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1.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs Suppl ; Sup 19: 13-25, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to inform public health efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm by describing the alcohol marketing landscape. We review the size, structure, and strategies of both the U.S. national and global alcohol industries and their principal marketing activities and expenditures and provide a summary of public health responses. METHOD: Primary data were obtained from advertising and alcohol industry market research firms and were supplemented by searches of peer-reviewed literature, business press, and online databases on global business and trade. RESULTS: Worldwide, alcohol sales totaled more than $1.5 trillion in 2017. Control of alcoholic beverage production and marketing is concentrated globally in the hands of a small number of firms. The oligopoly structure of the producing industry helps to generate high profits per dollar invested relative to other industries, which in turn fund marketing expenditures that function as barriers to entry by other firms. Advertising expenditures are high and advertising is widespread. Stakeholder marketing and corporate social responsibility campaigns assist in maintaining a policy environment conducive to extensive alcohol marketing activity. The most common regulatory response has been alcohol industry self-regulation; statutory public health responses have made little progress in recent years and have lagged behind industry innovation in digital and social marketing. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol marketing is widespread globally and a structural element of the alcoholic beverage industry. Given the level of alcohol-related harm worldwide, global and regional recommendations and best practices should be used to guide policy makers in effective regulation of alcohol marketing.

2.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs Suppl ; Sup 19: 26-41, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review examines the research of the effects of alcohol advertising on the cognitive mechanisms that precede underage alcohol use. METHOD: Using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, we reviewed 22 studies (1988-2016) selected from 22,040 articles. The final sample assessed cognitive responses of youth younger than the legal purchase age who were exposed to alcohol advertisements from television or magazines. RESULTS: The studies were predominantly cross-sectional (59.1%), used convenience sampling (63.6%), had 74 to 3,521 participants, and were from six countries. The most common methods and applied theories for assessing advertising effects on cognitions were linear methods based on priming and modeling theories, and structural equation modeling based on information-processing models. Overall, advertising content appealed to youth, particularly advertisements that emphasized lifestyles of drinkers rather than the product quality. Youth exposed to alcohol advertisements were more likely to associate positive and arousing effects with alcohol, and in some studies effects were modified by sex, alcohol use, and age. Residual confounding and selection bias were a concern in the majority of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to alcohol advertising may affect underage perceptions of risks and rewards of alcohol use. Nevertheless, the ability to draw causal conclusions is limited because of study designs. Future studies should use nonlinear methods to assess the association between advertising and cognitions and avoid measuring alcohol advertising as a uniform and dose-response exposure among diverse populations. Future research would be strengthened by applying consistent theoretical frameworks, improving control for confounding bias, and using validated cognitive outcome measures.

3.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(1): 34-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Do youth switch channels during alcohol advertisements at different rates than adults? This question has implications for the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising placements. People may avoid television advertisements by switching channels, which can be measured by comparing two television audience metrics: commercial ratings (which measure the audience during the advertisement) and program ratings (which measure the audience during the television program). We assessed changes in youth and adult audiences during alcohol advertisements with implications for alcohol industry self-regulatory compliance. METHOD: A census of alcohol advertisements for 2010-2014 was licensed from Nielsen (New York, NY). We compared noncompliant advertisements (with youth making up >28.4% of the audience) and the percentage decline in per capita advertising exposure for youth and adult age groups using both commercial and program ratings. RESULTS: The audience during the alcohol advertisement declined by 8.48% among underage viewers ages 12-17 years and by 7.04% for viewers ages 18-20 years, compared with 8.20% for adults ages 21-24, 10.43% for ages 25-34, and 9.74% for ages 35 and older. These declines exceeded the margin of error (±2.6%), indicating a decline in viewership across all age groups, but we could not draw conclusions about differences between age groups. Compared with audience estimates using commercial ratings, program ratings underestimated the number of noncompliant advertisements by 8,800, leading to an underestimate of noncompliant exposure by 140 million impressions. CONCLUSIONS: Both underage viewers and young adults switched channels during alcohol advertisements. Using commercial ratings rather than program ratings may more accurately measure compliance with alcohol industry advertising guidelines.

4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108885, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although more restrictive alcohol control policies (e.g., higher alcohol taxes) are related to lower levels of alcohol consumption, little is known about the relationship between alcohol policies and rates of alcohol-attributable cancer. METHODS: State alcohol policy restrictiveness, as measured by a validated policy scale, were related to state rates of six alcohol attributable cancers in the U.S. from 2006 to 2010 in a lagged, cross-sectional linear regression that controlled for a variety of state-level factors. Cancer mortality rates were from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application, which uses population-attributable fraction methodology to calculate mortality from cancers of the esophagus, larynx, liver, oropharynx, prostate (male only) and breast (female only). RESULTS: More restrictive state alcohol policies were associated with lower cancer mortality rates for the six cancer types overall (beta [ß] -0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.59, -0.07), and among men (ß -0.45; 95% CI -0.81, -0.10) and women (ß -0.21; 95% CI -0.40, -0.02). A 10% increase in the restrictiveness of alcohol policies (based on the mean APS among states) was associated with an 8.5% decrease in rates of combined alcohol-attributable cancers. In all analyses stratified by cancer subtype and sex, the associations were in the hypothesized direction (i.e., more restrictive state policy environments were associated with lower rates of alcohol-attributable cancers), with the exception of laryngeal cancer among women. CONCLUSION: Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising prevention strategy for alcohol-related cancer.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Tob Control ; 28(1): 20-26, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In population studies, vaping is often treated as a dichotomous exposure (present/absent) without consideration of specific vaping devices and materials being used. A survey instrument is needed to record specific vaping devices and materials. METHODS: We developed a database of 613 vaping device models and 3196 vaping liquid products, indexed by device brand, device type, liquid brand, liquid name and liquid flavour type. We developed a survey instrument to allow participants to report their vaping device and liquid from the indexed lists. The survey was pilot tested with a convenience sample of 208 adults (≥age 21). We validated the vaping device and liquid responses with a recontact survey. We report the proportion of respondents finding their products, characteristics of people finding their products and survey response times. RESULTS: Devices used most frequently in the past 30 days were electronic cigarettes (33% of respondents), vaping pens (28%) and vaping mods (16%). Fifty-seven per cent used liquids containing nicotine most frequently in the past 30 days, followed by liquids without nicotine (20%) and marijuana or hashish (10%). Most (85%) participants found their vaping device successfully (median 19.7 s) and 74% found their vaping liquid (median 19.8 s). Females and older adults were less likely to find their devices and liquids. Responses were validated for 91% and 76% of devices and e-liquids, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of an internet-based survey instrument to record specific vaping factors for use in studies of vaping and health.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Aromatizantes/química , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, jun. 201810.2105/AJPH.2017.304057.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49130

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Examinar la relación entre las leyes que “obligan a emitir la licencia” (“shall issue”, según las cuales debe emitirse la licencia si se cumple con los requisitos), las leyes que “permiten emitir la licencia” (“may issue”, que dan a los funcionarios encargados de hacer cumplir la ley una amplia discrecionalidad para emitir o no la licencia de portación oculta de armas) y las tasas de homicidio en los Estados Unidos. Métodos. Comparamos las tasas de homicidio en los estados con leyes que “obligan a emitir” y que “permiten emitir” la licencia y las tasas de homicidio totales, por arma de fuego, por otros medios, por arma corta y por arma larga en los 50 estados durante el período de 25 años que va de 1991 al 2015. Incluimos en el análisis efectos fijos para el año y el estado y numerosos factores a nivel estatal. Resultados. Las leyes que obligan a emitir la licencia se asociaron significativamente con tasas de homicidio totales 6,5% mayores, tasas de homicidio por arma de fuego 8,6% mayores y tasas de homicidio por arma corta 10,6% mayores, pero no se asociaron significativamente con el homicidio por arma larga ni por otros medios. Conclusiones. Las leyes que obligan a emitir la licencia se asocian con tasas de homicidio totales, por arma de fuego y por arma corta significativamente más altas.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To examine the relation of “shall-issue” laws, in which permits must be issued if requisite criteria are met; “may-issue” laws, which give law enforcement officials wide discretion over whether to issue concealed firearm carry permits or not; and homicide rates. Methods. We compared homicide rates in shall-issue and may-issue states and total, firearm, nonfirearm, handgun, and long-gun homicide rates in all 50 states during the 25-year period of 1991 to 2015. We included year and state fixed effects and numerous state-level factors in the analysis. Results. Shall-issue laws were significantly associated with 6.5% higher total homicide rates, 8.6% higher firearm homicide rates, and 10.6% higher handgun homicide rates, but were not significantly associated with long-gun or nonfirearm homicide. Conclusions. Shall-issue laws are associated with significantly higher rates of total, firearm-related, and handgun-related homicide.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Armas de Fogo , Estados Unidos , Homicídio , Armas de Fogo , Estados Unidos
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 167(8): 536-543, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975202

RESUMO

Background: To prevent intimate partner homicide (IPH), some states have adopted laws restricting firearm possession by intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders. "Possession" laws prohibit the possession of firearms by these offenders. "Relinquishment" laws prohibit firearm possession and also explicitly require offenders to surrender their firearms. Few studies have assessed the effect of these policies. Objective: To study the association between state IPV-related firearm laws and IPH rates over a 25-year period (1991 to 2015). Design: Panel study. Setting: United States, 1991 to 2015. Participants: Homicides committed by intimate partners, as identified in the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports, Supplementary Homicide Reports. Measurements: IPV-related firearm laws (predictor) and annual, state-specific, total, and firearm-related IPH rates (outcome). Results: State laws that prohibit persons subject to IPV-related restraining orders from possessing firearms and also require them to relinquish firearms in their possession were associated with 9.7% lower total IPH rates (95% CI, 3.4% to 15.5% reduction) and 14.0% lower firearm-related IPH rates (CI, 5.1% to 22.0% reduction) than in states without these laws. Laws that did not explicitly require relinquishment of firearms were associated with a non-statistically significant 6.6% reduction in IPH rates. Limitations: The model did not control for variation in implementation of the laws. Causal interpretation is limited by the observational and ecological nature of the analysis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that state laws restricting firearm possession by persons deemed to be at risk for perpetrating intimate partner abuse may save lives. Laws requiring at-risk persons to surrender firearms already in their possession were associated with lower IPH rates. Primary Funding Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle
10.
Am J Public Health ; 107(12): 1923-1929, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation of "shall-issue" laws, in which permits must be issued if requisite criteria are met; "may-issue" laws, which give law enforcement officials wide discretion over whether to issue concealed firearm carry permits or not; and homicide rates. METHODS: We compared homicide rates in shall-issue and may-issue states and total, firearm, nonfirearm, handgun, and long-gun homicide rates in all 50 states during the 25-year period of 1991 to 2015. We included year and state fixed effects and numerous state-level factors in the analysis. RESULTS: Shall-issue laws were significantly associated with 6.5% higher total homicide rates, 8.6% higher firearm homicide rates, and 10.6% higher handgun homicide rates, but were not significantly associated with long-gun or nonfirearm homicide. CONCLUSIONS: Shall-issue laws are associated with significantly higher rates of total, firearm-related, and handgun-related homicide.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(10): 1775-1782, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The question of whether underage youth are disproportionately exposed to alcohol advertising lies at the heart of the public health debate about whether restrictions on alcohol advertising are warranted. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol brands popular among underage (ages 12 to 20 years) drinkers ("underage brands") are more likely than others ("other brands") to advertise in magazines with high underage readerships. METHODS: We analyze the advertising of 680 alcohol brands in 49 magazines between 2006 and 2011. Using a random effects probit model, we examine the relationship between a magazine's underage readership and the probability of an underage or other brand advertising in a magazine, controlling for young adult (ages 21 to 29 years) and total readerships, advertising costs and expenditures, and readership demographics. RESULTS: We find that underage brands are more likely than other brands to advertise in magazines with a higher percentage of underage readers. Holding all other variables constant at their sample means, the probability of an "other" brand advertising in a magazine remains essentially constant over the range of underage readership from 0.010 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.007 to 0.013) at 5% to 0.012 (95% CI, 0.008 to 0.016) at 35%. In contrast, the probability of an underage brand advertising nearly quadruples, ranging from 0.025 (95% CI, 0.015 to 0.035) to 0.096 (95% CI, 0.057 to 0.135), where underage brands are 7.90 (95% CI, 3.89 to 11.90) times more likely than other brands to advertise. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers are more likely than other brands to advertise in magazines with high underage readerships, resulting in the disproportionate exposure of underage youth. Current voluntary advertising industry guidelines are not adequate to protect underage youth from high and disproportionate exposure to alcohol advertising in magazines. To limit advertising exposure among underage youth, policy makers may want to consider regulation of alcohol advertising in magazines.


Assuntos
/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Saúde Pública/tendências , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , /métodos , Fatores Etários , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/economia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/economia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 53(5): 584-591, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28648260

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Firearm violence injures or kills 100,000 Americans each year. This paper applies the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment model to this issue. Research on firearm violence tends to focus on two elements-the host (i.e., victims of firearm violence) and the environment (i.e., gun policies)-but little attention has been paid to the agent (the gun and ammunition) or the vector (firearm manufacturers, dealers, and the industry lobby). METHODS: Using Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives data, trends in firearm manufacturing were investigated from 1990 to 2015. Outcome measures included: (1) trends in domestic gun manufacturing by weapon type; (2) trends in production by firearm caliber; and (3) 2015 market share by type of firearm and company. Data were collected and analyzed in 2016. RESULTS: Overall domestic firearms production decreased slightly from 1996 through 2004, and then steadily increased from 1.7% in 2005 to 13.8% in 2013, when >10 million firearms were produced for the domestic market. The increase in total firearm production was driven by the increased production of pistols and rifles. Within the pistol category, increased production was attributable to an increase in higher caliber weapons. Similar trends were observed in gun purchases and recovered and traced crime guns. CONCLUSIONS: Trends in firearm manufacturing reveal a shift toward more-lethal weapons, and this trend is also observed in gun purchases and crime gun traces. This may reflect a societal shift in cultural practices and norms related to guns and could inform strategies to reduce firearm violence.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/tendências , Violência/tendências , Crime , Humanos , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública
13.
Am J Public Health ; 107(7): 1122-1129, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe a new database containing detailed annual information on firearm-related laws in place in each of the 50 US states from 1991 to 2016 and to summarize key trends in firearm-related laws during this time period. METHODS: Using Thomson Reuters Westlaw data to access historical state statutes and session laws, we developed a database indicating the presence or absence of each of 133 provisions of firearm laws in each state over the 26-year period. These provisions covered 14 aspects of state policies, including regulation of the process by which firearm transfers take place, ammunition, firearm possession, firearm storage, firearm trafficking, and liability of firearm manufacturers. RESULTS: An examination of trends in state firearm laws via this database revealed that although the number of laws nearly doubled during the study period, there was substantial heterogeneity across states, leading to a widening disparity in the number of firearm laws. CONCLUSIONS: This database can help advance firearm policy research by providing 26 years of comprehensive policy data that will allow longitudinal panel study designs that minimize the limitations present in many previous studies.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
14.
Am J Public Health ; 107(1): 136-142, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27854528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To update public health surveillance of alcohol advertising to underage populations by assessing alcohol industry compliance with their voluntary guidelines for US magazine advertisements from 2001 to 2011. METHODS: Using advertising industry standard sources The Nielsen Company and MediaMark, we evaluated youth exposure to alcohol advertising, and relative advertising exposure of youths versus adults, in 168 national magazines. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2011, magazine alcohol advertising seen by youths declined by 62.9%, from 5.4 billion impressions (single person seeing a single advertisement) to 2.0 billion impressions. Most alcohol advertising (65.1% of ads) was for spirits (e.g., vodka, whiskey). Since 2008, alcohol companies achieved 100% compliance with their limited guidelines. However, youths were overexposed to magazine advertising relative to adults on average 73% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Despite improving compliance with placement guidelines in national editions of the 168 measured magazines, most youth exposure to magazine alcohol advertising exceeded adult exposure, per capita. If alcohol companies adopted stricter guidelines based on public health risk assessments, youths would not be overexposed to alcohol advertising in magazines.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 77(5): 723-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. METHOD: Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13-20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth's alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. RESULTS: For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure-consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media.


Assuntos
/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Televisão/tendências , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/tendências , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distância Social , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Subst Use ; 21(4): 361-367, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27212891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No previous paper has examined alcohol advertising on the internet versions of television programs popular among underage youth. OBJECTIVES: To assess the volume of alcohol advertising on web sites of television networks which stream television programs popular among youth. METHODS: Multiple viewers analyzed the product advertising appearing on 12 television programs that are available in full episode format on the internet. During a baseline period of one week, six coders analyzed all 12 programs. For the nine programs that contained alcohol advertising, three underage coders (ages 10, 13, and 18) analyzed the programs to quantify the extent of that advertising over a four-week period. RESULTS: Alcohol advertisements are highly prevalent on these programs, with nine of the 12 shows carrying alcohol ads, and six programs averaging at least one alcohol ad per episode. There was no difference in alcohol ad exposure for underage and legal age viewers. CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial potential for youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet through internet-based versions of television programs. The Federal Trade Commission should require alcohol companies to report the underage youth and adult audiences for internet versions of television programs on which they advertise.

17.
Addict Res Theory ; 24(1): 32-39, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. METHODS: We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. RESULTS: Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. CONCLUSION: The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming.

18.
J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse ; 25(3): 188-193, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087771

RESUMO

We sought, for the first time, to identify the extent of jello shot consumption among underage youth. We conducted a study among a national sample of 1,031 youth, aged 13 to 20, using a pre-recruited internet panel maintained by GfK Knowledge Networks to assess past 30-day consumption of jello shots. Nearly one-fifth of underage youth have consumed jello shots in the past 30 days and jello shots make up an average of nearly 20% of their overall alcohol intake. Jello shot users in our sample were approximately 1.5 times more likely to binge drink, consumed approximately 1.6 times as many drinks per month, and were 1.7 times more likely to have been in a physical fight related to their alcohol use as drinkers in general. Ascertainment of jello shot use should become a standard part of youth alcohol surveillance and states should consider banning the sale of these products.

19.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 77(1): 7-16, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. METHOD: Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005-2012. A "no-buy" list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a "guardbanded" (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). RESULTS: Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2-20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low-rated ads accounted for 7%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising.


Assuntos
/legislação & jurisprudência , Televisão/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Social , Televisão/economia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Public Aff ; 16(3): 245-254, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28042284

RESUMO

Reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising is a global health priority. In most countries around the world, the alcohol industry is given the opportunity to regulate itself with respect to advertising practices. Generally, the alcohol industry self-regulations are lax, allowing youth to be disproportionately exposed to alcohol advertising. However, Beam Global Spirits and Wine (Beam) voluntarily adopted more restrictive advertising standards in the United States in 2007. This study assessed Beam's compliance with their new standard and estimates its effect on youth exposure and advertising costs. We found that Beam's compliance with its more restrictive standards was imperfect, but never-the-less, we estimated that youth exposure to alcohol advertising was reduced compared to other spirits brands. Beam's more restrictive standards did not increase their advertising costs and therefore other alcohol companies should consider adopting similar standards around the world.

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