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2.
Clin Transplant ; : e14227, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484027

RESUMO

The absence of afferent nerves for heart rate (HR) regulation leaves the transplanted heart under the influence of its internal and hormonal control. The HR of heart transplantation (HTx) recipients varies from to 90-110 bpm, indicating a lack of vagal parasympathetic tone. We hypothesized that the reduction in mean HR using an If-channel antagonist (ivabradine) could be effective and safe in HTx recipients. The primary objective of this open-label randomized clinical trial was to compare the mean HR at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after randomization between an ivabradine plus conventional treatment group (IG) and conventional treatment alone group (CG). The secondary objectives were reduction in mortality, graft dysfunction, and ventricular mass. All patients were randomized between 1 and 12 months after HTx. Ivabradine started at randomization. Of the 35 patients, 54.28% were in the CG and 45.72% in the IG. There were no significant between-group differences in demographics. Over time, the HR differences between the groups became significant (P < .01). There were no significant between-group differences in mortality, graft dysfunction, and ventricular mass. We conclude that ivabradine could effectively and consistently reduce the HR in HTx recipients.

5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 468-477, out. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1131324

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento Os dados mais utilizados como referência de aptidão cardiorrespiratória (ACR) são os de Cooper, que utiliza valores calculados de captação máxima de oxigênio (VO2máx). Objetivo Desenvolver valores de ACR a partir do teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE) em uma população brasileira com alto nível socioeconômico e livre de cardiopatia estrutural. Os resultados dos testes de VO2max foram comparados aos dados de Cooper e do FRIEND Registry. Métodos Foram utilizados neste estudo dados de TCPE de indivíduos consecutivos entre 1º de janeiro de 2000 e 31 de maio de 2016. Os critérios de inclusão foram: VO2máx pré-definido. Foi construído um gráfico de ACR de acordo com os percentuais do VO2máx: muito ruim (≤20%), ruim (20-40%), regular (40-60%), boa (60-80%), excelente (80-90%), e superior (≥90%). A correlação Kappa foi usada para analisar nossos dados em comparação aos dados dos outros dois bancos de dados. Os testes estatísticos com p<0,005 foram considerados significativos. Resultados A coorte final incluiu 18.186 testes: 12.552 homens, 5.634 mulheres (7 a 84 anos). A resposta mais recorrente foi "boa" (20,2%). Houve diferença média de peso, altura, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e idade no gráfico da ACR. Houve correlação inversa entre VO2máx e idade, peso e IMC. Usando uma regressão linear e essas variáveis, uma equação preditiva foi desenvolvida para o VO2máx. Nossas descobertas diferiram das dos outros bancos de dados. Conclusão Desenvolvemos uma classificação para a ACR e encontramos valores mais altos em todas as faixas de classificação de capacidade funcional, em contraste com os dados de Cooper e do FRIEND Registry. Nossos achados oferecem uma interpretação mais precisa da ACR nessa grande amostra populacional brasileira, quando comparados aos padrões anteriores, com base no VO2máx estimado. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):468-477)


Abstract Background The most widely used data for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) referrals are from the Cooper Clinic, which uses calculated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values. Objective To develop CRF values from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in a Brazilian population with high socioeconomic level and free of structural heart disease. VO2max testing results were compared with the Cooper Clinic and FRIEND Registry data. Methods CPX data from consecutive individuals between January 1,2000, and May 31,2016 were used in this study. Inclusion criteria were: VO2max by a pre-specified definition. We built a CRF chart according to VO2max percentiles: very poor (≤20%), poor (20-40%), fair (40-60%), good (60-80%), excellent (80-90%), and superior (≥90%). Kappa correlation was used to analyze our data in comparison with that of the other two databases. Statistical tests with p<0.005 were considered significant. Results Final cohort included 18,186 tests: 12,552 men, 5,634 women (7-84 years). The most recurrent response was "good" (20.2%). There was a mean difference in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and age in the CRF chart. An inverse correlation existed between VO2max and age, weight, and BMI. Using a linear regression and these variables, a predictive equation was developed for VO2max. Our findings differed from that of the other databases. Conclusion We developed a classification for CRF and found higher values in all classification ranges of functional capacity in contrast to the Cooper Clinic and FRIEND Registry. Our findings offer a more accurate interpretation of ACR in this large Brazilian population sample when compared to previous standards based on the estimated VO2max. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):468-477)


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Resistência Física , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Treino Aeróbico , Atividade Motora
6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(3)2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824760

RESUMO

Background-Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) have high mortality, and CC is a common indication for heart transplantation (HTx) in endemic countries. Chagas disease reactivation (CDR) is common after transplantation and is likely to cause adverse outcomes unless detected and treated appropriately. This study reviews our experiences with HTx among patients with CC, and the use of benznidazole (BZ) before transplantation. Methods-During the 18-year period from 1996 through 2014, 70 of 353 patients who underwent HTx (19.8%) had CC, and 53 patients met the inclusion criteria. The effectiveness of prophylactic treatment with BZ (dose of 5 mg/kg/day, two times per day, for at least four weeks and for a maximum of eight weeks) was determined based on the observed reduction in the incidence of CDR during the post-HTx period. Results-Prophylactic therapy was administered to 18/53 patients (34.0%). During the follow-up period, the incidence rate of CDR in our study was 34.0% (18/53). Based on logistic regression analysis, only prophylaxis (OR = 0.12; CI 0.02-0.76; p = 0.025) was considered to protect against CDR. Conclusion-Our study suggests that the use of BZ may reduce the incidence of CDR in patients undergoing HTx and warrants further investigation in a prospective, randomized trial.

7.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis ; 5(3): 1-6, Aug., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1121993

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Background­Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) have high mortality, and CC is a common indication for heart transplantation (HTx) in endemic countries. Chagas disease reactivation (CDR) is common after transplantation and is likely to cause adverse outcomes unless detected and treated appropriately. This study reviews our experiences with HTx among patients with CC, and the use of benznidazole (BZ) before transplantation. METHODS­During the 18-year period from 1996 through 2014, 70 of 353 patients who underwent HTx (19.8%) had CC, and 53 patients met the inclusion criteria. The e_ectiveness of prophylactic treatment with BZ (dose of 5 mg/kg/day, two times per day, for at least four weeks and for a maximum of eight weeks) was determined based on the observed reduction in the incidence of CDR during the post-HTx period. RESULTS­Prophylactic therapy was administered to 18/53 patients (34.0%). During the follow-up period, the incidence rate of CDR in our study was 34.0% (18/53). Based on logistic regression analysis, only prophylaxis (OR = 0.12; CI 0.02­0.76; p = 0.025) was considered to protect against CDR. CONCLUSION­Our study suggests that the use of BZ may reduce the incidence of CDR in patients undergoing HTx and warrants further investigation in a prospective, randomized trial.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Transplante de Coração , Doença de Chagas
8.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 115(3): 468-477, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most widely used data for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) referrals are from the Cooper Clinic, which uses calculated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values. OBJECTIVE: To develop CRF values from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in a Brazilian population with high socioeconomic level and free of structural heart disease. VO2max testing results were compared with the Cooper Clinic and FRIEND Registry data. METHODS: CPX data from consecutive individuals between January 1,2000, and May 31,2016 were used in this study. Inclusion criteria were: VO2max by a pre-specified definition. We built a CRF chart according to VO2max percentiles: very poor (≤20%), poor (20-40%), fair (40-60%), good (60-80%), excellent (80-90%), and superior (≥90%). Kappa correlation was used to analyze our data in comparison with that of the other two databases. Statistical tests with p<0.005 were considered significant. RESULTS: Final cohort included 18,186 tests: 12,552 men, 5,634 women (7-84 years). The most recurrent response was "good" (20.2%). There was a mean difference in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and age in the CRF chart. An inverse correlation existed between VO2max and age, weight, and BMI. Using a linear regression and these variables, a predictive equation was developed for VO2max. Our findings differed from that of the other databases. CONCLUSION: We developed a classification for CRF and found higher values in all classification ranges of functional capacity in contrast to the Cooper Clinic and FRIEND Registry. Our findings offer a more accurate interpretation of ACR in this large Brazilian population sample when compared to previous standards based on the estimated VO2max. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):468-477).

10.
Clin. transplant ; 33(10)8 Sept. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1009490

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary graft failure (PGF) is an important contributor to early mortality, accounting for 41% of deaths within the first 30 days after heart transplantation (HT). Donor hypernatremia has been associated with PGF development. However, controversial data exist regarding the impact of sodium deregulation in patient survival after HT. This study aimed to assess the influence of donor hypernatremia on PGF development and to determine the serum sodium level threshold to assist in decision-making for organ procurement. METHODS: The medical record from 200 HT patients and organ donors were retrospectively assessed and categorized by PGF occurrence. Donor sodium leve were compared and cut-off points obtained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to assess the effects of factors and covariates that influence PGF development. RESULTS: Sodium levels of donors were significantly higher in recipients who developed PGF than those who did not develop PGF (162 vs. 153 mmol/L, p = 0.001). The sodium cut-off value determined by the ROC curve was 159 mmol/L. The group who received organs from donors with a serum sodium concentration >/=159 mmol/L had a higher incidence of PGF (63.3% vs 32.4%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, donor sodium levels >/=159 mmol/L increased the likelihood of recipients developing PGF by 3.4 times. It is also observed that the incidence of donor smoking addiction was significantly higher in the PGF group (28.6% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.004) and donor smoking addiction increased the risk of developing PGF by 2.8 times. CONCLUSION: Smoking addiction and the application of suboptimal organs from donors with hypernatremia contribute to primary graft failure in heart transplantation. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transplante de Coração , Fumantes , Hipernatremia
11.
Clin Transplant ; 33(10): e13693, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403724

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary graft failure (PGF) is an important contributor to early mortality, accounting for 41% of deaths within the first 30 days after heart transplantation (HT). Donor hypernatremia has been associated with PGF development. However, controversial data exist regarding the impact of sodium deregulation in patient survival after HT. This study aimed to assess the influence of donor hypernatremia on PGF development and to determine the serum sodium level threshold to assist in decision-making for organ procurement. METHODS: The medical record from 200 HT patients and organ donors were retrospectively assessed and categorized by PGF occurrence. Donor sodium levels were compared and cut-off points obtained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to assess the effects of factors and covariates that influence PGF development. RESULTS: Sodium levels of donors were significantly higher in recipients who developed PGF than those who did not develop PGF (162 vs. 153 mmol/L, P = .001). The sodium cut-off value determined by the ROC curve was 159 mmol/L. The group who received organs from donors with a serum sodium concentration ≥159 mmol/L had a higher incidence of PGF (63.3% vs 32.4%, P < .001). Furthermore, donor sodium levels ≥159 mmol/L increased the likelihood of recipients developing PGF by 3.4 times. It is also observed that the incidence of donor smoking addiction was significantly higher in the PGF group (28.6% vs. 11.5%, P = .004) and donor smoking addiction increased the risk of developing PGF by 2.8 times. CONCLUSION: Smoking addiction and the application of suboptimal organs from donors with hypernatremia contribute to primary graft failure in heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Hipernatremia/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribução , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 240-241, Aug. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1019394
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 265-270, Jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1007614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report our center's experience in the surgical treatment of ventricular reconstruction, an effective and efficient technique that allows patients with end-stage heart failure of ischemic etiology to have clinical improvement and increased survival. METHODS: Observational, clinical-surgical, sequential, retrospective study. Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular aneurysm were attended at the Heart Failure, Ventricular Dysfunction and Cardiac Transplant outpatient clinic of the Dante Pazzanese Cardiology Institute, from January 2010 to December 2016. Data from 34 patients were collected, including systemic arterial hypertension, ejection fraction, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification (FC), European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II value, Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score, ventricular reconstruction technique, and survival. RESULTS: Overall mortality of 14.7%, with hospital admission being 8.82% and late death being 5.88%. Total survival rate at five years of 85.3%. In the preoperative phase, NYHA FC was Class I in five patients, II in 18, III in eight, and IV in three vs. NYHA FC Class I in 17 patients, II in eight, III in six, and IV in three, in the postoperative period. EuroSCORE II mean value was 6.29, P

Assuntos
Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante de Coração , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Aneurisma Cardíaco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos
14.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(Suppl. 2b): 273-273, Jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1014982

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: O treinamento físico melhora a capacidade funcional e a qualidade de vida em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca crônica (IC). Entretanto, devido à baixa disponibilidade de centros de reabilitação cardíaca e limitações pessoais (custos de transporte, tempo, preferências), a inclusão e a adesão ao treinamento físico supervisionado são baixas, sendo proposto o treinamento domiciliar como alternativa. OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos de dois programas de treinamento: um domiciliar e um supervisionado ao longo de 12 semanas sobre a capacidade funcional, atividade física diária e qualidade de vida em pacientes com IC. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 23 pacientes com IC (classe funcional NYHA II e III, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ≤40%) randomizados em Grupo Domiciliar (GD, n=11) ou Grupo Supervisionado (GS, n=12). Os pacientes realizaram, ao longo de 12 semanas exercícios aeróbios (60-70% da frequência cardíaca de reserva): caminhada para o GD e cicloergômetro para o GS combinados a exercícios resistidos (50% de uma repetição máxima). As variáveis-desfecho foram: pico de consumo de oxigênio e ventilação máxima do teste cardiopulmonar, distância percorrida no teste da caminhada de seis minutos, força muscular do quadríceps, pressão inspiratória máxima, número de passos/dia e qualidade de vida. RESULTADOS: Após 12 semanas,GD e GS apresentaram aumentos significantes (p=0,025) no pico de consumo de oxigênio (0,8 e 3,7 ml/kg/min, respectivamente), na ventilação máxima (11,5 e 15,6 l/min, respectivamente), na distância percorrida (40 e 25 m, respectivamente), na porcentagem de força muscular do quadríceps (21% e 11%, respectivamente) e na qualidade de vida avaliada por meio do questionário Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (1 e 13, respectivamente), sem diferenças entre GD e GS. Entretanto, o GS mostrou melhora na força muscular inspiratória (p=0,042), aumento no número de passos/dia (p=0,001) e no componente de saúde mental do questionário SF-36 (p=0,001) superior ao GD. CONCLUSÕES: O treinamento domiciliar pode ser uma alternativa ao treinamento supervisionado para melhorar a capacidade funcional e a qualidade de vida em pacientes com IC. Além desses benefícios, o treinamento supervisionado foi superior em aumentar a força muscular inspiratória, o número de passos/dia e melhorar os aspectos de saúde mental em pacientes com IC. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Exercício Físico , Insuficiência Cardíaca
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209897, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality attributable to various cancers. It is often estimated indirectly using mathematical formulas for estimating oxygen uptake. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, especially oxygen uptake, represents the "gold standard" for assessing exercise capacity. The purpose of this report was to develop reference standards for exercise capacity by establishing cardiorespiratory fitness values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing in a Brazilian population. We focused on oxygen uptake standards and compared the maximal oxygen uptake [mLO2·kg-1·min-1] values with those in the existing literature. METHODS: A database was constructed using reports from cardiopulmonary exercise testing performed at Fleury laboratory. The final cohort included 18,189 individuals considered to be free of structural heart disease. Percentiles of maximal oxygen uptake for men and women were determined for six age groups between 7 and 84 years. We compared the values with existing reference data from patients from Norway and the United States. RESULTS: There were significant differences in maximal oxygen uptake between sexes and across the age groups. In our cohort, the 50th percentile maximal oxygen uptake values for men and women decreased from 44.7 and 36.3 mLO2·kg-1·min-1 to 28.4 and 22.3 mLO2·kg-1·min-1 for patients aged 20-29 years to patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. For each age group, both Norwegian men and women had greater cardiorespiratory fitness than cohorts in the United States and Brazil. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, our analysis represents the largest reference data for cardiorespiratory fitness based on treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Our findings provide reference values of maximal oxygen uptake measurements from treadmill tests in Brazilian populations that are more accurate than previous standard values based on workload-derived estimations. This data may also add information to the global data used for the interpretation of cardiorespiratory fitness.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Transplant ; 32(10): e13373, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vasculitis entails heterogeneous origins; it starts with an inflammatory process that leads to small vessels' necrosis, hemorrhage, and ischemic lesion, and may further result in occlusion of the vascular lumen. Vasculitis' contribution to allograft rejection is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the incidence of vasculitis in the early stages of heart transplantation as well as to assess the intragraft genes' expression associated with vascular function and subsequently to verify the way in which it affects the outcome of the allograft. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 300 archive paraffin-embedded endomyocardial biopsies from 63 heart allograft recipients were assessed. Cellular rejection and vasculitis were diagnosed through histological analysis, and antibody-mediated rejection was performed with immunohistochemical C4d staining. The transcripts of ICAM, VCAM, VEGF, CCL2, IFNG, TGFB, TNF, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 genes were examined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction using B2M for normalization. RESULTS: We observed a higher prevalence of severe vasculitis in the early period of post-transplant, and recovery was observed to take place around 1 year post-transplant. Additionally, vasculitis was found to be directly associated with acute cellular rejection and antibody-mediated rejection. The intense C4d capillary positivity predicts higher long-term cardiovascular disease mortality. In comparison with the vasculitis-free group, the group with severe vasculitis displayed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and an upregulation of VCAM and IFNG associated with the downregulation of VEGF, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2. CONCLUSION: The vasculitis associated with the presence of C4d and the change in intragraft gene expression profile may contribute to poor allograft outcomes.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Vasculite/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vasculite/etiologia
19.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 106(9): 676-685, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inspiratory and peripheral muscle training improves muscle strength, exercise tolerance, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). However, studies investigating different workloads for these exercise modalities are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of low and moderate intensities on muscle strength, functional capacity, and quality of life. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with stable HF (aged >18 years, NYHA II/III, LVEF <40%) were randomized to: non-exercise control group (n = 9), low-intensity training group (LIPRT, n = 13, 15% maximal inspiratory workload, and 0.5 kg of peripheral muscle workload) or moderate-intensity training group (MIPRT, n = 13, 30% maximal inspiratory workload and 50% of one maximum repetition of peripheral muscle workload). The outcomes were: respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, pulmonary function, exercise tolerance by the 6-minute walk test, symptoms based on the NYHA functional class, and quality of life using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. RESULTS: All groups showed similar quality-of-life improvements. Low and moderate intensities training programs improved inspiratory muscle strength, peripheral muscle strength, and walking distance. However, only moderate intensity improved expiratory muscle strength and NYHA functional class in HF patients. CONCLUSIONS: The low-intensity inspiratory and peripheral resistance muscle training improved inspiratory and peripheral muscle strength and walking distance, demonstrating that LIPRT is an efficient rehabilitation method for debilitated HF patients. In addition, the moderate-intensity resistance training also improved expiratory muscle strength and NYHA functional class in HF patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada/fisiologia
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