance in behaviour. In children with the minor allele of UGT1A9 rs17863783 (marker of UGT1A6*4, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase), greater morphine exposure (p = ·0011) was associated with more Internalizing behaviour. More Externalizing behaviour was predicted by greater morphine exposure in children with the COMT rs4680 Met/Met genotype (p = ·0006). INTERPRETATION: Genetic variations that affect relative accumulation of morphine in the brain, together with neonatal clinical factors, are differentially related to anxiety and depressive symptoms (internalizing) and to acting out (externalizing) behaviours at 18 months CA in children born very preterm. FUND: NIH/NICHD HD039783 (REG); CIHR MOP86489 (REG), MOP68898 (SPM), MOP79262 (SPM, REG).


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/psicologia , Morfina/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Alelos , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Psicometria/métodos
11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(5): 922-934, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768157

RESUMO

With 5-year survival of children with cancer exceeding 80% in developed countries, premature cardiovascular disease is now a major cause of early morbidity and mortality. In addition to the acute and chronic cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines, related chemotherapeutics, and radiation, a growing number of new molecular targeted agents may also have detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Survivors of childhood cancer also may have earlier development of conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes, which further increase their risk of serious cardiovascular disease. This review will examine the epidemiology of acute and chronic cardiotoxicity relevant to paediatric cancer patients, including genetic risk factors. We will also provide an overview of current screening recommendations, including the evidence regarding both imaging (e.g. echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging) and blood-based biomarkers. Various primary and secondary prevention strategies will also be discussed, primarily in relation to anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy. Finally, we review the available evidence related to the management of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in paediatric cancer patients and childhood cancer survivors.

12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(6): 1182-1191, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658162

RESUMO

Pyrimidine nucleotides are essential for a vast number of cellular processes and dysregulation of pyrimidine metabolism has been associated with a variety of clinical abnormalities. Inborn errors of pyrimidine metabolism affecting enzymes in the pyrimidine de novo and degradation pathway have been identified but no patients have been described with a deficiency in proteins affecting the cellular import of ribonucleosides. In this manuscript, we report the elucidation of the genetic basis of the observed uridine-cytidineuria in a patient presenting with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent lactate acidosis, severely disturbed liver enzymes and ultimately multi-organ failure. Sequence analysis of genes encoding proteins directly involved in the metabolism of uridine and cytidine showed two variants c.1528C > T (p.R510C) and c.1682G > A (p.R561Q) in SLC28A1, encoding concentrative nucleotide transporter 1 (hCNT1). Functional analysis showed that these variants affected the three-dimensional structure of hCNT1, altered glycosylation and decreased the half-life of the mutant proteins which resulted in impaired transport activity. Co-transfection of both variants, mimicking the trans disposition of c.1528C > T (p.R510C) and c.1682G > A (p.R561Q) in the patient, significantly impaired hCNT1 biological function. Whole genome sequencing identified two pathogenic variants c.50delT; p.(Leu17Argfs*34) and c.853_855del; p.(Lys285del) in the PRF1 gene, indicating that our patient was also suffering from Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis type 2. The identification of two co-existing monogenic defects might have resulted in a blended phenotype. Thus, the clinical presentation of isolated hCNT1 deficiency remains to be established.

13.
Brain ; 142(3): 542-559, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668673

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.

14.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1621-1628, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The presentation and etiology of cerebral palsy (CP) are heterogeneous. Diagnostic evaluation can be a prolonged and expensive process that might remain inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic yield and impact on management of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 50 individuals with atypical CP (ACP). METHODS: Patient eligibility criteria included impaired motor function with onset at birth or within the first year of life, and one or more of the following: severe intellectual disability, progressive neurological deterioration, other abnormalities on neurological examination, multiorgan disease, congenital anomalies outside of the central nervous system, an abnormal neurotransmitter profile, family history, brain imaging findings not typical for cerebral palsy. Previous assessment by a neurologist and/or clinical geneticist, including biochemical testing, neuroimaging, and chromosomal microarray, did not yield an etiologic diagnosis. RESULTS: A precise molecular diagnosis was established in 65% of the 50 patients. We also identified candidate disease genes without a current OMIM disease designation. Targeted intervention was enabled in eight families (~15%). CONCLUSION: NGS enabled a molecular diagnosis in ACP cases, ending the diagnostic odyssey, improving genetic counseling and personalized management, all in all enhancing precision medicine practices.

15.
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568043

RESUMO

Sialic acids are important components of glycoproteins and glycolipids essential for cellular communication, infection, and metastasis. The importance of sialic acid biosynthesis in human physiology is well illustrated by the severe metabolic disorders in this pathway. However, the biological role of sialic acid catabolism in humans remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that sialic acid catabolism is important for heart and skeletal muscle function and development in humans and zebrafish. In two siblings, presenting with sialuria, exercise intolerance/muscle wasting, and cardiac symptoms in the brother, compound heterozygous mutations [chr1:182775324C>T (c.187C>T; p.Arg63Cys) and chr1:182772897A>G (c.133A>G; p.Asn45Asp)] were found in the N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase gene (NPL). In vitro, NPL activity and sialic acid catabolism were affected, with a cell-type-specific reduction of N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc). A knockdown of NPL in zebrafish resulted in severe skeletal myopathy and cardiac edema, mimicking the human phenotype. The phenotype was rescued by expression of wild-type human NPL but not by the p.Arg63Cys or p.Asn45Asp mutants. Importantly, the myopathy phenotype in zebrafish embryos was rescued by treatment with the catabolic products of NPL: N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) and ManNAc; the latter also rescuing the cardiac phenotype. In conclusion, we provide the first report to our knowledge of a human defect in sialic acid catabolism, which implicates an important role of the sialic acid catabolic pathway in mammalian muscle physiology, and suggests opportunities for monosaccharide replacement therapy in human patients.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/genética , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema Cardíaco/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hexosaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/uso terapêutico , Doença do Armazenamento de Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4822, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446641

RESUMO

Pathogen immune responses are profoundly attenuated in fetuses and premature infants, yet the mechanisms underlying this developmental immaturity remain unclear. Here we show transcriptomic, metabolic and polysome profiling and find that monocytes isolated from infants born early in gestation display perturbations in PPAR-γ-regulated metabolic pathways, limited glycolytic capacity and reduced ribosomal activity. These metabolic changes are linked to a lack of translation of most cytokines and of MALT1 signalosome genes essential to respond to the neonatal pathogen Candida. In contrast, they have little impact on house-keeping phagocytosis functions. Transcriptome analyses further indicate a role for mTOR and its putative negative regulator DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 4-Like in regulating these metabolic constraints. Our results provide a molecular basis for the broad susceptibility to multiple pathogens in these infants, and suggest that the fetal immune system is metabolically programmed to avoid energetically costly, dispensable and potentially harmful immune responses during ontogeny.

17.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452777

RESUMO

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major problem in modern medicine, representing up to the fourth-highest cause of mortality. Pharmacogenomic tests are 1 of the most promising methods to tackle the challenge of ADRs. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and demographic information of the pan-Canadian active surveillance network, Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS). Information entered into the database by trained active surveillors between May 15, 2005 and May 9, 2017 was collected and analyzed. Specific data included for analysis were number of ADR reports, reports of drug use without ADRs, date of onset of ADR, suspected drugs, concomitant drugs, and fatal ADR cases. The CPNDS database consisted of 93,974 reports of medication use, including 10,475 reports of ADRs, of which 72.6% occurred in pediatric patients (≤21 years old). Self-reported ancestries were predominantly Europe (38.2%), Canada (9.6%), and East Asia (4.9%). The 5 most frequent ADRs were cutaneous ADRs, peripheral neuropathy, cardiotoxicity, central nervous system toxicity, and ototoxicity. The 5 drugs most commonly suspected to cause ADRs were methotrexate, vincristine, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and L-asparaginase. The CPNDS database is a valuable resource to identify clinical and genomic predictors of ADRs. The database also highlights our candidate ADRs for pharmacogenomic discovery research to identify additional ADR biomarkers. Additionally, the database provides information that can be used for developing strategies to prevent ADRs and raises awareness of ADRs among Canadian healthcare professionals.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411242

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tamoxifen is one of the principal treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Unfortunately, between 30 and 50% of patients receiving this hormonal therapy relapse. Since CYP2D6 genetic variants have been reported to play an important role in survival outcomes after treatment with tamoxifen, this study sought to summarize and critically appraise the available scientific evidence on this topic. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies investigating associations between CYP2D6 genetic variation and survival outcomes after tamoxifen treatment. Critical appraisal of the retrieved scientific evidence was performed, and recommendations were developed for CYP2D6 genetic testing in the context of tamoxifen therapy. RESULTS: Although conflicting literature exists, the majority of the current evidence points toward CYP2D6 genetic variation affecting survival outcomes after tamoxifen treatment. Of note, review of the CYP2D6 genotyping assays used in each of the studies revealed the importance of comprehensive genotyping strategies to accurately predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Critical appraisal of the literature provided evidence for the value of comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping panels in guiding treatment decisions for non-metastatic ER-positive breast cancer patients. Based on this information, it is recommended that alternatives to standard tamoxifen treatments may be considered in CYP2D6 poor or intermediate metabolizers.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026806

RESUMO

The second generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is widely used in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry to treat conditions associated with disruptive behavior, aggression and irritability, such as autism spectrum disorders. While risperidone can provide symptomatic relief for many patients, there is considerable individual variability in the therapeutic response and side-effect profile of the medication. One well established biological factor that contributes to these individual differences is genetic variation in the cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6. The 2D6 enzyme metabolizes risperidone and therefore affects drug levels and dosing. In the present review, we summarize the current literature on 2D6 variants and their effects on risperidone responses, specifically in children and adolescents. Relevant articles were identified through systematic review, and after irrelevant articles were discarded, ten studies were included in the review. Most prospective studies were well controlled, but often did not have a large enough sample size to make robust statements about rarer variants, including those categorized as ultra-rapid and poor metabolizers. Individual studies demonstrated a role for different genetic variants in risperidone drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, hyperprolactinemia, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and drug-drug interactions. Where studies overlapped in measurements, there was typically a consensus between results. These findings indicate that the value of 2D6 genotyping in the youth population treated with risperidone requires further study, in particular with the less common variants.

20.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1081-1085, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013178

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system treated with disease-modifying therapies, including the biologic, interferon-ß (IFN-ß). Up to 60% of IFN-ß-exposed MS patients develop abnormal biochemical liver test results1,2, and 1 in 50 experiences drug-induced liver injury3. Since genomic variation contributes to other forms of drug-induced liver injury4,5, we aimed to identify biomarkers of IFN-ß-induced liver injury using a two-stage genome-wide association study. The rs2205986 variant, previously linked to differential expression of IRF6, surpassed genome-wide significance in the combined two-stage analysis (P = 2.3 × 10-8, odds ratio = 8.3, 95% confidence interval = 3.6-19.2). Analysis of an independent cohort of IFN-ß-treated MS patients identified via electronic medical records showed that rs2205986 was also associated with increased peak levels of aspartate aminotransferase (P = 7.6 × 10-5) and alkaline phosphatase (P = 4.9 × 10-4). We show that these findings may be applicable to predicting IFN-ß-induced liver injury, offering insight into its safer use.

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