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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2204120, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698263

RESUMO

Thermoelectric polyelectrolytes are emerging as ideal material platform for self-powered bio-compatible electronic devices and sensors. However, despite the nanoscale nature of the ionic thermodiffusion processes underlying thermoelectric efficiency boost in polyelectrolytes, to date no evidence for direct probing of ionic diffusion on its relevant length and time scale has been reported. This gap is bridged by developing heat-driven hybrid nanotransistors based on InAs nanowires embedded in thermally biased Na+ -functionalized (poly)ethyleneoxide, where the semiconducting nanostructure acts as a nanoscale probe sensitive to the local arrangement of the ionic species. The impact of ionic thermoelectric gating on the nanodevice electrical response is addressed, investigating the effect of device architecture, bias configuration and frequency of the heat stimulus, and inferring optimal conditions for the heat-driven nanotransistor operation. Microscopic quantities of the polyelectrolyte such as the ionic diffusion coefficient are extracted from the analysis of hysteretic behaviors rising in the nanodevices. The reported experimental platform enables simultaneously the ionic thermodiffusion and nanoscale resolution, providing a framework for direct estimation of polyelectrolytes microscopic parameters. This may open new routes for heat-driven nanoelectronic applications and boost the rational design of next-generation polymer-based thermoelectric materials.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36556545

RESUMO

We numerically investigated the use of graphene nanoribbons placed on top of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) strip waveguides for light polarization control in silicon photonic-integrated waveguides. We found that two factors mainly affected the polarization control: the graphene chemical potential and the geometrical parameters of the waveguide, such as the waveguide and nanoribbon widths and distance. We show that the graphene chemical potential influences both TE and TM polarizations almost in the same way, while the waveguide width tapering enables both TE-pass and TM-pass polarizing functionalities. Overall, by increasing the oxide spacer thickness between the silicon waveguide and the top graphene layer, the device insertion losses can be reduced, while preserving a high polarization extinction ratio.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(14)2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889662

RESUMO

In this work, we show the design of a silicon photonic-based polarization converting device based on the integration of semiconduction InP nanowires on the silicon photonic platform. We present a comprehensive numerical analysis showing that full polarization conversion (from quasi-TE modes to quasi-TM modes, and vice versa) can be achieved in devices exhibiting small footprints (total device lengths below 20 µm) with minimal power loss (<2 dB). The approach described in this work can pave the way to the realization of complex and re-configurable photonic processors based on the manipulation of the state of polarization of guided light beams.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443910

RESUMO

Ordered arrays of vertically aligned semiconductor nanowires are regarded as promising candidates for the realization of all-dielectric metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic materials, whose properties can be engineered to enable new functions and enhanced device performances with respect to naturally existing materials. In this review we account for the recent progresses in substrate nanopatterning methods, strategies and approaches that overall constitute the preliminary step towards the bottom-up growth of arrays of vertically aligned semiconductor nanowires with a controlled location, size and morphology of each nanowire. While we focus specifically on III-V semiconductor nanowires, several concepts, mechanisms and conclusions reported in the manuscript can be invoked and are valid also for different nanowire materials.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 32(33)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971637

RESUMO

Recent advances in the nanofabrication and modeling of metasurfaces have shown the potential of these systems in providing unprecedented control over light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, enabling immediate and tangible improvement of features and specifications of photonic devices that are becoming always more crucial in enhancing everyday life quality. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that metasurfaces made of periodic and non-periodic deterministic assemblies of vertically aligned semiconductor nanowires can be engineered to display a tailored effective optical response and provide a suitable route to realize advanced systems with controlled photonic properties particularly interesting for sensing applications. The metasurfaces investigated in this paper correspond to nanowire arrays that can be experimentally realized exploiting nanolithography and bottom-up nanowire growth methods: the combination of these techniques allow to finely control the position and the physical properties of each individual nanowire in complex arrays. By resorting to numerical simulations, we address the near- and far-field behavior of a nanowire ensemble and we show that the controlled design and arrangement of the nanowires on the substrate may introduce unprecedented oscillations of light reflectance, yielding a metasurface which displays an electromagnetic behavior with great potential for sensing. Finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations are carried out to tailor the nanostructure parameters and systematically engineer the optical response in the VIS-NIR spectral range. By exploiting our computational-methods we set-up a complete procedure to design and test metasurfaces able to behave as functional sensors. These results are especially encouraging in the perspective of developing arrays of epitaxially grown semiconductor nanowires, where the suggested design can be easily implemented during the nanostructure growth, opening the way to fully engineered nanowire-based optical metamaterials.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 32(14): 145204, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361570

RESUMO

We fabricate dual-gated electric double layer (EDL) field effect transistors based on InAs nanowires gated with an ionic liquid, and we perform electrical transport measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 4.2 K. By adjusting the spatial distribution of ions inside the ionic liquid employed as gate dielectric, we electrostatically induce doping in the nanostructures under analysis. We extract low-temperature carrier concentration and mobility in very different doping regimes from the analysis of current-voltage characteristics and transconductances measured exploiting global back-gating. In the liquid gate voltage interval from -2 to 2 V, carrier concentration can be enhanced up to two orders of magnitude. Meanwhile, the effect of the ionic accumulation on the nanowire surface turns out to be detrimental to the electron mobility of the semiconductor nanostructure: the electron mobility is quenched irrespectively to the sign of the accumulated ionic species. The reported results shine light on the effective impact on crucial transport parameters of EDL gating in semiconductor nanodevices and they should be considered when designing experiments in which electrostatic doping of semiconductor nanostructures via electrolyte gating is involved.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16230, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004805

RESUMO

The thermo-mechanical properties of streptavidin-conjugated gold nanospheres, adhered to a surface via complex molecular chains, are investigated by two-color infrared asynchronous optical sampling pump-probe spectroscopy. Nanospheres with different surface densities have been deposited and exposed to a plasma treatment to modify their polymer binding chains. The aim is to monitor their optical response in complex chemical environments that may be experienced in, e.g., photothermal therapy or drug delivery applications. By applying unsupervised learning techniques to the spectroscopic traces, we identify their thermo-mechanical response variation. This variation discriminates nanospheres in different chemical environments or different surface densities. Such discrimination is not evident based on a standard analysis of the spectroscopic traces. This kind of analysis is important, given the widespread application of conjugated gold nanospheres in medicine and biology.

8.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(20): 4412-4418, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373902

RESUMO

The fungal pathways of melanin synthesis have so far been little considered as a source of bio-inspiration in the field of functional materials, despite the interesting properties exhibited by Ascomycetes melanins from 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (1,8-DHN), including the ability to shield organisms from ionizing radiation. Herein, the processing techniques and characterizations of mycomelanin thin films obtained from the solid state polymerization of 1,8-DHN is reported for the first time. Overall, the results highlighted the role of synthetic mycomelanin thin films as a prototype of next generation bioinspired interfaces featuring high structural regularity and ultrasmooth morphology, high robustness against peroxidative bleaching and adhesion under water conditions, good biocompatibility and unprecedented effects in inducing the spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells prevalently towards the endodermal lineages in the absence of added factors. These data open up new avenues towards the applications of this biomaterial in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Melaninas/química , Naftóis/química , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Polimerização , Engenharia Tecidual
9.
Nano Lett ; 20(5): 3313-3319, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297749

RESUMO

The artificial stacking of atomically thin crystals suffers from intrinsic limitations in terms of control and reproducibility of the relative orientation of exfoliated flakes. This drawback is particularly severe when the properties of the system critically depends on the twist angle, as in the case of the dodecagonal quasicrystal formed by two graphene layers rotated by 30°. Here we show that large-area 30°-rotated bilayer graphene can be grown deterministically by chemical vapor deposition on Cu, eliminating the need of artificial assembly. The quasicrystals are easily transferred to arbitrary substrates and integrated in high-quality hexagonal boron nitride-encapsulated heterostructures, which we process into dual-gated devices exhibiting carrier mobility up to 105 cm2/(V s). From low-temperature magnetotransport, we find that the graphene quasicrystals effectively behave as uncoupled graphene layers, showing 8-fold degenerate quantum Hall states. This result indicates that the Dirac cones replica detected by previous photoemission experiments do not contribute to the electrical transport.

10.
Nanotechnology ; 31(32): 324004, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325444

RESUMO

We analyze the benefits and shortcomings of a thermal control in nanoscale electronic conductors by means of the contact heating scheme. Ideally, this straightforward approach allows one to apply a known thermal bias across nanostructures directly through metallic leads, avoiding conventional substrate intermediation. We show, by using the average noise thermometry and local noise sensing technique in InAs nanowire-based devices, that a nanoscale metallic constriction on a SiO2 substrate acts like a diffusive conductor with negligible electron-phonon relaxation and non-ideal leads. The non-universal impact of the leads on the achieved thermal bias-which depends on their dimensions, shape and material composition-is hard to minimize, but is possible to accurately calibrate in a properly designed nano-device. Our results allow to reduce the issue of the thermal bias calibration to the knowledge of the heater resistance and pave the way for accurate thermoelectric or similar measurements at the nanoscale.

11.
Nano Lett ; 20(3): 1693-1699, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048854

RESUMO

We report results on the control of barrier transparency in InAs/InP nanowire quantum dots via the electrostatic control of the device electron states. Recent works demonstrated that barrier transparency in this class of devices displays a general trend just depending on the total orbital energy of the trapped electrons. We show that a qualitatively different regime is observed at relatively low filling numbers, where tunneling rates are rather controlled by the axial configuration of the electron orbital. Transmission rates versus filling are further modified by acting on the radial configuration of the orbitals by means of electrostatic gating, and the barrier transparency for the various orbitals is found to evolve as expected from numerical simulations. The possibility to exploit this mechanism to achieve a controlled continuous tuning of the tunneling rate of an individual Coulomb blockade resonance is discussed.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19523, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863018

RESUMO

With downscaling of electronic circuits, components based on semiconductor quantum dots are assuming increasing relevance for future technologies. Their response under external stimuli intrinsically depend on their quantum properties. Here we investigate single-electron tunneling in hard-wall InAs/InP nanowires in the presence of an off-resonant microwave drive. Our heterostructured nanowires include InAs quantum dots (QDs) and exhibit different tunnel-current regimes. In particular, for source-drain bias up to few mV Coulomb diamonds spread with increasing contrast as a function of microwave power and present multiple current polarity reversals. This behavior can be modelled in terms of voltage fluctuations induced by the microwave field and presents features that depend on the interplay of the discrete energy levels that contribute to the tunneling process.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683526

RESUMO

Random assemblies of vertically aligned core-shell GaAs-AlGaAs nanowires displayed an optical response dominated by strong oscillations of the reflected light as a function of the incident angle. In particular, angle-resolved specular reflectance measurements showed the occurrence of periodic modulations in the polarization-resolved spectra of reflected light for a surprisingly wide range of incident angles. Numerical simulations allowed for identifying the geometrical features of the core-shell nanowires leading to the observed oscillatory effects in terms of core and shell thickness as well as the tapering of the nanostructure. The present results indicate that randomly displaced ensembles of nanoscale heterostructures made of III-V semiconductors can operate as optical metamirrors, with potential for sensing applications.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(19)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561547

RESUMO

Nanostructures with complex geometry have gathered interest recently due to some unusual and exotic properties associated with both their shape and material. 3D multi-branched SnO2 one-dimensional nanostructrures, characterized by a "node"-i.e., the location where two or more branches originate, are the ideal platform to distribute signals of different natures. In this work, we study how this particular geometrical configuration affects light propagation when a light source (i.e., laser) is focused onto it. Combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical analysis along with Raman and Rayleigh scattering upon illumination, we were able to understand, in more detail, the mechanism behind the light-coupling occurring at the node. Our experimental findings show that multi-branched semiconductor 1D structures have great potential as optically active nanostructures with waveguiding properties, thus paving the way for their application as novel building blocks for optical communication networks.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(18): 5372-5380, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449419

RESUMO

The plasmonic and vibrational properties of single gold nanodisks patterned on a sapphire substrate are investigated via spatial modulation and pump-probe optical spectroscopies. The features of the measured extinction spectra and time-resolved signals are highly sensitive to minute deviations of the nanodisk morphology from a perfectly cylindrical one. An elliptical nanodisk section, as compared to a circular one, lifts the degeneracy of the two nanodisk in-plane dipolar surface plasmon resonances, which can be selectively excited by controlling the polarization of the incident light. This splitting effect, whose amplitude increases with nanodisk ellipticity, correlates with the detection of additional vibrational modes in the context of time-resolved spectroscopy. Analysis of the measurements is performed through the combination of optical and acoustic numerical models. This allows us first to estimate the dimensions of the investigated nanodisks from their plasmonic response and then to compare the measured and computed frequencies of their detectable vibrational modes, which are found to be in excellent agreement. This study demonstrates that single-particle optical spectroscopies are able to provide access to fine morphological characteristics, representing in this case a valuable alternative to traditional techniques aimed at postfabrication inspection of subwavelength nanodevice morphology.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(13)2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284650

RESUMO

In this work, we isolate individual wurtzite InAs nanowires and fabricate electrical contacts at both ends, exploiting the single nanostructures as building blocks to realize two different architectures of conductometric sensors: (a) the nanowire is drop-casted onto-supported by-a SiO2/Si substrate, and (b) the nanowire is suspended at approximately 250 nm from the substrate. We test the source-drain current upon changes in the concentration of humidity, ethanol, and NO2, using synthetic air as a gas carrier, moving a step forward towards mimicking operational environmental conditions. The supported architecture shows higher response in the mid humidity range (50% relative humidity), with shorter response and recovery times and lower detection limit with respect to the suspended nanowire. These experimental pieces of evidence indicate a minor role of the InAs/SiO2 contact area; hence, there is no need for suspended nanostructures to improve the sensing performance. Moreover, the sensing capability of single InAs nanowires for detection of NO2 and ethanol in the ambient atmosphere is reported and discussed.

17.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 3033-3039, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935206

RESUMO

We demonstrate high-temperature thermoelectric conversion in InAs/InP nanowire quantum dots by taking advantage of their strong electronic confinement. The electrical conductance G and the thermopower S are obtained from charge transport measurements and accurately reproduced with a theoretical model accounting for the multilevel structure of the quantum dot. Notably, our analysis does not rely on the estimate of cotunnelling contributions, since electronic thermal transport is dominated by multilevel heat transport. By taking into account two spin-degenerate energy levels we are able to evaluate the electronic thermal conductance K and investigate the evolution of the electronic figure of merit ZT as a function of the quantum dot configuration and demonstrate ZT ≈ 35 at 30 K, corresponding to an electronic efficiency at maximum power close to the Curzon-Ahlborn limit.

18.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 5159-5166, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989822

RESUMO

The mechanical vibrations of individual gold nanodisks nanopatterned on a sapphire substrate are investigated using ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy. The number and characteristics of the detected acoustic modes are found to vary with nanodisk geometry. In particular, their quality factors strongly depend on nanodisk aspect ratio (i.e., diameter over height ratio), reaching a maximal value of ≈70, higher than those previously measured for substrate-supported nano-objects. The peculiarities of the detected acoustic vibrations are confirmed by finite-element simulations, and interpreted as the result of substrate-induced hybridization between the vibrational modes of a nanodisk. The present findings demonstrate novel possibilities for engineering the vibrational modes of nano-objects.

19.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 7(11)2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160860

RESUMO

Subwavelength nanostructured surfaces are realized with self-assembled vertically-aligned InAs nanowires, and their functionalities as optical reflectors are investigated. In our system, polarization-resolved specular reflectance displays strong modulations as a function of incident photon energy and angle. An effective-medium model allows one to rationalize the experimental findings in the long wavelength regime, whereas numerical simulations fully reproduce the experimental outcomes in the entire frequency range. The impact of the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanostructure assembly on the reflectance was estimated. In view of the present results, sensing schemes compatible with microfluidic technologies and routes to innovative nanowire-based optical elements are discussed.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28111252

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) is an important carbon nanomaterial (NM) that has been used, but limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant and, in particular in invertebrate species. The polychaete Diopatra neapolitana has frequently been used to evaluate the effects of environmental disturbances in estuarine systems due to its ecological and socio-economic importance but to our knowledge no information is available on D. neapolitana physiological and biochemical alterations due to GO exposure. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of different concentrations of GO (0.01; 0.10 and 1.00mg/L) in D. neapolitana physiological (regenerative capacity) and biochemical (energy reserves, metabolic activity and oxidative stress related biomarkers) performance, after 28days of exposure. The results obtained revealed that the exposure to GO induced negative effects on the regenerative capacity of D. neapolitana, with organisms exposed to higher concentrations regenerating less segments and taking longer periods to completely regenerate. GO also seemed to alter energy-related responses, especially glycogen content, with higher values in polychaetes exposed to GO which may result from a decreased metabolism (measured by electron transport system activity), when exposed to GO. Furthermore, under GO contamination D. neapolitana presented cellular damage, despite higher activities of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in individuals exposed to GO.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Óxidos/toxicidade , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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