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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 9-18, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-3431

RESUMO

Objetivos. Analizar qué características clínicas y del ECG de la primera valoración de pacientes con dolor torácico no traumático (DNT) se asocian con una clasificación inicial de sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) y con el diagnóstico final de SCA, e identificar cuáles resultan sobre o infravaloradas durante la clasificación inicial. Método. Se incluyeron las consultas consecutivas por DTNT en una unidad de dolor torácico durante 10 años (2008-2017) en las que se disponía de los diagnósticos inicial de sospecha (SCA/no SCA) y final de alta de urgencias (SCA/no SCA). Se incluyeron 33 variables independientes (2 demográficas, 5 comorbilidad cardiovascular, 22 dolor torácico, 4 datos ECG). Se calcularon las odds ratio (OR) para la clasificación (inicial y final) como SCA para cada variable independiente, crudas y ajustadas en modelos globales que incluían todas ellas. En estos modelos ajustados se comparó si las OR para la clasificación inicial y final como SCA eran significativamente diferentes. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34.552 visitas. Las 33 variables analizadas mostraron asociación significativa para la clasificación inicial y final del DTNT como SCA, y en muchos casos esta asociación se mantuvo en el modelo ajustado. Diecinueve variables mostraron OR significativamente diferentes para la sospecha inicial de SCA que para el diagnóstico final de SCA: 10 sobrestimaban la asociación final y 9 la subestimaban. Conclusión. Los datos clínicos iniciales clásicamente utilizados para sospechar SCA pacientes con DTNT en urgencias identifican todos ellos individualmente a pacientes con riesgo incrementado de ser clasificado inicial y finalmente como SCA; sin embargo, algunos de ellos sobreestiman y otros subestiman inicialmente el riesgo final. Los urgenciólogos debieran sensibilizarse más con estos datos subestimados


Objectives. To analyze clinical data and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings obtained during the initial evaluation of patients with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP). To explore associations between these findings and the initial and final diagnoses of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To assess which variables initially over- or underestimate risk ACS. Methods. Consecutive patients with NTCP attended in a chest pain unit during the 10-year period of 2008–2017 were included if the suspected and discharge diagnoses of interest (ACS or non-ACS) had been recorded. Thirtythree independent variables (demographic, 2; cardiovascular, 5; chest pain, 22; ECG, 4). We included all variables in models to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between each independent variable and the initial and final diagnoses. The adjusted ORs were compared to determine whether the initial and final diagnoses of ACS differed significantly in relation to the variables. Results. A total of 34 552 patient visits were attended. The ORs for the 33 variables were significantly associated with initial and final NTCP classification as ACS or non-ACS, and in many cases the association was confirmed by the adjusted ORs. The adjusted ORs for 19 variables were significantly different in their relation to the initial and final diagnoses of ACS: 10 overpredicted the probability of the diagnosis and 9 underpredicted it. Conclusions. The variables traditionally used to warn of ACS in emergency patients with NTCP identify individuals likely to be initially and finally diagnosed with ACS. However, some of these variables overestimate or underestimate the risk of a final ACS diagnosis. Emergency medicine physicians should be aware of variables associated with underestimation of risk

2.
Emergencias ; 32(1): 9-18, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze clinical data and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings obtained during the initial evaluation of patients with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP). To explore associations between these findings and the initial and final diagnoses of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To assess which variables initially over- or underestimate risk ACS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with NTCP attended in a chest pain unit during the 10-year period of 2008-2017 were included if the suspected and discharge diagnoses of interest (ACS or non-ACS) had been recorded. Thirtythree independent variables (demographic, 2; cardiovascular, 5; chest pain, 22; ECG, 4). We included all variables in models to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between each independent variable and the initial and final diagnoses. The adjusted ORs were compared to determine whether the initial and final diagnoses of ACS differed significantly in relation to the variables. RESULTS: A total of 34 552 patient visits were attended. The ORs for the 33 variables were significantly associated with initial and final NTCP classification as ACS or non-ACS, and in many cases the association was confirmed by the adjusted ORs. The adjusted ORs for 19 variables were significantly different in their relation to the initial and final diagnoses of ACS: 10 overpredicted the probability of the diagnosis and 9 underpredicted it. CONCLUSION: The variables traditionally used to warn of ACS in emergency patients with NTCP identify individuals likely to be initially and finally diagnosed with ACS. However, some of these variables overestimate or underestimate the risk of a final ACS diagnosis. Emergency medicine physicians should be aware of variables associated with underestimation of risk.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848573

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess whether R2* is more accurate than T2* for the detection of intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) and to evaluate whether T2' (or R2') is less affected by oedema than T2* (R2*), and thus more suitable for the accurate identification of post-myocardial infarction (MI) IMH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Reperfused anterior MI was performed in 20 pigs, which were sacrificed at 120 min, 24 h, 4 days, and 7 days. At each time point, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T2- and T2*-mapping scans were recorded, and myocardial tissue samples were collected to quantify IMH and myocardial water content. After normalization by the number of red blood cells in remote tissue, histological IMH increased 5.2-fold, 10.7-fold, and 4.1-fold at Days 1, 4, and 7, respectively. The presence of IMH was correlated more strongly with R2* (r = 0.69; P = 0.013) than with T2* (r = -0.50; P = 0.085). The correlation with IMH was even stronger for R2' (r = 0.72; P = 0.008). For myocardial oedema, the correlation was stronger for R2* (r = -0.63; P = 0.029) than for R2' (r = -0.50; P = 0.100). Multivariate linear regressions confirmed that R2* values were significantly explained by both IMH and oedema, whereas R2' values were mostly explained by histological IMH (P = 0.024) and were little influenced by myocardial oedema (P = 0.262). CONCLUSION: Using CMR mapping with histological validation in a pig model of reperfused MI, R2'more accurately detected IMH and was less influenced by oedema than R2* (and T2*). Further studies are needed to elucidate whether R2' is also better suited for the characterization of post-MI IMH in the clinical setting.

4.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(12): 1012-1021, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the effect of MRA treatment (vs. placebo) in older patients (≥75 years of age) compared with younger patients (<75 years of age) with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and in a subset of patients with HF with preserved EF (HFpEF). Notwithstanding, MRAs are underused, especially in the elderly. Pooling the individual patient data (IPD) provided more statistical power with which to assess the efficacy and safety of MRA treatment in this subpopulation. METHODS: An IPD meta-analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by trial. A total of 1,756 patients (853 randomized to placebo and 903 to MRA) ≥75 years of age, along with 4,411 patients (2,242 randomized to placebo and 2,169 to MRA) <75 years of age were included. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for HF. RESULTS: The treatment groups were well balanced. Patients ≥75 years of age or older and those 80 years of age, 61% were male, 30% had diabetes, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 59 ml/min. The primary outcome occurred in 331 patients (38.8%) in the placebo group versus 281 (31.1%) in the MRA group (hazard ratio: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.86; p < 0.001; and the heterogeneity p value [heterogeneity p = Cochran's Q p value of treatment effect by study interaction] was 0.52). Cardiovascular death and all-cause death were also reduced by MRAs without significant between-trial or age (younger vs. older) heterogeneity. Worsening renal function and hyperkalemia occurred more frequently in patients taking MRAs (vs. placebo). Compared to younger patients, worsening renal function (but not hyperkalemia) was found more frequently in the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: MRAs reduced morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with HF, a beneficial effect that is more marked in patients with HFrEF but homogenous across HFrEF and HFpEF. Implementation of measures that increase MRA treatment in this population are warranted.

5.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(11): 1106-1112, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials using mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in myocardial infraction (MI) without heart failure (HF) or systolic impairment have been underpowered to assess morbidity-mortality benefit. In EPHESUS 6632 patients were included, of whom 11% had an ejection fraction (EF) of 40% and HF or diabetes. We aim to assess the potential benefit of MRAs in MI with EF of 40%. METHODS: Cox models with interaction term for EF. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. HYPOTHESIS: Patients with an EF of 40% benefit similarly from MRA therapy to those with an EF <40%. RESULTS: In EPHESUS, 753 patients had an EF = 40% and 5864 an EF < 40%. Patients with an EF = 40% were younger (63 vs 64 years), had lower heart rate (73 vs 75 bpm), less atrial fibrillation (10% vs 14%), previous MI (21% vs 28%), HF hospitalization (5% vs 8%), and had more often reperfusion therapy and/or revascularization (55% vs 44%). The mean EF was 40.0 ± 0.3% in those with EF = 40% vs 32.2 ± 5.9% in those with EF < 40%. The primary outcome occurred in 13.3% (10 events per 100 py) of the patients with EF = 40% vs 22.9% (19 events per 100 py) in those with EF < 40%; adjusted HR for EF = 40% vs <40% = 0.65 (0.53-0.81). Eplerenone reduced the event-rate homogenously regardless of EF (interaction p EF = 40% vs EF < 40% = 0.21). Similar findings were observed for cardiovascular and all-cause death. CONCLUSION: Eplerenone reduces hospitalizations and mortality in patients with MI and EF = 40% similarly to patients with EF < 40%. These findings suggest that MI patients with EF in the "mid-range zone" may also benefit from MRA therapy which might help clinicians in their treatment decisions.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(11): 1454-1461, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between in-hospital coronary revascularization rate (CRR) and post-discharge mortality rates in survivors of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) at a system level is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate CRR and 2-year post-discharge mortality rate (2YMR) in NSTE-ACS. METHODS: CRR and 2YMR were analyzed by hospital rate of CRR (in deciles), by country, and by world region in 11,931 patients with NSTE-ACS who survived to discharge and were enrolled in the EPICOR (long-tErm follow uP of antithrombotic management patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients) and EPICOR Asia: twin multinational, observational, prospective cohort studies. RESULTS: Significant differences in patient baseline characteristics, medical therapies, CRR, and 2YMR were found. Mean CRR ranged from 0.0% to 96.8% in the first and tenth decile, respectively (p < 0.001); from 12.3% in Romania to 92.4% in Slovenia (p < 0.001); and from 53.9% in South East Asia (SEAsia) to 90.4% in South Korea-Singapore-Hong Kong. 2YMR varied significantly between hospital deciles of CRR (3.6% in tenth decile vs. 9.2% in first decile; p < 0.001), countries (lowest 1.5% in Slovenia, highest 19.4% in Malaysia; p < 0.001), and regions (lowest 3.8% in South Korea-Singapore-Hong Kong, highest 11.7% in SEAsia; p < 0.001). Poisson regression models, adjusted for 15 mortality predictors, showed a significant inverse association between CRR and 2YMR for hospitals (r = -0.90; p < 0.001), countries (r = -0.65; p < 0.001), and regions (r = -0.87; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Higher CRRs at the hospital, country, and world region levels are strongly associated with higher post-discharge survival, suggesting CRR as a marker of higher system quality.

7.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(7): 667-680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and prognostic value of the most common triggering factors in acute heart failure. METHODS: Patients with acute heart failure from 41 Spanish emergency departments were recruited consecutively in three time periods between 2011 and 2016. Precipitating factors were classified as: (a) unrecognized; (b) infection; (c) atrial fibrillation; (d) anaemia; (e) hypertension; (f) acute coronary syndrome; (g) non-adherence; and (h) two or more precipitant factors. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between 30-day mortality and each precipitant factor. The risk of dying was further evaluated by week intervals over the 30-day follow-up to assess the period of higher vulnerability for each precipitant factor. RESULTS: Approximately 69% of our 9999 patients presented with a triggering factor and 1002 died within the first 30 days (10.0%). The most prevalent factors were infection and atrial fibrillation. After adjusting for 11 known predictors, acute coronary syndrome was associated with higher 30-day mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-3.42), whereas atrial fibrillation (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.56-0.94) and hypertension (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.21-0.55) were significantly associated with better outcomes when compared to patients without precipitant. Patients with infection, anaemia and non-compliance were not at higher risk of dying within 30 days. These findings were consistent across gender and age groups. The 30-day mortality time pattern varied between and within precipitant factors. CONCLUSIONS: Precipitant factors in acute heart failure patients are prevalent and have a prognostic value regardless of the patient's gender and age. They can be managed with specific treatments and can sometimes be prevented.

8.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619858285, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303009

RESUMO

Risk assessment and risk prediction have become essential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Even though risk prediction tools are recommended in the European guidelines, they are not adequately implemented in clinical practice. Risk prediction tools are meant to estimate prognosis in an unbiased and reliable way and to provide objective information on outcome probabilities. They support informed treatment decisions about the initiation or adjustment of preventive medication. Risk prediction tools facilitate risk communication to the patient and their family, and this may increase commitment and motivation to improve their health. Over the years many risk algorithms have been developed to predict 10-year cardiovascular mortality or lifetime risk in different populations, such as in healthy individuals, patients with established cardiovascular disease and patients with diabetes mellitus. Each risk algorithm has its own limitations, so different algorithms should be used in different patient populations. Risk algorithms are made available for use in clinical practice by means of - usually interactive and online available - tools. To help the clinician to choose the right tool for the right patient, a summary of available tools is provided. When choosing a tool, physicians should consider medical history, geographical region, clinical guidelines and additional risk measures among other things. Currently, the U-prevent.com website is the only risk prediction tool providing prediction algorithms for all patient categories, and its implementation in clinical practice is suggested/advised by the European Association of Preventive Cardiology.

9.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 18(7): 534-544, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234638

RESUMO

Risk assessment and risk prediction have become essential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Even though risk prediction tools are recommended in the European guidelines, they are not adequately implemented in clinical practice. Risk prediction tools are meant to estimate prognosis in an unbiased and reliable way and to provide objective information on outcome probabilities. They support informed treatment decisions about the initiation or adjustment of preventive medication. Risk prediction tools facilitate risk communication to the patient and their family, and this may increase commitment and motivation to improve their health. Over the years many risk algorithms have been developed to predict 10-year cardiovascular mortality or lifetime risk in different populations, such as in healthy individuals, patients with established cardiovascular disease and patients with diabetes mellitus. Each risk algorithm has its own limitations, so different algorithms should be used in different patient populations. Risk algorithms are made available for use in clinical practice by means of - usually interactive and online available - tools. To help the clinician to choose the right tool for the right patient, a summary of available tools is provided. When choosing a tool, physicians should consider medical history, geographical region, clinical guidelines and additional risk measures among other things. Currently, the U-prevent.com website is the only risk prediction tool providing prediction algorithms for all patient categories, and its implementation in clinical practice is suggested/advised by the European Association of Preventive Cardiology.

10.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(14): 1534-1544, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234648

RESUMO

Risk assessment have become essential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Even though risk prediction tools are recommended in the European guidelines, they are not adequately implemented in clinical practice. Risk prediction tools are meant to estimate prognosis in an unbiased and reliable way and to provide objective information on outcome probabilities. They support informed treatment decisions about the initiation or adjustment of preventive medication. Risk prediction tools facilitate risk communication to the patient and their family, and this may increase commitment and motivation to improve their health. Over the years many risk algorithms have been developed to predict 10-year cardiovascular mortality or lifetime risk in different populations, such as in healthy individuals, patients with established cardiovascular disease and patients with diabetes mellitus. Each risk algorithm has its own limitations, so different algorithms should be used in different patient populations. Risk algorithms are made available for use in clinical practice by means of - usually interactive and online available - tools. To help the clinician to choose the right tool for the right patient, a summary of available tools is provided. When choosing a tool, physicians should consider medical history, geographical region, clinical guidelines and additional risk measures among other things. Currently, the U-prevent.com website is the only risk prediction tool providing prediction algorithms for all patient categories, and its implementation in clinical practice is suggested/advised by the European Association of Preventive Cardiology.

11.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(5): 443-456, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172789

RESUMO

There is a need to find interventions able to reduce the extent of injury in reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) beyond timely reperfusion. In this review, we summarise the clinical impact of STEMI from epidemiological, clinical and biological perspectives. We also revise the pathophysiology underlying the ischaemia/reperfusion syndrome occurring in reperfused STEMI, including the several players involved in this syndrome, such as cardiomyocytes, microcirculation and circulating cells. Interventions aimed to reduce the resultant infarct size, known as cardioprotective therapies, are extensively discussed, putting the focus on both mechanical interventions (i.e. ischaemic conditioning) and promising pharmacological therapies, such as early intravenous metoprolol, exenatide and other glucose modulators, N-acetylcysteine as well as on some other classic therapies which have failed to be translated to the clinical arena. Novel targets for evolving therapeutic interventions to ameliorate ischaemia/reperfusion injury are also discussed. Finally, we highlight the necessity to improve the study design of future randomised clinical trials in the field, as well as to select patients better who can most likely benefit from cardioprotective interventions.

12.
Ann Emerg Med ; 74(2): 204-215, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147102

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The Multiple Estimation of Risk Based on the Emergency Department Spanish Score in Patients With Acute Heart Failure (MEESSI-AHF) is a validated clinical decision tool that characterizes risk of mortality in emergency department (ED) acute heart failure patients. The objective of this study is to compare the distribution of risk categories between hospitalized and discharged ED patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: We included consecutive acute heart failure patients from 34 Spanish EDs. Patients were retrospectively classified according to MEESSI-AHF risk categories. We calculated the odds of hospitalization (versus direct discharge from the ED) across MEESSI-AHF risk categories. Next, we assessed the following 30-day postdischarge outcomes: ED revisit, hospitalization, death, and their combination. We used Cox hazards models to determine the adjusted association between ED disposition decision and the outcomes among patients who were stratified into low- and increased-risk categories. RESULTS: We included 7,930 patients (80.5 years [SD 10.1 years]; women 54.7%; hospitalized 75.3%). Compared with that for low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients, odds ratios for hospitalization of patients in intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk categories were 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64 to 2.05), 3.05 (95% CI 2.48 to 3.76), and 3.98 (95% CI 3.13 to 5.05), respectively. However, almost half (47.6%) of all discharged patients were categorized as being at increased risk by MEESSI-AHF, and 19.0% of all the increased-risk patients were discharged from the ED. Among the low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients, the 30-day postdischarge mortality did not differ by ED disposition (hazard ratio [HR] for discharged patients with respect to hospitalized ones 0.65; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.11), nor did it differ in the increased-risk group (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.23). The discharged low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients had higher risks of 30-day ED revisit and hospitalization (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.20; and HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.40, respectively) compared with the admitted patients, as did the discharged patients in the increased-risk group (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.89; and HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.68, respectively), with similar results for the combined endpoint. CONCLUSION: The disposition decisions made in current clinical practice for ED acute heart failure patients calibrate with MEESSI-AHF risk categories, but nearly half of the patients currently discharged from the ED fall into increased-risk MEESSI-AHF categories.

14.
Eur J Intern Med ; 65: 69-77, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence and impact of risk of malnutrition on short-term mortality among seniors presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) in emergency setting. The objective was to determine the impact of risk of malnutrition on 30-day mortality risk among older patients who attended in Emergency Departments (EDs) for AHF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the OAK-3 Registry including all consecutive patients ≥65 years attending in 16 Spanish EDs for AHF. Risk of malnutrition was defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) < 12 points. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 749 patients (mean age: 85 (SD 6); 55.8% females). Risk of malnutrition was observed in 594 (79.3%) patients. The rate of 30-day mortality was 8.8%. After adjusting for MEESSI-AHF risk score clinical categories (model 1) and after adding all variables showing a significantly different distribution among groups (model 2), the risk of malnutrition was an independent factor associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted OR by model 1 = 3.4; 95%CI 1.2-9.7; p = .020 and adjusted OR by model 2 = 3.1; 95%CI 1.1-9.0; p = .033) compared to normal nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of malnutrition assessed by the MNA-SF is associated with 30-day mortality in older patients with AHF who were attended in EDs. Routine screening of risk of malnutrition may help emergency physicians in decision-making and establishing a care plan.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1353-1365, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) according to clinical profiles based on congestion and perfusion determined in the emergency department (ED). METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 11 261 unselected AHF patients from 41 Spanish EDs were classified according to perfusion (normoperfusion = warm; hypoperfusion = cold) and congestion (not = dry; yes = wet). Baseline and decompensation characteristics were recorded as were the main wards to which patients were admitted. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were need for hospitalisation during the index AHF event, in-hospital all-cause mortality, prolonged hospitalisation, 7-day post-discharge ED revisit for AHF and 30-day post-discharge rehospitalisation for AHF. A total of 8558 patients (76.0%) were warm + wet, 1929 (17.1%) cold + wet, 675 (6.0%) warm + dry, and 99 (0.9%) cold + dry; hypoperfused (cold) patients were more frequently admitted to intensive care units and geriatrics departments, and warm + wet patients were discharged home without admission. The four phenotypes differed in most of the baseline and decompensation characteristics. The 1-year mortality was 30.8%, and compared to warm + dry, the adjusted hazard ratios were significantly increased for cold + wet (1.660; 95% confidence interval 1.400-1.968) and cold + dry (1.672; 95% confidence interval 1.189-2.351). Hypoperfused (cold) phenotypes also showed higher rates of index episode hospitalisation and in-hospital mortality, while congestive (wet) phenotypes had a higher risk of prolonged hospitalisation but decreased risk of rehospitalisation. No differences were observed among phenotypes in ED revisit risk. CONCLUSIONS: Bedside clinical evaluation of congestion and perfusion of AHF patients upon ED arrival and classification according to phenotypic profiles proposed by the latest European Society of Cardiology guidelines provide useful complementary information and help to rapidly predict patient outcomes shortly after ED patient arrival.

16.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(3): 198-207, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182641

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: En los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios(SUH), la escala MEESSI estratifica a los pacientes diagnosticados de insuficiencia cardiaca aguda(ICA) según su riesgo de mortalidad a 30 días. Se valida la escala de riesgo MEESSI en una nueva cohorte de pacientes para evaluar su precisión al estratificar el riesgo y compararla en diferentes entornos. Métodos: Se incluyó a los pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados de ICA en 30 SUH durante enero y febrero de 2016. Se calculó la puntuación MEESSI de cada paciente. El estadístico C midió la capacidad discriminatoria para predecir la mortalidad a 30 días del modelo MEESSI completo y los modelos secundarios. Se realizaron comparaciones entre los subgrupos de pacientes de hospitales universitarios y comunitarios, de SUH con actividad alta, media o baja y de SUH que reclutaron o que no reclutaron a pacientes de la cohorte original de derivación de la escala MEESSI. Resultados: Se analizó a 4.711 pacientes (hospitales universitarios/comunitarios: 3.811/900; SUH alta/media/baja actividad: 2.695/1.479/537; SUH participantes/no participantes en el estudio de derivación original:3.892/819). La distribución de pacientes según las categorías de riesgo de la escala MEESSI fue: 1.673 (35,5%) de bajo riesgo, 2.023 (42,9%) de riesgo intermedio, 530 (11,3%) de alto riesgo y 485 (10,3%) de muy alto riesgo, con mortalidades a 30 días del 2,0, el 7,8, el 17,9 y el 41,4% respectivamente. El estadístico C para el modelo completo fue 0,810 (IC95%, 0,790-0,830) y varió de 0,731 a 0,785 para los modelos secundarios. La capacidad discriminatoria de la escala de riesgo MEESSI fue similar entre los subgrupos de hospitales, entre SUH de distinta actividad y entre hospitales reclutadores originales y nuevos. Conclusiones: La escala MEESSI estratifica con éxito a los pacientes con ICA en los SUH según el riesgo de muerte a 30días, lo cual puede ayudar en urgencias a la toma de decisiones sobre el destino de estos pacientes


Introduction and objectives: The MEESSI scale stratifies acute heart failure (AHF) patients at the emergency department (ED) according to the 30-day mortality risk. We validated the MEESSI risk score in a new cohort of Spanish patients to assess its accuracy in stratifying patients by risk and to compare its performance in different settings. Methods: We included consecutive patients diagnosed with AHF in 30 EDs during January and February 2016. The MEESSI score was calculated for each patient. The c-statistic measured the discriminatory capacity to predict 30-day mortality of the full MEESSI model and secondary models. Further comparisons were made among subgroups of patients from university and community hospitals, EDs with high-, medium-or low-activity and EDs that recruited or not patients in the original MEESSI derivation cohort. Results: We analyzed 4711 patients (university/community hospitals: 3811/900; high-/medium-/low-activity EDs: 2695/1479/537; EDs participating/not participating in the previous MEESSI derivation study: 3892/819). The distribution of patients according to the MEESSI risk categories was: 1673 (35.5%) low risk, 2023 (42.9%) intermediate risk, 530 (11.3%) high risk and 485 (10.3%) very high risk, with 30-day mortality of 2.0%, 7.8%, 17.9%, and 41.4%, respectively. The c-statistic for the full model was 0.810 (95%CI, 0.790-0.830), ranging from 0.731 to 0.785 for the subsequent secondary models. The discriminatory capacity of the MEESSI risk score was similar among subgroups of hospital type, ED activity, and original recruiter EDs. Conclusions: The MEESSI risk score successfully stratifies AHF patients at the ED according to the 30-day mortality risk, potentially helping clinicians in the decision-making process for hospitalizing patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/classificação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(1): 5-14, feb. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182430

RESUMO

Objetivo: Investigar la tasa de eventos adversos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA) clasificados de bajo riesgo por la escala MEESSI y dados de alta desde urgencias, la capacidad discriminativa de dicha escala para estos eventos en dichos pacientes y las variables asociadas. Método: Se estratificó el riesgo de los pacientes del Registro EAHFE (cohortes 2-5) mediante la escala MEESSI y se analizaron los clasificados de bajo riesgo dados de alta desde urgencias. Se investigó la mortalidad por cualquier causa a 30 días (M-30d), la revisita a urgencias por ICA a 7 días (REV-7d) y la revisita a urgencias u hospitalización por ICA a 30 días (REV-H-30d). Se calculó el área bajo la curva (ABC) de la característica operativa del receptor (COR) de la escala MEESSI para estos eventos. Se analizó la relación entre 42 variables y RV-7d y RV-H-30d mediante regresión logística multivariable. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1028 pacientes. La M-30d fue 1,6% (IC 95%: 0,9-2,5), la REV-7d fue 8,0% (6,4-9,8) y la REV-H-30d fue 24,7% (22,1-25,7). El ABC ROC de la puntuación MEESSI para discriminar estos eventos adversos fue 0,69 (0,58-0,80), 0,56 (0,49-0,63) y 0,54 (0,50-0,59), respectivamente. Se asociaron con RV-7d: tratamiento diurético crónico (OR 2,45; 1,01-5,98), hemoglobina < 110 g/L (1,68; 1,02-2,75) y tratamiento diurético intravenoso en urgencias (0,53; 0,31-0,90). Se asociaron con REV-H-30d: arteriopatía periférica (1,74; 1,01-3,00), episodios previos de ICA (1,42; 1,02-1,98), tratamiento crónico con inhibidores de receptores mineralocorticoides (1,71; 1,09-2,67), índice de Barthel en urgencias < 90 puntos (1,48; 1,07-2,06) y tratamiento diurético intravenoso en urgencias (0,58; 0,40-0,84). Conclusiones: Los pacientes con ICA de bajo riesgo dados de alta desde urgencias presentan tasas de eventos adversos cercanas a los estándares recomendados internacionalmente. La escala MEESSI, diseñada para predecir M-30d, tiene escasa capacidad predictiva para REV-7d y REV-H-30d en los pacientes de bajo riesgo. Este estudio describe otros factores asociados a tales eventos


Objective: To determine the rate of adverse events in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) who were discharged from the emergency department (ED) after classification as low risk according to MEESSI score (multiple risk estimate based on the Spanish ED scale), to analyze the ability of the score to predict events, and to explore variables associated with adverse events. Methods: Patients in the EAHFE registry (Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in EDs) were stratified according to risk indicated by MEESSI score in order to identify those considered at low risk on discharge. All-cause 30-day mortality and revisits related to AHF within 7 days and 30 days were recorded. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for the MEESSI score's ability to predict these events. Associations between 42 variables and 7-day and 30-day revisits to the ED were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.6% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.5%). The 7-day and 30-day revisit rates were 8.0% (95% CI, 6.4%-9.8%) and 24.7% (95% CI, 22.1%-25.7%), respectively. The AUCs for MEESSI score discrimination between patients with and without these outcomes were as follows: 30-day mortality, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58-0.80); 7-day revisiting, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.49-0.63); and 30-day revisiting, 0.54 (95% CI, 0.50-0.59). Variables associated with 7-day revisits were long-term diuretic treatment (odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% CI, 1.01-5.98), hemoglobin concentration less than 110 g/L (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.75), and intravenous diuretic treatment in the ED (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.90). Variables associated with 30-day revisits were peripheral artery disease (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.01-3.00), prior history of an AHF episode (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98), long-term mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.09-2.67), Barthel index less than 90 points in the ED (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.07-2.06), and intravenous diuretic treatment in the ED (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). Conclusions: Patients with AHF who are at low risk for adverse events on discharge from our EDs have event rates that are near internationally recommended targets. The MEESSI score, which was designed to predict 30-day mortality, is a poor predictor of 7-day or 30-day revisiting in these low-risk patients. We identified other factors related to these events


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Alta do Paciente/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(1): 27-35, feb. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182433

RESUMO

Objetivos: Demostrar la eficacia de una intervención integral en la transición de cuidados (Plan de Alta Guiado Multinivel, PAGM) para disminuir eventos adversos a 30 días en ancianos frágiles con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA) dados de alta desde servicios de urgencias (SU) y validar los resultados de dicha intervención en condiciones reales. Método: Se seleccionarán pacientes mayores de 70 años frágiles con diagnóstico principal de ICA dados del alta a su domicilio desde SU. La intervención consistirá en aplicar un PAGM: 1) lista de verificación sobre recomendaciones clínicas y activación de recursos; 2) programación de visita precoz; 3) transmisión de información a atención primaria; 4) hoja de instrucciones al paciente por escrito. Fase 1: ensayo clínico con asignación al azar por conglomerados emparejado. Se asignará de forma aleatoria 10 SU (N = 480) al grupo de intervención y 10 SU (N = 480) al grupo de control. Se compararán los resultados entre grupo de intervención y control. Fase 2: estudio cuasi-experimental. Se realizará la intervención en los 20 SU (N = 300). Se comparará los resultados entre la fase 1 y 2 del grupo de intervención y entre la fase 1 y 2 del grupo de control. La variable principal de resultado es compuesta (revisita a urgencias u hospitalización por ICA o mortalidad de origen cardiovascular) a los 30 días del alta. Conclusiones: El estudio valorará la eficacia y factibilidad de una intervención integral en la transición de cuidados para reducir resultados adversos a 30 días en ancianos frágiles con ICA dados de alta desde los SU


Objectives: To demonstrate the efficacy of a system for comprehensive care transfer (Multilevel Guided Discharge Plan [MGDP]) for frail older patients diagnosed with acute heart failure (AHF) and to validate the results of MGDP implementation under real clinical conditions. The MGDP seeks to reduce the number of adverse outcomes within 30 days of emergency department (ED) discharge. Method: We will enroll frail patients over the age of 70 years discharged home from the ED with a main diagnosis of AHF. The MGDP includes the following components: 1) a checklist of clinical recommendations and resource activations, 2) scheduling of an early follow-up visit, 3) transfer of information to the primary care doctor, and 4) written instructions for the patient. Phase 1 of the study will be a matched-pair cluster-randomized controlled trial. Ten EDs will be randomly assigned to the intervention group and 10 to the control group. Each group will enroll 480 patients, and the outcomes will be compared between groups. Phase 2 will be a quasi-experimental study of the intervention in 300 new patients enrolled by the same 20 EDs. The outcomes will be compared to those for each Phase-1 group. The main endpoint at 30 days will be a composite of 2 outcomes: revisits to an ED and/for hospitalization for AHF or cardiovascular death. Conclusions: The study will assess the efficacy and feasibility of comprehensive MGDP transfer of care for frail older AHF patients discharged home


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Idoso Fragilizado , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Alta do Paciente , Doença Aguda , Lista de Checagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Análise por Pareamento , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Emergencias ; 31(1): 5-14, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of adverse events in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) who were discharged from the emergency department (ED) after classification as low risk according to MEESSI score (multiple risk estimate based on the Spanish ED scale), to analyze the ability of the score to predict events, and to explore variables associated with adverse events. METHODS: Patients in the EAHFE registry (Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in EDs) were stratified according to risk indicated by MEESSI score in order to identify those considered at low risk on discharge. All-cause 30-day mortality and revisits related to AHF within 7 days and 30 days were recorded. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for the MEESSI score's ability to predict these events. Associations between 42 variables and 7-day and 30-day revisits to the ED were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1028 patients were included. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.6% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.5%). The 7-day and 30-day revisit rates were 8.0% (95% CI, 6.4%-9.8%) and 24.7% (95% CI, 22.1%-25.7%), respectively. The AUCs for MEESSI score discrimination between patients with and without these outcomes were as follows: 30-day mortality, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58-0.80); 7-day revisiting, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.49-0.63); and 30-day revisiting, 0.54 (95% CI, 0.50-0.59). Variables associated with 7-day revisits were long-term diuretic treatment (odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% CI, 1.01-5.98), hemoglobin concentration less than 110 g/L (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.75), and intravenous diuretic treatment in the ED (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.90). Variables associated with 30-day revisits were peripheral artery disease (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.01-3.00), prior history of an AHF episode (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98), long-term mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.09-2.67), Barthel index less than 90 points in the ED (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.07-2.06), and intravenous diuretic treatment in the ED (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). CONCLUSION: Patients with AHF who are at low risk for adverse events on discharge from our EDs have event rates that are near internationally recommended targets. The MEESSI score, which was designed to predict 30-day mortality, is a poor predictor of 7-day or 30-day revisiting in these low-risk patients. We identified other factors related to these events.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Alta do Paciente/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Espanha
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