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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(2): 847-856, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825213

RESUMO

Making new van der Waals materials with electronic or magnetic functionality is a chemical design challenge for the development of two-dimensional nanoelectronic and energy conversion devices. We present the synthesis and properties of the van der Waals material Bi4O4SeCl2, which is a 1:1 superlattice of the structural units present in the van der Waals insulator BiOCl and the three-dimensionally connected semiconductor Bi2O2Se. The presence of three anions gives the new structure both the bridging selenide anion sites that connect pairs of Bi2O2 layers in Bi2O2Se and the terminal chloride sites that produce the van der Waals gap in BiOCl. This retains the electronic properties of Bi2O2Se while reducing the dimensionality of the bonding network connecting the Bi2O2Se units to allow exfoliation of Bi4O4SeCl2 to 1.4 nm height. The superlattice structure is stabilized by the configurational entropy of anion disorder across the terminal and bridging sites. The reduction in connective dimensionality with retention of electronic functionality stems from the expanded anion compositional diversity.

2.
Adv Mater ; 32(4): e1905200, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788886

RESUMO

Mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) that display high oxide ion conductivity (σo ) and electronic conductivity (σe ) constitute an important family of electrocatalysts for a variety of applications including fuel cells and oxygen separation membranes. Often MIECs exhibit sufficient σe but inadequate σo . It has been a long-standing challenge to develop MIECs with both high σo and stability under device operation conditions. For example, the well-known perovskite oxide Ba0.5 Sr0.5 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3- δ (BSCF) exhibits exceptional σo and electrocatalytic activity. The reactivity of BSCF with CO2 , however, limits its use in practical applications. Here, the perovskite oxide Bi0.15 Sr0.85 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3- δ (BiSCF) is shown to exhibit not only exceptional bulk transport properties, with a σo among the highest for known MIECs, but also high CO2 tolerance. When used as an oxygen separation membrane, BiSCF displays high oxygen permeability comparable to that of BSCF and much higher stability under CO2 . The combination of high oxide transport properties and CO2 tolerance in a single-phase MIEC gives BiSCF a significant advantage over existing MIECs for practical applications.

3.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The question of whether mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) home to injured kidneys remains a contested issue. To try and understand the basis for contradictory findings reported in the literature, our purpose here was to investigate whether MSC homing capacity is influenced by administration route, the type of injury model used, and/or the presence of exogenous macrophages. PROCEDURES: To assess the viability, whole-body biodistribution, and intra-renal biodistribution of MSCs, we used a multimodal imaging strategy comprising bioluminescence and magnetic resonance imaging. The effect of administration route (venous or arterial) on the ability of MSCs to home to injured renal tissue, and persist there, was assessed in a glomerular injury model (induced by the nephrotoxicant, Adriamycin) and a tubular injury model induced by ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Exogenous macrophages were used as a positive control because these cells are known to home to injured mouse kidneys. To assess whether the homing capacity of MSCs can be influenced by the presence of exogenous macrophages, we used a dual-bioluminescence strategy that allowed the whole-body biodistribution of the two cell types to be monitored simultaneously in individual animals. RESULTS: Following intravenous administration, no MSCs were detected in the kidneys, irrespective of whether the mice had been subjected to renal injury. After arterial administration via the left cardiac ventricle, MSCs transiently populated the kidneys, but no preferential homing or persistence was observed in injured renal tissue after unilateral IRI. An exception was when MSCs were co-administered with exogenous macrophages; here, we observed some homing of MSCs to the injured kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly suggest that MSCs do not home to injured kidneys.

4.
Cryst Growth Des ; 19(10): 5604-5618, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602177

RESUMO

A new porous and flexible metal-organic framework (MOF) has been synthesized from the flexible asymmetric linker N-(4-carboxyphenyl)succinamate (CSA) and heptanuclear zinc oxo-clusters of formula [Zn7O2(carboxylate)10DMF2] involving two coordinated terminal DMF ligands. The structural response of this MOF to the removal or exchange of its guest molecules has been probed using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. The topology of the material, involving double linker connections in the a and b directions and single linker connections along the c axis, is shown to be key in the material's anisotropic response. The a and b directions remain locked during guest removal, whereas the c axis linker undergoes large changes significantly reducing the material's void space. The changes to the c axis linker involve a combination of a hinge motion on the linker's rigid side and conformational rearrangements on its flexible end, which were probed in detail during this process despite the presence of crystallographic disorder along this axis, which prevented accurate characterization by experimental methods alone. Although inactive during guest removal, the flexible ends of the a and b axis linkers are observed to play a prominent role during DMF to DMSO solvent exchange, facilitating the exchange reaction arising in the cluster.

5.
J Org Chem ; 84(13): 8481-8486, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244161

RESUMO

6,6',13,13'-Tetrahydro-6,6'-bipentacene (HBP), the intermediate molecule connecting pentacene to previously observed peripentacene and extended pentacene oligomers through the formation of a carbon-carbon bond, is synthesized and crystallographically characterized. Heating pentacene to 300 °C under vacuum for 200 h results in pale golden crystals of HBP and amorphous material containing pentacene oligomers, offering experimental evidence that pentacene preferentially dimerizes at the 6,6'-position. Continued heating of HBP results in co-crystals of 6,13-dihydrogenated pentacene and pentacene and further amorphous pentacene oligomers. The amorphous material consists of layered carbonaceous species with a graphenic nature, as determined by Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy, and suggests HBP as an intermediate to hydrogenated pentacene species and pentacene oligomers, such as peripentacene, of interest in organic electronics.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(18): 7333-7346, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974948

RESUMO

Multinary lithium oxides with the rock salt structure are of technological importance as cathode materials in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Current state-of-the-art cathodes such as LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 rely on redox cycling of earth-abundant transition-metal cations to provide charge capacity. Recently, the possibility of using the oxide anion as a redox center in Li-rich rock salt oxides has been established as a new paradigm in the design of cathode materials with enhanced capacities (>200 mAh/g). To increase the lithium content and access electrons from oxygen-derived states, these materials typically require transition metals in high oxidation states, which can be easily achieved using d0 cations. However, Li-rich rock salt oxides with high valent d0 cations such as Nb5+ and Mo6+ show strikingly high voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge, the origin of which is uninvestigated. In this work, we study a series of Li-rich compounds, Li4+ xNi1- xWO6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) adopting two new and distinct cation-ordered variants of the rock salt structure. The Li4.15Ni0.85WO6 (x = 0.15) phase has a large reversible capacity of 200 mAh/g, without accessing the Ni3+/Ni4+ redox couple, implying that more than two-thirds of the capacity is due to anionic redox, with good cyclability. The presence of the 5d0 W6+ cation affords extensive (>2 V) voltage hysteresis associated with the anionic redox. We present experimental evidence for the formation of strongly stabilized localized O-O single bonds that explain the energy penalty required to reduce the material upon discharge. The high valent d0 cation associates localized anion-anion bonding with the anion redox capacity.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1612, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962436

RESUMO

Biologically derived metal-organic frameworks (bio-MOFs) are of great importance as they can be used as models for bio-mimicking and in catalysis, allowing us to gain insights into how large biological molecules function. Through rational design, here we report the synthesis of a novel bio-MOF featuring unobstructed Watson-Crick faces of adenine (Ade) pointing towards the MOF cavities. We show, through a combined experimental and computational approach, that thymine (Thy) molecules diffuse through the pores of the MOF and become base-paired with Ade. The Ade-Thy pair binding at 40-45% loading reveals that Thy molecules are packed within the channels in a way that fulfill both the Woodward-Hoffmann and Schmidt rules, and upon UV irradiation, Thy molecules dimerize into Thy<>Thy. This study highlights the utility of accessible functional groups within the pores of MOFs, and their ability to 'lock' molecules in specific positions that can be subsequently dimerized upon light irradiation, extending the use of MOFs as nanoreactors for the synthesis of molecules that are otherwise challenging to isolate.

8.
Nature ; 565(7738): 213-217, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626943

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline synthetic porous materials formed by binding organic linkers to metal nodes: they can be either rigid1,2 or flexible3. Zeolites and rigid MOFs have widespread applications in sorption, separation and catalysis that arise from their ability to control the arrangement and chemistry of guest molecules in their pores via the shape and functionality of their internal surface, defined by their chemistry and structure4,5. Their structures correspond to an energy landscape with a single, albeit highly functional, energy minimum. By contrast, proteins function by navigating between multiple metastable structures using bond rotations of the polypeptide6,7, where each structure lies in one of the minima of a conformational energy landscape and can be selected according to the chemistry of the molecules that interact with the protein. These structural changes are realized through the mechanisms of conformational selection (where a higher-energy minimum characteristic of the protein is stabilized by small-molecule binding) and induced fit (where a small molecule imposes a structure on the protein that is not a minimum in the absence of that molecule)8. Here we show that rotation about covalent bonds in a peptide linker can change a flexible MOF to afford nine distinct crystal structures, revealing a conformational energy landscape that is characterized by multiple structural minima. The uptake of small-molecule guests by the MOF can be chemically triggered by inducing peptide conformational change. This change transforms the material from a minimum on the landscape that is inactive for guest sorption to an active one. Chemical control of the conformation of a flexible organic linker offers a route to modifying the pore geometry and internal surface chemistry and thus the function of open-framework materials.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(51): 18162-18172, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499664

RESUMO

We present the synthesis and characterization of the K+-intercalated rubrene (C42H28) phase, K2Rubrene (K2R), and identify the coexistence of amorphous and crystalline materials in samples where the crystalline component is phase-pure. We suggest this is characteristic of many intercalated alkali metal-polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) systems, including those for which superconductivity has been claimed. The systematic investigation of K-rubrene solid-state reactions using both K and KH sources reveals a complex competition between K intercalation and the decomposition of rubrene, producing three K-intercalated compounds, namely, K2R, K(RR*), and K xR' (where R* and R' are rubrene decomposition derivatives C42H26 and C30H20, respectively). K2R is obtained as the major phase over a wide composition range and is accompanied by the formation of amorphous byproducts from the decomposition of rubrene. K(RR*) is synthesized as a single phase, and K xR' is obtained only as a secondary phase to the majority K2R phase. The crystal structure of K2R was determined using high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction, revealing that the structural rearrangement from pristine rubrene creates two large voids per rubrene within the molecular layers in which K+ is incorporated. K+ cations accommodated within the large voids interact strongly with the neighboring rubrene via η6, η3, and η2 binding modes to the tetracene cores and the phenyl groups. This contrasts with other intercalated PAHs, where only a single void per PAH is created and the intercalated K+ weakly interacts with the host. The decomposition products of rubrene are also examined using solution NMR, highlighting the role of the breaking of C-Cphenyl bonds. For the crystalline decomposition derivative products K(RR*) and K xR', a lack of definitive structural information with regard to R* and R' prevents the crystal structures from being determined. The study illustrates the complexity in accessing solvent-free alkali metal salts of reduced PAH of the type claimed to afford superconductivity.

10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 9(1): 332, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-based regenerative medicine therapies are now frequently tested in clinical trials. In many conditions, cell therapies are administered systemically, but there is little understanding of their fate, and adverse events are often under-reported. Currently, it is only possible to assess safety and fate of cell therapies in preclinical studies, specifically by monitoring animals longitudinally using multi-modal imaging approaches. Here, using a suite of in vivo imaging modalities to explore the fate of a range of human and murine cells, we investigate how route of administration, cell type and host immune status affect the fate of administered cells. METHODS: We applied a unique imaging platform combining bioluminescence, optoacoustic and magnetic resonance imaging modalities to assess the safety of different human and murine cell types by following their biodistribution and persistence in mice following administration into the venous or arterial system. RESULTS: Longitudinal imaging analyses (i) suggested that the intra-arterial route may be more hazardous than intravenous administration for certain cell types, (ii) revealed that the potential of a mouse mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) line to form tumours depended on administration route and mouse strain and (iii) indicated that clinically tested human umbilical cord (hUC)-derived MSCs can transiently and unexpectedly proliferate when administered intravenously to mice. CONCLUSIONS: In order to perform an adequate safety assessment of potential cell-based therapies, a thorough understanding of cell biodistribution and fate post administration is required. The non-invasive imaging platform used here can expose not only the general organ distribution of these therapies, but also a detailed view of their presence within different organs and, importantly, tumourigenic potential. Our observation that the hUC-MSCs but not the human bone marrow (hBM)-derived MSCs persisted for a period in some animals suggests that therapies with these cells should proceed with caution.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Cordão Umbilical/citologia
11.
Inorg Chem ; 57(20): 12489-12500, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256106

RESUMO

Both layered multiple-anion compounds and homologous series are of interest for their electronic properties, including the ability to tune the properties by changing the nature or number of the layers. Here we expand, using both computational and experimental techniques, a recently reported three-anion material, Bi4O4Cu1.7Se2.7Cl0.3, to the homologous series Bi2+2 nO2+2 nCu2-δSe2+ n-δXδ (X = Cl, Br), composed of parent blocks that are well-studied thermoelectric materials. All of the materials show exceptionally low thermal conductivity (0.2 W/mK and lower) parallel to the axis of pressing of the pellets, as well as narrow band gaps (as low as 0.28 eV). Changing the number of layers affects the band gap, thermal conductivity, carrier type, and presence of a phase transition. Furthermore, the way in which the different numbers of layers are accessed, by tuning the compensating Cu vacancy concentration and halide substitution, represents a novel route to homologous series. This homologous series shows tunable properties, and the route explored here could be used to build new homologous series out of known structural blocks.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 57(19): 11874-11883, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198714

RESUMO

It is challenging to achieve p-type doping of zinc oxides (ZnO), which are of interest as transparent conductors in optoelectronics. A ZnO-related ternary compound, SrZnO2, was investigated as a potential host for p-type conductivity. First-principles investigations were used to select from a range of candidate dopants the substitution of Li+ for Zn2+ as a stable, potentially p-type, doping mechanism in SrZnO2. Subsequently, single-phase bulk samples of a new p-type-doped oxide, SrZn1- xLi xO2 (0 < x < 0.06), were prepared. The structural, compositional, and physical properties of both the parent SrZnO2 and SrZn1- xLi xO2 were experimentally verified. The band gap of SrZnO2 was calculated using HSE06 at 3.80 eV and experimentally measured at 4.27 eV, which confirmed the optical transparency of the material. Powder X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis were combined to show that single-phase ceramic samples can be accessed in the compositional range x < 0.06. A positive Seebeck coefficient of 353(4) µV K-1 for SrZn1- xLi xO2, where x = 0.021, confirmed that the compound is a p-type conductor, which is consistent with the pO2 dependence of the electrical conductivity observed in all SrZn1- xLi xO2 samples. The conductivity of SrZn1- xLi xO2 is up to 15 times greater than that of undoped SrZnO2 (for x = 0.028 σ = 2.53 µS cm-1 at 600 °C and 1 atm of O2).

13.
Inorg Chem ; 57(4): 1888-1900, 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389124

RESUMO

We report the syntheses and structures of five metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on transition metals (NiII, CuII, and ZnII), adenine, and di-, tri-, and tetra-carboxylate ligands. Adenine, with multiple N donor sites, was found to coordinate to the metal centers in different binding modes including bidentate (through N7 and N9, or N3 and N9) and tridentate (through N3, N7, and N9). Systematic investigations of the protonation states of adenine in each MOF structure via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that adenine can be selectively protonated through N1, N3, or N7. The positions of H atoms connected to the N atoms were found from the electron density maps, and further supported by the study of C-N-C bond angles compared to the literature reports. DFT calculations were performed to geometrically optimize and energetically assess the structures simulated with different protonation modes. The present study highlights the rich coordination chemistry of adenine and provides a method for the determination of its protonation states and the location of protonated N atoms of adenine within MOFs, a task that would be challenging in complicated adenine-based MOF structures.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(17): 4532-4537, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377466

RESUMO

Crabtree's catalyst was encapsulated inside the pores of the sulfonated MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic framework (MOF) by cation exchange. This hybrid catalyst is active for the heterogeneous hydrogenation of non-functionalized alkenes either in solution or in the gas phase. Moreover, encapsulation inside a well-defined hydrophilic microenvironment enhances catalyst stability and selectivity to hydrogenation over isomerization for substrates bearing ligating functionalities. Accordingly, the encapsulated catalyst significantly outperforms its homogeneous counterpart in the hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols in terms of overall conversion and selectivity, with the chemical microenvironment of the MOF host favouring one out of two competing reaction pathways.

15.
Biomater Sci ; 6(1): 101-106, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188240

RESUMO

Although there is extensive literature covering the biomedical applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), the phase of the iron oxide core used is not often taken into account when cell labelling and tracking studies for regenerative medicine are considered. Here, we use a co-precipitation reaction to synthesise particles of both magnetite- (Fe3O4) and maghemite- (γ-Fe2O3) based cores and consider whether the extra synthesis step to make maghemite based particles is advantageous for cell tracking.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Meios de Contraste/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(45): 30781-30789, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134224

RESUMO

Highly dense CaMn1-xRexO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) samples were prepared by solid-state synthesis. The effect of Re doping was assessed by the characterisation of crystal structure, oxygen content, and electrical and thermal transport properties. The oxidation state of the substituted Re was determined by X-ray absorption near edge spectra to be Re7+, and led to expansion of the lattice and an increase in electron carrier concentration due to the formation of Mn3+. The thermal behaviour of the electrical conductivity and the thermopower over a wide temperature range allowed identification of different conduction mechanisms: (1) below 110 K, 3D variable range hopping, (2) between 110 and 650 K, small polaron transport, and (3) above 650 K, activation of carriers over a mobility edge. Evaluation of the power factor expected for different dopant oxidation states as a function of dopant concentration shows that the doping strategy using a heavy heptavalent ion allows accessibility of the peak power factor at lower dopant concentrations, lowering the amount of non-ionised impurities, and therefore improves the electronic substitution efficiency, the ratio of activated carriers over the nominal doping concentration, compared to previously studied dopants. An increased power factor and a reduced lattice thermal conductivity are obtained with a peak figure of merit ZT = 0.16(3) at 947 K for CaMn0.98Re0.02O3. This is an approximately two-fold increase compared to undoped CaMnO3, and is comparable to the highest values reported for highly dense B-site doped CaMnO3.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(44): 15568-15571, 2017 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037045

RESUMO

Layered two-anion compounds are of interest for their diverse electronic properties. The modular nature of their layered structures offers opportunities for the construction of complex stackings used to introduce or tune functionality, but the accessible layer combinations are limited by the crystal chemistries of the available anions. We present a layered three-anion material, Bi4O4Cu1.7Se2.7Cl0.3, which adopts a new structure type composed of alternately stacked BiOCuSe and Bi2O2Se-like units. This structure is accessed by inclusion of three chemically distinct anions, which are accommodated by aliovalently substituted Bi2O2Se0.7Cl0.3 blocks coupled to Cu-deficient Bi2O2Cu1.7Se2 blocks, producing a formal charge modulation along the stacking direction. The hypothetical parent phase Bi4O4Cu2Se3 is unstable with respect to its charge-neutral stoichiometric building blocks. The complex layer stacking confers excellent thermal properties upon Bi4O4Cu1.7Se2.7Cl0.3: a room-temperature thermal conductivity (κ) of 0.4(1) W/mK was measured on a pellet with preferred crystallite orientation along the stacking axis, with perpendicular measurement indicating it is also highly anisotropic. This κ value lies in the ultralow regime and is smaller than those of both BiOCuSe and Bi2O2Se. Bi4O4Cu1.7Se2.7Cl0.3 behaves like a charge-balanced semiconductor with a narrow band gap. The chemical diversity offered by the additional anion allows the integration of two common structural units in a single phase by the simultaneous and coupled creation of charge-balancing defects in each of the units.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1102, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066848

RESUMO

ABSTARCT: Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are network polymers with long-range positional order whose properties can be tuned using the isoreticular chemistry approach. Making COFs from strong bonds is challenging because irreversible rapid formation of the network produces amorphous materials with locked-in disorder. Reversibility in bond formation is essential to generate ordered networks, as it allows the error-checking that permits the network to crystallise, and so candidate network-forming chemistries such as amide that are irreversible under conventional low temperature bond-forming conditions have been underexplored. Here we show that we can prepare two- and three-dimensional covalent amide frameworks (CAFs) by devitrification of amorphous polyamide network polymers using high-temperature and high-pressure reaction conditions. In this way we have accessed reversible amide bond formation that allows crystalline order to develop. This strategy permits the direct synthesis of practically irreversible ordered amide networks that are stable thermally and under both strong acidic and basic hydrolytic conditions.

19.
Chemistry ; 23(55): 13602-13606, 2017 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786536

RESUMO

Recyclable materials for simultaneous detection and uptake of ammonia (NH3 ) are of great interest due to the hazardous nature of NH3 . The structural versatility and porous nature of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make them ideal candidates for NH3 capture. Herein, the synthesis of a water-stable and porous 3-dimensional CuII -based MOF (SION-10) displaying a ship-in-a-bottle structure is reported; the pores of the host SION-10 framework accommodate mononuclear CuII -complexes. SION-10 spontaneously uptakes NH3 as a result of two concurrent mechanisms: chemisorption due to the presence of active CuII sites and physisorption (bulk permanent porosity). The color of the material changes from green to blue upon NH3 capture, with the shifts of the UV/Vis absorption bands clearly seen at NH3 concentrations as low as 300 ppm. SION-10 can be recovered upon immersion of SION-10⊃NH3 in water and can be further reused for NH3 capture for at least three cycles.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 56(12): 6897-6905, 2017 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571322

RESUMO

Substitution of La3+ for Ba2+ in LaBaGa3O7 melilite yields a new interstitial-oxide-ion conducting La1+xBa1-xGa3O7+0.5x solid solution, which only extends up to x = 0.35, giving a maximum interstitial oxygen content allowed in La1+xBa1-xGa3O7+0.5x as about half of those allowed in La1+x(Sr/Ca)1-xGa3O7+0.5x. La1.35Ba0.65Ga3O7.175 ceramic displays bulk conductivity ∼1.9 × 10-3 S/cm at 600 °C, which is lower than those of La1.35(Sr/Ca)0.65Ga3O7.175, showing the reduced mobility for the oxygen interstitials in La1+xBa1-xGa3O7+0.5x than in La1+x(Sr/Ca)1-xGa3O7+0.5x. Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction data reveals that the oxygen interstitials in La1.35Ba0.65Ga3O7.175 are located within the pentagonal tunnels at the Ga level between two La/Ba cations along the c-axis and stabilized via incorporating into the bonding environment of a three-linked GaO4 among the five GaO4 tetrahedra forming the pentagonal tunnels, similar to the Sr and Ca counterparts. Both static lattice atomistic simulation and density functional theory calculation show that LaBaGa3O7 has the largest formation energy for oxygen interstitial defects among La1+xM1-xGa3O7+0.5x (M = Ba, Sr, Ca), consistent with the large Ba2+ cations favoring interstitial oxygen defects in melilite less than the small cations Sr2+ and Ca2+. The cationic-size control of the ability to accommodate the oxygen interstitials and maintain high mobility for the oxygen interstitials in La1+xM1-xGa3O7+0.5x (M = Ba, Sr, Ca) gallate melilites is understood in terms of local structural relaxation to accommodate and transport the oxygen interstitials. The accommodation and migration of the interstitials in the melilite structure require the tunnel-cations being able to adapt to the synergic size expansion for the interstitial-containing tunnel and contraction for the tunnels neighboring the interstitial-containing tunnel and continuous tunnel-size expansion and contraction. However, the large oxygen bonding separation requirement of the large Ba2+ along the tunnel not only suppresses the ability to accommodate the interstitials in the tunnels neighboring the Ba2+-containing tunnel but also reduces the mobility of the oxygen interstitials among the pentagonal tunnels.

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