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1.
Rheumatol Int ; 39(9): 1631-1635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327052

RESUMO

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) affects elderly patients and is characterized by pain and stiffness of the shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle and cervical region, which can be associated with the presence of giant cell arteritis. Data on the epidemiology of this disease in Latin America are scarce. In Colombia, the Ministry of Health introduced SISPRO, a tool to collect nation-wide information from the health system. The information collected from SISPRO is available for scientific analysis. Using SISPRO data for the years 2012-2016, an analysis was made on the prevalence and characteristics of patients diagnosed with PMR. This is a descriptive epidemiological study using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems as search terms related to PMR, based on SISPRO data. Criteria for diagnosis are not explicitly addressed in each individual case. National records report 19,901 individuals diagnosed with PMR and estimated prevalence of 2 cases per 1000 inhabitants over 50 years old (based on a total population of 47,663,162), being more frequent in women (86% of cases), with a female/male ratio of 6.2:1. This is the first study that describes the demographic characteristics of PMR in Colombia. Our results are consistent with the age-related increase in prevalence and gender ratio. Likewise, there are differences between regions, which may be related to ancestry and environmental factors, which require further studies.

2.
Value Health ; 22(6): 739-749, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence (RWE) is increasingly used to inform health technology assessments for resource allocation, which are valuable tools for emerging economies such as in America. Nevertheless, the characteristics and uses in South America are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify sources, characteristics, and uses of RWE in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile, and evaluate the context-specific challenges. The implications for future regulation and responsible management of RWE in the region are also considered. METHODS: A systematic literature review, database mapping, and targeted gray literature search were conducted to identify the sources and characteristics of RWE. Findings were validated by key opinion leaders attending workshops in 4 South American countries. RESULTS: A database mapping exercise revealed 407 unique databases. Geographic scope, database type, population, and outcomes captured were reported. Characteristics of national health information systems show efforts to collect interoperable data from service providers, insurers, and government agencies, but that initiatives are hampered by fragmentation, lack of stewardship, and resources. In South America, RWE is mainly used for pharmacovigilance and as pure academic research, but less so for health technology assessment decision making or pricing negotiations and not at all to inform early access schemes. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of real-world data in the case study countries vary and RWE is not consistently used in healthcare decision making. Authors recommend that future studies monitor the impact of digitalization and the potential effects of access to RWE on the quality of patient care.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Humanos , América Latina
4.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 35(2): 89-98, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1010942

RESUMO

RESUMEN Se estima que aproximadamente setenta millones de personas viven con epilepsia, de las cuales 80 % viven en países de ingreso bajo o medio como Colombia. Las personas con epilepsia viven con necesidades insatisfechas. Esta enfermedad, a pesar de ser prevalente, no se ve reflejada en las prioridades de los servicios de salud. Por lo anterior, existen importantes retos en el tratamiento integral de esta enfermedad. La epilepsia, enfermedad estigmatizada, más allá de los gastos farmacológicos tiene un impacto psicológico y social que resulta en un espectro de discapacidad muy variado, el cual cursa con dolencias notables como la depresión y la ansiedad. Asimismo, las personas con epilepsia tienen una menor tasa de empleo que las personas sin epilepsia, incluso ocho años después de haber comenzado la terapia farmacológica. El estado libre de crisis, uno de los objetivos principales en la terapia de epilepsia, es difícil de alcanzar en algunos pacientes y, si bien la cantidad de medicamentos anticonvulsivantes ha aumentado notablemente desde 1990, las crisis pueden ser generadas a partir de múltiples mecanismos, lo que se traduce en un reto a la hora de buscar blancos terapéuticos para los medicamentos ya que varias etiologías se pueden traducir clínicamente en tipos de crisis similares. Aunque la monoterapia sea el ideal del tratamiento en epilepsia, la prioridad es alcanzar una reducción en la frecuencia ictal o un estado libre de crisis, por lo que si no se alcanza con el primer medicamento, la opción de añadir un segundo medicamento es aceptada plenamente. Existe una gran preocupación alrededor del uso de los medicamentos genéricos, los copia o multifuente y los originales, ya que la concentración y la absorción son muy importantes para su eficacia y seguridad, y es conocido que no deben variar más del 5-10 % para evitar cambios del patrón ictal de los pacientes. Se ha considerado que el cambio a medicamentos genéricos o multifuente está asociado con cambios en perfil de seguridad y en el patrón ictal, además de un aumento del uso de los servicios de salud y una alta tasa de cambio a medicamentos de marca, lo que podría aumentar los costos en salud. Por todo lo anterior, se considera que una atención óptima a los pacientes con epilepsia hace referencia a un manejo interdisciplinario en el cual se garantice el acceso y el seguimiento, para lo cual se deben aceptar retos como el entrenamiento del personal en atención primaria y la continuidad del manejo para evitar cambios en la biodisponibilidad, el perfil de seguridad y la toxicidad de los medicamentos.


SUMMARY It is estimated that approximately 70 million people live in the world with epilepsy, of which 80 °% live in low-or middle-income countries such as Colombia. Despite this, people with epilepsy live with unmet needs as, eventhough epilepsy is a prevalent disease, it is not reflected in the priorities of health services. This is why there are important challenges in the comprehensive treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy is a stigmatized disease that, beyond pharmacological expenses, has a psychological and social impact that results in a very varied spectrum of disability, suffering from notable depressions such as depression and anxiety. Likewise, people with epilepsy have a lower employment rate than people without epilepsy even up to 8 years after starting pharmacological therapy. The crisis-free state, which is one of the main objectives in the therapy of epilepsy, is difficult to achieve in some patients and although the amount of anticonvulsant drugs has increased markedly since 1990, the crises can be generated from multiple mechanisms, which translates into a challenge when looking for therapeutic targets for medications since several etiologies can be translated clinically into similar types of crisis. Although monotherapy is the ideal treatment in epilepsy, the priority is to achieve a reduction in ictal frequency or a crisis-free state, so if it is not achieved with the first medication, the option of adding a second medication is fully accepted. . There is a great concern about the use of generic drugs, copy or multi-source and originals since the concentration and absorption is very important for their effectiveness and safety and it is known that they should not vary more than 5-10 % to avoid Changes in the ictal pattern of patients. It has been considered that the change to generic or multi-source drugs is associated with changes in the safety profile and changes in the ictal pattern, in addition to an increase in the use of health services and a high rate of change to brand-name drugs, which could increase health costs. For all of the above, it is considered that optimal care for patients with epilepsy refers to an interdisciplinary management in which access and follow-up are guaranteed, for which challenges such as training of personnel in primary care and health care should be accepted. continuity of management to avoid changes in bioavaila-bility, safety profile and drug toxicity.

5.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 79-85, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in obesity prevalence and its relationship with multiple cardiovascular complications have raised the burden of obesity in the general population. Bariatric surgery has shown to be more effective in reducing weight than the traditional pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this alternative compared with standard treatment in the Colombian context. METHODS: A Markov single cohort model was used to simulate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained every year over a base-case 5-year time horizon. The model considers 5 health states: comorbidity, remission, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Four comorbidity conditions were evaluated separately: diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and sleep apnea. The model was evaluated from a third-payer perspective. All costs were expressed in 2016 Colombian pesos ($1.00 = 3051 COP). A 5% annual discount rate was applied to both costs and outcomes. RESULTS: In baseline analysis, bariatric surgery was a cost-effective alternative compared with nonsurgical treatment in the diabetes and hypertension cohort with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $6 194 899 and $43 689 527 per QALY gained, respectively. In the sleep apnea cohort, surgery has greater effectiveness and lower costs, which is why it is a dominant strategy. In the dyslipidemia cohort, bariatric surgery is dominated by the nonsurgical approach. CONCLUSION: The current study provides evidence that bariatric surgery is a cost-effective alternative among some cohorts in the Colombian setting. For obese patients with sleep apnea or diabetes, bariatric surgery is a recommendable alternative (dominant and cost-effective, respectively) for the Colombian healthcare system.

6.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 60-65, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the public health benefits and economic value of live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine in Colombia. METHODS: A decision tree model was used to assess the theoretical impact of routine YF vaccination of 1-year-olds (no "catch-up") during the interepidemic period from 1980 to 2002, avoiding capturing the impact of YF vaccine introduction in 2003. The vaccine was assumed to be 99% effective, to provide lifetime protection, and to cover 85% of the target population. Costs per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted were computed from payer and societal perspectives. Univariate sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: During the interepidemic period, routine YF vaccination would have averted 2223 nonfatal cases of YF and 65 deaths, leading to an overall reduction of 1365 DALYs. The net cost of this vaccination would have been $25 964 813 (payer's perspective) and $16 535 465 (societal perspective). Cost per DALY averted was $19 022 and $12 114 from payer and societal perspectives, respectively (all costs in 2015 US dollars). Vaccination was considered cost-effective from both perspectives (ie, between 1- and 3-fold the gross domestic product per capita, $7158) and remains so if price per dose was $2.75 or less and $4.66 from payer and societal perspectives, respectively. Underreporting had the largest impact on the results. CONCLUSIONS: Routine toddler YF vaccination in Colombia would have been considered cost-effective in the prevaccination era. This study provides insights on the value of vaccination in an upper middle-income country.

7.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 66-72, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to obesity and overweight conditions using disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in Colombia. METHODS: The burden of disease was estimated following an adapted methodology published by the World Health Organization. A selection of diseases was performed in which overweight and obesity are risk factors. DALYs were calculated by obtaining the proportion of cases and deaths of every disease that can be attributable to obesity and overweight conditions. The economic impact of obesity was calculated by multiplying the cost of care per patient for each comorbidity by the number of cases attributable exclusively to obesity. RESULTS: A total of 997 371 DALYs were estimated, 45% of which corresponded to men; 81% of DALYs corresponded to years lived with disability. Conditions with greater attributable DALYs are, in order, hypertension (31.6% of the total DALYs), type 2 diabetes mellitus (28.0%), cardiac ischemic disease (14.6%), and lower back pain (11.2%). An estimation of 20.5 DALYs per 1000 inhabitants was made. The economic impact of care for comorbidities associated with obesity could amount to $2158 million. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and overweight conditions are related to higher mortality and disability than previously estimated; effective interventions aimed at prevention and treatment will have a high impact on quality of life.

9.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 31(3): 209-212, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to describe the use of natural anterior teeth as a surgical guide to implant placement and provisional restoration for a young patient with root resorption of upper central incisors and left-lateral incisor. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Achieving soft tissue esthetics is quite a challenge in implant dentistry. Here, a case of immediate implant placement using the natural teeth of the patient as an immediate provisional restoration, which achieves satisfactory results in terms of soft tissue architecture. CONCLUSIONS: Post-extraction implant placement in combination with immediate loading of dental implants has been evolving into an appropriate procedure for the treatment of partially edentulous anterior maxilla. Different techniques that include use of the own teeth as provisional implant supported restoration helps to maintain architecture of gingival contour, specially papilla. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Natural architecture of anterior soft tissue is a big challenge in implant dentistry. Use of natural teeth as a surgical guide and provisional restorations might be helpful to obtain an optimal outcome.

10.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 104-109, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002185

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Myiasis is a disease causedby fly larvae that growinthetissues of animals and humans. It can cause a variety of local symptoms, like erythema or pain, depending on its location, and generalized symptomatology, such as fever andmalaise.Myiasis can generate severe complications, for instance sepsis, or directly impact vital tissues. Its management varies depending on the location, and on the preferences of the doctor that faces this challenge. Myiasis usually occurs in tropical countries, and, in many places, it is not a rare condition. The cases are rarely reported, and there are no publishedmanagement protocols. Objective To review the literature regarding the most common agents, the predisposing factors and the treatment alternatives for otic myiasis, a rare form of human myiasis caused by the infestation of fly larvae in the ear cavities. Data synthesis We present a systematic review of the literature. The search in five databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS and RedALyC) led to 63 published cases from 24 countries, in the 5 continents. The ages of the patients ranged fromnewborn to 65 years old. Themost common agents belong to the Sarcophagidae or Calliphoridae families. Chronic otitis media, previous otic surgical procedures, mental deficit, alcohol or drug abuse, sleeping outdoors, prostration, and malnutrition were predisposing factors. The treatment alternatives are herein discussed. Conclusion The results highlight the need for monitoring, follow-up and standardization of medical approaches.

11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 29-36, feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002584

RESUMO

There are few published real-world studies on hepatitis C in Latin America. This paper describes a cohort of Colombian subjects treated with direct-acting antiviral agents. A total of 195 patients from 5 hepatology centers in 4 Colombian cities were retrospectively studied. For each patient, serum biomarkers were obtained, and Child-Pugh, MELD, cirrhosis and fibrosis stage were calculated. Additionally, viral load was quantified at initiation, end of treatment and at 12 weeks of completion. Adverse effects were recorded. Patients with liver transplant were compared with non-transplanted patients in terms of serum biomarkers. The patients had received 9 different regimes. The most prevalent viral genotype was 1b (81.5%). Overall, 186 patients (95.4%) attained sustained virologic response. When comparing transplanted vs. non-transplanted patients, those in the non-transplanted group were more likely to have cirrhosis (52.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.0004). Pre-treatment viral load was higher in the transplant group (1 743 575 IQR = 1 038 062-4 252 719 vs. 345 769 IQR = 125 806-842 239; p < 0.0001) as well as ALT and AST levels (82.5 IQR 43.5-115.5 vs. 37.0 IQR = 24.7-73.3; p = 0.0009 and 70 IQR = 41-140 vs. 37 IQR = 24-68; p = 0.004 respectively). Adverse events were reported by 28.7% of the patients; asthenia (5.6%) was the most prevalent. Our results are comparable with those from other countries in terms of therapy and biomarkers. However, our cohort reported less adverse events. Further research is needed in the region.


Existen pocas publicaciones de evidencias del mundo real sobre hepatitis C en América Latina. En este estudio presentamos una cohorte colombiana de pacientes tratados con agentes antivirales de acción directa. Fueron analizados retrospectivamente 195 pacientes seleccionados en 5 centros de hepatología en 4 ciudades de Colombia. Dos tercios fueron mujeres y la mitad tenía ≥ 62 años. De cada uno se cuantificaron biomarcadores séricos, escala de Child-Pugh, MELD y grado de cirrosis y fibrosis. Se cuantificó carga viral al inicio, al final y a las 12 semanas después de completado el tratamiento. Se comparó la frecuencia de efectos adversos de medicamentos en trasplantados vs. no trasplantados. Los pacientes recibieron 9 esquemas de tratamiento diferentes. El genotipo más prevalente fue 1b (81.5%). La respuesta viral sostenida fue alcanzada por 186 pacientes (95.4%). El grupo no trasplantado tenía mayor frecuencia de cirrosis (52.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.0004). En los trasplantados, la carga viral pre-tratamiento era mayor (1 743 575 IQR = 1 038 062-4 252 719 vs. 345 769 IQR = 125 806-842 239; p = < 0.0001) igual que la ALT y la AST (82.5 IQR 43.5-115.5 vs. 37.0 IQR = 24.7-73.3; p = 0.0009 and 70 IQR = 41-140 vs. 37 IQR = 24-68; p = 0.004 respectivamente). El 28.7% refirió efectos adversos, siendo el más prevalente la astenia (5.6%). Nuestros resultados fueron comparables a los de estudios publicados en términos de terapia y biomarcadores pero nuestra cohorte presentó menos efectos adversos. Se requiere más investigación en la región.

12.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(1): 29-36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694186

RESUMO

There are few published real-world studies on hepatitis C in Latin America. This paper describes a cohort of Colombian subjects treated with direct-acting antiviral agents. A total of 195 patients from 5 hepatology centers in 4 Colombian cities were retrospectively studied. For each patient, serum biomarkers were obtained, and Child-Pugh, MELD, cirrhosis and fibrosis stage were calculated. Additionally, viral load was quantified at initiation, end of treatment and at 12 weeks of completion. Adverse effects were recorded. Patients with liver transplant were compared with non-transplanted patients in terms of serum biomarkers. The patients had received 9 different regimes. The most prevalent viral genotype was 1b (81.5%). Overall, 186 patients (95.4%) attained sustained virologic response. When comparing transplanted vs. non-transplanted patients, those in the non-transplanted group were more likely to have cirrhosis (52.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.0004). Pre-treatment viral load was higher in the transplant group (1 743 575 IQR = 1 038 062-4 252 719 vs. 345 769 IQR = 125 806-842 239; p < 0.0001) as well as ALT and AST levels (82.5 IQR 43.5-115.5 vs. 37.0 IQR = 24.7-73.3; p = 0.0009 and 70 IQR = 41-140 vs. 37 IQR = 24-68; p = 0.004 respectively). Adverse events were reported by 28.7% of the patients; asthenia (5.6%) was the most prevalent. Our results are comparable with those from other countries in terms of therapy and biomarkers. However, our cohort reported less adverse events. Further research is needed in the region.

13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(1): 59-61, Jan. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003522

RESUMO

Abstract Lithopedion (lithos = rock and paidion = child) is a rare condition that only occurs in 1.5 to 1.8% of extrauterine pregnancies and in 0.00045% of all pregnancies. It consists of an ectopic pregnancy in which the fetus dies but cannot be reabsorbed by the mother's body, which then coats it in a calcium-rich substance.We present the case of a 77-year-old woman with an incidental diagnosis of a lithopedion, which had been retained in her left pelvis for presumably 40 years.

14.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 41(1): 59-61, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541178

RESUMO

Lithopedion (lithos = rock and paidion = child) is a rare condition that only occurs in 1.5 to 1.8% of extrauterine pregnancies and in 0.00045% of all pregnancies. It consists of an ectopic pregnancy in which the fetus dies but cannot be reabsorbed by the mother's body, which then coats it in a calcium-rich substance. We present the case of a 77-year-old woman with an incidental diagnosis of a lithopedion, which had been retained in her left pelvis for presumably 40 years.


Assuntos
Calcinose , Feto , Idoso , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Achados Incidentais
15.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 35(3): 390-399, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: . To estimate out-of-pocket spending on health (GBS) and identify its associated factors in Peruvian older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Analytical cross-sectional study of the National Household Survey on Living Conditions and Poverty (ENAHO) 2017. Older adults were considered to be all individuals aged 60 and over and the GBS was considered the main study variable. Prevalence ratios (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRa) were estimated for each of the factors associated with GBS. GBS means were estimated using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log binding function. All confidence intervals (95%) of the estimators were calculated by bootstrapping with the normal-based method. RESULTS: . Eighteen 386 older adults were included, of which 56.5% reported GBS. The mean and median GBS is S/. 140.8 (USD 43.2) and S/. 34.5 (USD 10.6), respectively. Factors such as urban origin, a higher level of education, chronic diseases and higher per capita expenses increase the probability of GBS by up to 1.6 times. In those affiliated to the Integral Health Insurance (SIS), the GBS is reduced by 63.0 soles (USD 19.3) compared to those without any health insurance. CONCLUSIONS: . Six out of ten older Peruvian adults reported GBS to attend to their health needs. This generates an access inequity in terms of health services, mainly for socially-vulnerable groups. We suggest researching into the economic impact of health insurance and the preventive-promotional approach to chronic diseases, in order to reduce GBS and improve the efficiency of the Peruvian health system.

16.
Reumatol Clin ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To calculate the prevalence and describe the main demographic characteristics of Sjögren's syndrome in adults in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study which utilized data from the Integral Information System of Social Protection of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Colombia during the years 2012 to 2016. RESULTS: 58,680 cases of Sjögren's syndrome were identified, with a prevalence in those over 18 years of age of 0.12%; 82% were women, with a female:male ratio of 4.6:1, with a higher prevalence in the age group of 65 to 69 years. The departments with the highest numbers of cases were Bogotá DC (24,885), Antioquia (9,040) and Valle del Cauca (5,277); however, the departments with the highest prevalences were Caldas (0.42%), Bogotá DC (0.32%) and Antioquia (0.14%). CONCLUSIONS: We present demographic and epidemiological information on Sjögren's syndrome in Colombia. There are very few epidemiological studies of this disorder. However, a prevalence similar to that reported in countries of the region such as Brazil (0.17%) and Argentina (0.17%) was documented.

17.
18.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 69(4): 270-302, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-985512

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of atosiban in pregnant women with risk of preterm delivery as compared to nifedipine, indomethacin, terbutaline, fenoterol and placebo. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review was carried out in eight electronic databases, including Medline, Central, and Embase, using free and standardized search terms. Outcomes assessment included time delay until delivery, neonatal mortality, ratio of adverse maternal events, and ratio of neonatal complications. The quality of the evidence was evaluated per study and for the body of evidence and, whenever feasible, the information was synthesized into a meta-analysis. Alternatively, a narrative summary was presented. Results: Eleven studies were included. Atosiban did not show any statistically significant differences in terms of delaying delivery versus other uterine contraction inhibitors. The neonatal mortality was lower compared to indomethacin (RR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.92), and the percentage of total maternal adverse events was lower compared to fenoterol (RR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.31), nifedipine (RR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.78), and terbutaline (RR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.71). Conclusions: Atosiban has similar efficacy for delivery delay in patients with risk of preterm delivery as compared to other agents (moderate certainty), showing some advantages regarding neonatal mortality (low certainty) versus indomethacin, and compared to fenoterol, nifedipine and terbutaline in terms of maternal adverse events (moderate certainty).


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de atosiban en gestantes con amenaza de parto pretérmino comparado con nifedipino, indometacina, terbutalina, fenoterol y placebo. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en ocho bases de datos electrónicas (Medline, Central, Embase, entre otras), mediante términos de búsqueda libres y estandarizados. Los desenlaces evaluados incluyeron tiempo de retardo del parto, mortalidad neonatal, proporción de eventos adversos maternos y proporción de complicaciones neonatales. Se evaluó la calidad de la evidencia por estudio y para el cuerpo de evidencia, y se sintetizó la información mediante metaanálisis, cuando fue posible; de lo contrario, se resumió de forma narrativa. Resultados: se incluyeron once estudios. Atosiban no mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas en retardo del parto contra otros uteroinhibidores. Mostró menor mortalidad neonatal que la indometacina (RR = 0,21; IC 95 %: 0,05 a 0,92), y menor proporción de eventos adversos maternos totales que el fenoterol (RR = 0,16; IC 95 %: 0,08 a 0,31), el nifedipino (RR = 0,48; IC 95 %: 0,3 a 0,78) y la terbutalina (RR = 0,44; IC 95 %: 0,28 a 0,71). Conclusiones: atosiban tiene una eficacia similar para retardar el parto ante la amenaza de un parto pretérmino con otros comparadores (certeza moderada), con ventajas frente a indometacina en mortalidad neonatal (certeza baja) y frente a fenoterol, nifedipino y terbutalina en eventos adversos maternos (certeza moderada).


Assuntos
Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Placebos , Terbutalina , Nifedipino , Indometacina , Metanálise , Fenoterol
19.
Biomedica ; 38(3): 363-378, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335242

RESUMO

Introduction. Breast reconstruction, either immediate or delayed, is part of the treatment of breast cancer. Each country and health system pays for and evaluates these procedures in different ways. Thus, it is important to determine which strategy is most cost-effective in Colombia. Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility of breast cancer treatment with immediate reconstruction compared with delayed reconstruction. Materials and methods: We used a decision tree model and a one-year time horizon from the perspective of the third-party payer; the cost data were taken from the Colombian Instituto de Seguros Sociales 2001 rate manual plus a 30% adjustment according to the methodology of the Instituto de Evaluación Tecnológica en Salud, IETS, and the billing model of the Centro Javeriano de Oncología at the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio. The transition probabilities and profits were obtained from medical specialists, patients, and the medical literature. We also conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: The expected costs per capita were COP$ 26,710,605 (USD$ 11,165) for the immediate reconstruction and COP$ 26,459,557 (USD$ 11,060) for the deferred reconstruction. Immediate reconstruction generated an incremental cost of COP$ 251,049 (USD$ 105) and 0.75 quality-adjusted life years (QALY), while deferred reconstruction generated 0.63 QALYs, with an incremental cost-utility ratio of COP$ 2,154,675 per QALY (USD$ 901). Conclusions: The cost per QALY did not exceed the acceptability threshold of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. The costs for the first year were similar. Both techniques are favorable for the Colombian health system, but the utility reported by patients and the literature is greater with the immediate reconstruction.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49454

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess the economic impact of dengue in Latin America and the Caribbean using a systematic review that includes studies not previously considered by other reviews. Methods. Cochrane methodology was used to conduct a systematic review of the cost of dengue in Latin America. PubMed Central, EMBASE, and the Biblioteca Virtual en Salud— which includes scientific, peer-reviewed journals not indexed by other databases—were searched from inception through August 2016. All articles that reported cost of illness data for countries in Latin America were included. Included studies underwent a methodological appraisal using a seven-question instrument designed for cost of illness studies. Extracted data were direct and indirect costs for outpatient and hospitalized cases and total cost of the disease. Values were adjusted to 2015 US dollars using the consumer price index. Results. From a total of 848 initial references, 17 studies were included, mainly from Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, and Puerto Rico; costs were available for 39 countries. The methodological appraisal showed that 70% of the studies met more than 70% of the evaluated items. The main economic impact of dengue was due to productivity costs. Average annual cost was more than US$ 3 billion. Direct costs represented over 70% of the total share for hospitalized cases. For outpatients, direct medical costs were low, but social costs were significant since indirect costs may account for up to 80% of the total cost. Conclusions. Dengue fever has a significant economic impact in Latin America. It is essential to develop new public health interventions, such as dengue vaccination, to decrease the propagation of the disease and its total cost.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar las repercusiones económicas del dengue en América Latina y el Caribe mediante una revisión sistemática que abarcó estudios no considerados en otras revisiones anteriores. Métodos. Se usó la metodología de Cochrane para hacer una revisión sistemática del costo del dengue en América Latina. Se hizo una búsqueda en PubMed Central, EMBASE y la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, que incluyen revistas científicas arbitradas no indizadas por otras bases de datos, desde su aparición hasta agosto del 2016. Se incluyeron todos los artículos que contenían datos sobre el costo de la enfermedad para los países de América Latina. Los estudios incluidos se sometieron a una evaluación metodológica para la cual se usó un instrumento de siete preguntas diseñado para los estudios sobre los costos de las enfermedades. Los datos extraídos fueron los costos directos e indirectos para los casos de pacientes ambulatorios y hospitalizados y el costo total de la enfermedad. Los valores se ajustaron a dólares de los Estados Unidos del 2015 con base en el índice de precios al consumidor. Resultados. De un total de 848 referencias iniciales, se incluyeron 17 estudios, principalmente de Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, México y Puerto Rico; se encontraron datos sobre los costos en 39 países. La evaluación metodológica indicó que 70% de los estudios reunían más de 70% de los puntos evaluados. La principal repercusión económica del dengue se debió a los costos por pérdida en la productividad. El costo anual promedio fue de más de USD 3.000 millones. Los costos directos representaron más de 70% del total para los casos de pacientes hospitalizados. En cuanto a los pacientes ambulatorios, los costos médicos directos fueron bajos, pero los costos sociales fueron considerables, ya que los costos indirectos pueden representar hasta 80% del costo total. Conclusiones. El dengue tiene importantes repercusiones económicas en América Latina. Es fundamental elaborar nuevas intervenciones en materia de salud pública, como la vacunación contra el dengue, para reducir la propagación de la enfermedad y su costo total.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar o impacto econômico da dengue na América Latina e o Caribe por meio de uma revisão sistemática que incluiu estudos não considerados anteriormente por outras revisões. Métodos. Utilizou-se a metodologia Cochrane para realizar uma revisão sistemática do custo da dengue na América Latina. Foi realizada uma busca dos bancos de dados PubMed Central, EMBASE e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde— a qual inclui periódicos científicos com avaliação por pares não indexados por outros repositórios— desde sua criação até agosto de 2016. Todos os artigos que relataram dados de custo de doença para países da América Latina foram incluídos. Os estudos incluídos foram submetidos a uma avaliação metodológica usando um instrumento de sete perguntas desenvolvido para estudos de custo de doença. Os dados extraídos foram os custos diretos e indiretos para casos ambulatoriais e hospitalizados e o custo total da doença. Os valores foram ajustados para dólares de 2015, usando-se o índice de preços ao consumidor. Resultados. De 848 referências inicialmente identificadas, 17 estudos foram incluídos, principalmente do Brasil, Colômbia, Cuba, México e Porto Rico; dados sobre custos estavam disponíveis para 39 países. A avaliação metodológica demonstrou que 70% dos estudos apresentavam mais de 70% dos itens avaliados. O principal impacto econômico da dengue foi devido aos custos de produtividade. O custo médio anual foi superior a US$3 bilhões. Para casos que exigiram hospitalização, os custos diretos representaram mais de 70% do custo total. Para pacientes ambulatoriais, os custos médicos diretos foram baixos, mas os custos sociais foram significativos, pois os custos indiretos podem representar até 80% do custo total. Conclusões. A dengue tem impacto econômico considerável na América Latina. É essencial desenvolver novas intervenções de saúde pública, como a vacinação contra a dengue, para diminuir a propagação da doença e seu custo total.


Assuntos
Dengue , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Região do Caribe
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