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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125512, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610422

RESUMO

This study represents the first attempt to combine mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and multivariate data processing for prediction of alcohol degree, sugars content and total acidity in straw wine. 302 Italian samples, representing different vintages, production regions and grape varieties, were analysed using FT-MIR spectroscopy and reference methods. New regression functions based on a combination of Orthogonal Signal Correction and Partial Least Squares regression are proposed for prediction of quality parameters: this approach allows overcoming the issue of matrix complexity, reducing spectral interferences and enhancing the information embodied in fingerprinting data. The models proposed are characterised by an excellent reliability, with low error in prediction (alcohol: 0.28%; sugars: 9.9 g/L; acidity: 0.29 g/L) comparable both to reference methods and table wine models. Results demonstrate that vibrational spectroscopy, combined with a proper multivariate data strategy, represents a suitable strategy for the quick and non-destructive assessment of quality parameters of straw wine.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Informática/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vinho/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vitis/química
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115347, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590845

RESUMO

Viscosupplementation, i.e. intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid derivatives, is considered as the most effective treatment for patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis. Even if hyaluronic acid is still considered as the gold standard, research is now focusing on the development of new products with enhanced injectability and yet reasonable viscoelastic behavior for OA treatment. A Gellan Gum (GG) hydrogel was synthesized and coated with crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to protect the polysaccharide from degradation during sterilization and improve its performance for the foreseen application. Thermal analyses indicated that mixed hydrogel showed a higher degree of structuring than the bare polysaccharide core without losing its swelling properties, thanks to the hydrophylicity of both coating and cross-linking agent. The PVA coating increased elastic and viscous moduli of the polysaccharide core conferring it a higher resistance to shear and compression and better thixotropic properties. Despite the double crosslinking, hydrogel was injectable. Cytocompatibility towards chondrocytes was verified.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Condrócitos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Viscosidade
3.
Adv Med ; 2019: 3932721, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687414

RESUMO

Background: In 2014, the Italian Consensus for Classification and Reporting of Thyroid Cytology (ICCRTC) reviewed the previous cytological classification proposed in 2007 including the subdivision of TIR 3 category into low risk (TIR 3A) and high risk (TIR 3B). In Italian literature, different rates of malignancy have been correlated to these subcategories. Objectives: The aim of the study is to present our experience on this subclassification for the assessment of the malignancy risk of indeterminate thyroid nodules. We correlated the subdivision into TIR 3A and TIR 3B with the histological report by highlighting the rates of malignancy detected in the two subcategories. On the one hand, we aimed to check if the groups are associated with a real and significant difference risk of malignancy. On the other hand, we evaluated the use of this subdivision in the choice of the appropriate treatment. Study Design: This is a retrospective review of all the patients with an indeterminate nodule who underwent US-FNA and had surgery at ASL Città di Torino between January 2005 and May 2018. Results: 150 patients have been analyzed for the research; 62 (41.3%) had a malignant histological report. Rates of malignancy between TIR 3A (20.8%) and TIR 3B (60.3%) were significantly different (p < 0.0001). The subclassification had high sensitivity (75.8%; CI 63.3-85.8%) and NPV (79.3%; CI 68-87.8%) and low specificity (64.8%; CI 53.9-74.7%) and PPV (60.3; CI 48.5-71.2%). The measurement of the accuracy (AUC = 0.7) classified the test as "moderately accurate." Conclusions. Obtained data show a great rate of false negative (20.8%) and limited AUC (0.7). According to our logistic regression, we argue that the 2014 subclassification into TIR 3A and TIR 3B should be considered for the choice of patient treatment, but at the same time, we believe that the association with other screening tests is necessary to increase the accuracy in the future.

4.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(9): 2907-2920, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572584

RESUMO

The products and by-products of Olea europaea L.: olive fruits (primary agricultural product), oils (primary agro-industrial product), pomaces (agro-industrial processing by-product), and leaves (agricultural practices by-product), are promising sources of bioactive compounds. In the present study, qualitative and quantitative analyses of selected bioactive components in olive fruits, oils, and pomaces were performed. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were analyzed in all samples (humid pomaces 2015: TPP, 26.0 ± 1.5-43.7 ± 3.0 g(GAEq)/kg DW; TEAC/ABTS, 189.5 ± 3.7-388.1 ± 12.0 mmol(Trx)kg DW). Radical (DPPH) quenching potential was analyzed via photometric and EPR methods, obtaining Vis/EPR signal ratio by 1.05 ± 0.45 and 1.66 ± 0.39 for fruits and pomaces, respectively. Through HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS/MS techniques, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, as well as selected hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, were identified and quantified in olive fruits and pomaces. The main components were rutin, luteolin, and chlorogenic acid. Cytotoxic assay on fibroblast cells revealed toxic effects for selected extracts at highest tested concentrations (5%).

6.
Biophys Chem ; 249: 106149, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981137

RESUMO

Proteins in solution affect the structural and dynamic properties of the bulk water at the protein-water interface, resulting in a contribution to the order of the hydration water. Theoretical and experimental NMR relaxation methods were developed to study the dynamic properties of water molecules in the protein hydration shell. Water non-selective and selective relaxation rates, were shown to be sensitive to contributions from ordered solvent molecules at protein surface. The average rotational correlation time of water molecules in the protein hydration shell was determined for three protein systems of different size: ribonuclease A, human serum albumin and fibrinogen. The knowledge of these properties is an important step toward the determination of the size of the water ordering contributions originate in proteins systems.


Assuntos
Fibrinogênio/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Ribonuclease Pancreático/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Água/química , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica
7.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 55(2): 160-169, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002372

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: The detection of anti-double-stranded (ds) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) antibodies is one of the classification criteria for diagnosing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Objective: To describe a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-dsDNA immunoglobulin class G (IgG) antibodies. Methods: The performance of ELISA was evaluated using the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) as a reference. Anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA and CLIFT in serum samples from 127 patients with SLE, 56 patients with other diseases and 37 healthy persons. The Cochran Q test was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the reactions, with differences among the results being considered significant when p ≤ 0.05. Results: ELISA had a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 94.6%, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of CLIFT were 85.8% and 100%, respectively. ELISA was significantly more sensitive than CLIFT (p = 0.0027), whereas CLIFT was significantly more specific than ELISA (p = 0.0253). Conclusion: ELISA showed excellent results in terms of sensitivity and specificity, with a potential use in research and routine diagnostics.


RESUMEN Introducción: La detección de anticuerpos contra el ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN) de doble cadena (dc) es uno de los criterios de clasificación para el diagnóstico de lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES). Objetivo: Describir una técnica inmunoenzimática (ELISA) cuantitativa para detección de anticuerpos de inmunoglobulina de clase G (IgG) anti-ADNdc. Métodos: Se evaluó el desempeño de la técnica ELISA mediante el test inmunofluorescencia indirecta con Crithidia luciliae (IFI-CL) como referencia. Anticuerpos IgG anti-ADNdc fueron analizados por ELISA y IFI-CL en muestras de sueros de 127 pacientes con LES, 56 pacientes con otras enfermedades y 37 personas sanas. La prueba Q de Cochran fue utilizada para comparar la sensibilidad y la especificidad de las reacciones considerando diferencias significantes entre los tests cuando p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: La técnica ELISA mostró sensibilidad del 92,9% y especificidad del 94,6%, mientras la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la técnica IFI-CL fueron del 85,8% y 100%, respectivamente. La técnica ELISA mostró sensibilidad significativamente mayor que la obtenida con IFI-CL (p = 0,0027); esta mostró especificidad significativamente mayor que la obtenida con ELISA (p = 0,0253). Conclusión: La técnica ELISA presentó resultados excelentes de sensibilidad y especificidad, con el potencial de ser utilizada en investigación y rutina diagnóstica.


RESUMO Introdução: A detecção de anticorpos contra o ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA) nativo (ds) é um dos critérios de classificação para o diagnóstico do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES). Objetivo: Descrever uma técnica imunoenzimática enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantitativa para a detecção de anticorpos imunoglobulina da classe G (IgG) anti-DNAds. Métodos: O desempenho da técnica ELISA foi avaliado utilizando o teste de imunofluorescência indireta com Crithidia luciliae (CLIFT) como referência. Anticorpos IgG anti-DNAds foram pesquisados por ELISA e CLIFT em amostras de soros de 127 pacientes com LES, 56 pacientes com outras doenças e 37 indivíduos sadios. O teste Q de Cochran foi utilizado para comparar as sensibilidades e as especificidades das reações, considerando diferenças significantes entre os testes quando p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: A técnica ELISA apresentou sensibilidade de 92,9% e especificidade de 94,6%, enquanto a sensibilidade e a especificidade da técnica CLIFT foram de 85,8% e 100%, respectivamente. A técnica ELISA apresentou sensibilidade significativamente maior do que a obtida com a técnica CLIFT (p = 0,0027); esta apresentou especificidade significativamente maior do que a obtida com a técnica ELISA (p = 0,0253). Conclusão: A técnica ELISA apresentou excelentes resultados em termos de sensibilidade e especificidade, podendo ser útil em pesquisa e rotina diagnóstica.

8.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 98: 696-704, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813074

RESUMO

A thixotropic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel, containing a hydrophilic poly-vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) core, was obtained in order to develop a preformed 3D network able to maintain injectability. PVA was mixed with PVP in two different molar ratios (1:1 and 1:3) and chemically cross-linked using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP), which is able to react only with PVA component. A combination of Time of Flight- Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), elemental analysis and UV spectroscopy permitted to determine both the cross-linking arm length and the crosslinking degree. Hydrogels were characterized in terms of swelling pressurization, rheological and mechanical behaviour. In particular, the viscoelastic behaviour of the hydrogel was analysed in shear and compression stress under dynamic conditions and compared with the performance of healthy human nucleus pulposus. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the scaffold obtained mixing PVA and PVP in a molar ratio 1:1 can be considered a promising material to be utilised in the replacement of nucleus pulposus.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Núcleo Pulposo/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Termogravimetria
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(6)2019 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909650

RESUMO

In this work, we present the design, implementation, and testing of an attitude control system based on State Feedback Linearization (FL) of a prototype spherical underwater vehicle. The vehicle is characterized by a manifold design thruster configuration for both locomotion and maneuvering, as well as on a novel pendulum-based passive pitch control mechanism. First, the mechanical design and onboard electronics set up of the spherically shaped hull are introduced. Afterward, a high-fidelity dynamic model of the system is derived for a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) underwater vehicle, followed by several experiments that have been performed in a controlled environment to compare the performance of the proposed control method to that of a baseline Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. Experimental results demonstrate that while both controllers were able to perform the specified maneuvers, the FL controller outperforms the PID in terms of precision and time response.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884846

RESUMO

Research on microcirculatory alterations in human heart disease is essential to understand the genesis of myocardial contractile dysfunction and its evolution towards heart failure. The use of contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in medical diagnostics related to this dysfunction. Contrast agents significantly improve the imaging by enhancing the nuclear magnetic relaxation rates of water protons in the tissues where they are distributed. Gadolinium complexes are widely employed in clinical practice due to their high magnetic moment and relatively long electronic relaxation time. In this study, the behavior of gadolinium ion as a contrast agent was investigated by two complementary methods, relaxometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The study examined the distribution of blood flow within the microvascular network in ex vivo Langendorff isolated rat heart models, perfused with Omniscan® contrast agent. The combined use of secondary ion mass spectrometry and relaxometry allowed for both a qualitative mapping of agent distribution as well as the quantification of gadolinium ion concentration and persistence. This combination of a chemical mapping and temporal analysis of the molar concentration of gadolinium ion in heart tissue allows for new insights on the biomolecular mechanisms underlying the microcirculatory alterations in heart disease.


Assuntos
Gadolínio/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Água/química
11.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884870

RESUMO

In this study, we developed and validated a new proposed parameter quantifying the interaction strength between natural and/or synthetic molecules with paramagnetic metal ions. The Metal ion Recognition Index, Miri, is a quantitative parameter to describe the proton environment and to define their involvement in the inner and/or outer sphere of the paramagnetic metal ion. The method is based on the analysis of NMR proton spin-lattice relaxation rates of a specific ligand in both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic conditions. The proposed procedure is also useful to calculate the ligand proton spin-lattice relaxation rate in the paramagnetic bound conditions, which is typically very difficult to determine experimentally. Miri was used to compare the ligand proton involvement toward different paramagnetic species, in particular the Copper(II)-Piroxicam system. Copper(II)-Piroxicam complex is one of the most active anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic species. Miri provides an opportunity to improve our knowledge of metal-ligand complexes that play a fundamental role in bioinorganic interactions.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Íons/química , Metais/química , Piroxicam/química , Cobre/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Ligantes , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manganês/química , Prótons
12.
J Integr Med ; 17(3): 213-220, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In vitro cell and blood compatibility of three dietary supplements, comprised of multiple plant extracts, Pneumo Go (PG), Green active (GA) and Equistasi (Eq), and their main component, the phytocomplex Matrix U.B.® (Union Bio S.r.l.) (M), were evaluated. Moreover, preliminary in vivo tests were performed on GA in order to assess its ability to reduce pain in an animal model. METHODS: Cell compatibility was determined using fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and primary adult human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECad) and the neutral red uptake test. Blood compatibility was evaluated by analyzing blood parameters after incubation of the products with sodium citrate anticoagulated whole blood. Thrombin time was determined by adding thrombin to aliquots of human plasma containing the samples. Clotting time was revealed by an automatic coagulometer. The in vivo analgesic effect of GA was evaluated in Wistar rats using the formalin test. RESULTS: M and PG reduced the percentage of viable NIH3T3 cells, indicating their interference in the cell cycle. GA and Eq stimulated fibroblast proliferation and neutralized the toxic effect of M. M and PG reduced HMVECad cell viability. GA and Eq did not affect cell viability as well as negative control. The hemocompatibility tests indicated that all the samples did not interfere with fibrinogen. The in vivo test carried out in male rats showed a significant analgesic effect of GA in all formalin-induced pain behaviors. CONCLUSION: No hemotoxicity and good cell compatibility were found for all the tested samples. GA and Eq were the best candidates for further biocompatibility testing. Moreover, GA reduced pain in the animal model.

13.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 208(2): 205-213, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706137

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) detection in the paranasal sinuses may help to prevent or postpone bacterial aspiration to the lower airways (LAW) and chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the ability of an ELISA test for measurement of specific Pa secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva (a potential marker of sinus colonization) to early detect changes in the Pa LAW status (indicated by microbiological sputum or cough swab culture and specific serum IgG levels) of 65 patients for three years, in different investigation scenarios. Increased sIgA levels were detected in saliva up to 22 months before changes in culture/serology. Patients who remained Pa-positive had significantly increased sIgA levels than patients who remained Pa-negative, both at the baseline (39.6 U/mL vs. 19.2 U/mL; p = 0.02) and at the end of the follow-up (119.4 U/mL vs. 25.2 U/mL; p < 0.001). No association was found between sIgA levels in saliva and emergence or recurrence of Pa in the LAW. A positive median sIgA result in the first year of follow-up implied up to 12.5-fold increased risk of subsequent Pa exposure in the LAW. Our test detected early changes in the P. aeruginosa LAW status and risk of exposure to P. aeruginosa in the LAW with two years in advance. Comparison with sinus culture is needed to assess the test's ability to identify CF patients in need of a sinus approach for Pa investigation, which could provide opportunities of Pa eradication before its aspiration to the lungs.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Biophys Chem ; 246: 25-34, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659995

RESUMO

Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are among the major phenolic compounds in fruits, leaves and oils from Olea europaea L. These natural antioxidants molecules revealed several beneficial effects on human health, but a low bioavailability and accessibility to targeted site. Liposomes are drug/nutraceutical delivery carriers, used for driving bioactive molecules to desired target tissues, decreasing potential side effects and protecting the encapsulated molecule from enzymatic metabolic processes. In this study, zwitterionic liposomes containing tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein were synthesized and characterized for their size and surface charge. Particular attention was devoted to the determination of encapsulation efficiency (EE%), quantifying the loaded Tyr, HTyr and Ole amount, by using three different techniques: direct UV spectrophotometry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. The results revealed higher EE% for oleuropein. Cyto-toxicity and cyto-compatibility of liposomes were also tested on human chondrocyte cells.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lipossomos/síntese química , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Catecóis/administração & dosagem , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Iridoides/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/toxicidade , Olea/química , Álcool Feniletílico/administração & dosagem , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados
15.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(1): 3-7, jan.-mar. 2019. il.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016092

RESUMO

A demodiciose é uma doença parasitária comum em cães, sendo, até o momento, reconhecidas três formas de Demodex que parasitam os cães. O D. injai foi descrito como potencial causador da enfermidade canina, porém ainda há poucos casos relatados em literatura. Dessa forma, este trabalho tem como objetivo acrescentar novos aspectos clínicos da enfermidade no cão. Para tanto, descreve-se o caso de canino da raça Chow Chow com 10 anos de idade, fêmea, com demodiciose cutânea e presença de prurido intenso e seborreia. Diversos ácaros com tamanho médio superior a 370 µm, proporção opistossoma e comprimento total médio superior a 60% foram observados e caracterizados como da espécie D. injai. Nesse sentido, a raça Chow Chow passa a ser incluída dentre aquelas passíveis de apresentarem a demodiciose causada por D. injai.


Demodicosis is a common parasitic skin disease in dogs, and to date three forms of Demodex are recognized as parasitizing dogs. D. injai has been described as a potential cause of the canine disease, however there are few cases reported in literature in the specie, so this work aims to add new clinical aspects of the disease in the dog. Therefore, is described a clinical case of a Chow Chow dog, female, 10 years old that presented cutaneous demodicosis, very itchy and with a dorsal oily dyskeratosis. Mites were observed in optical microscopy with middle larger than 370 µm and opistossoma ratio and total middle lenght over 60%, characterized as D. injai mites. Thus, the Chow Chow breed is included among those able to present the demodicosis caused by D. injai.


Assuntos
Cães , Dermatite Seborreica , Cães , Infestações por Ácaros , Prurido
16.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441832

RESUMO

Samples of sweet and dessert wines, Vin Santo (VSR) from Malvasia grapes, and Granello (GR) from Sauvignon grapes were collected and analyzed for the content of selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) and of Pb. GR wines had low levels for Fe, Cu and Zn, when compared to VSR and in particular Zn was two orders of magnitude lower. Methods to decrease the content of Zn and Cu in VSR, as well as those for reducing, at the same time, the concentrations of Ca, Mg and K in both VSR and GR, to avoid the formation of opalescence and depots of metal tartrates, were studied. Synthetic hydrogels containing l-histidine residue were tested. The overall relative lowering effects were by ca 4, 23, and 12% for K, Mg and Ca contents, and ca 6, 27 and 10%, for Mn, Cu and Zn contents, in GR wine samples. Commercial ion exchange resin Lanxess Lewatit L-207 and L-208 were then assayed, being legally allowed in the agro-food industry. The L-207 resin revealed great lowering effects on the concentrations of Mn, Cu and Zn, being 75, 91 and 97%, respectively, in VSR wines and 77, 76 and 92%, respectively, in GR wines. The content of Zn was reduced from 49.3 ± 1.2 mg/L in the original wine, down to 1.1 ± 0.1 mg/L, within 48 h soaking. The effects on the character of the dessert wines by the resin L-207 was also taken under control, measuring pH and color index. The color index changed by ca 15% and pH by ca 6% upon treatment of VSR wine with L-207 resins (48 h).


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Íons/química , Metais/química , Vinho/análise , Adsorção , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pigmentação
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14635, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279474

RESUMO

About 5 trillion plastic particles are present in our oceans, from the macro to the micro size. Like any other aquatic particulate, plastics and microplastics can create a micro-environment, within which microbial and chemical conditions differ significantly from the surrounding water. Despite the high and increasing abundance of microplastics in the ocean, their influence on the transformation and composition of marine organic matter is largely unknown. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the photo-reactive fraction of the marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Changes in CDOM quality and quantity have impacts on marine microbial dynamics and the underwater light environment. One major source of CDOM is produced by marine bacteria through their alteration of pre-existing DOM substrates. In a series of microcosm experiments in controlled marine conditions, we explored the impact of microplastics on the quality and quantity of microbial CDOM. In the presence of microplastics we observed an increased production of CDOM with changes in its molecular weight, which resulted from either an increased microbial CDOM production or an enhanced transformation of DOM from lower to higher molecular weight CDOM. Our results point to the possibility that marine microplastics act as localized hot spots for microbial activity, with the potential to influence marine carbon dynamics.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/química , Poliestirenos/química , Microbiologia da Água , Água/análise , Carbono/metabolismo
18.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 13(5): 056009, 2018 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968572

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a fish-like underwater robot inspired by the black bass fish. This robot is composed of a deformable structure and muscle-like linear actuators based on shape memory alloy wires. Such actuators are used to bend a continuous structure representing the backbone of the fish. The prototype is also equipped with a bio-inspired synthetic skin made of liquid silicone rubber and Lycra microfiber mesh. We present the mechatronics of the prototype and its control scheme, which take advantage of flex sensors for proprioception. Experiments under different conditions (in air and in water) assess the effectiveness of the mechatronics design and demonstrate that a relatively simple PID controller provides high precision of the muscles' position control. Here, the implementation of biomimetic kinematics and silent actuation technology in bio-inspired underwater robotics are demonstrated. Progress in this technology could provide multiple applications, including fish farming, coastal protection and live animal monitoring where silent robotics are necessary.


Assuntos
Bass/fisiologia , Biomimética/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Ligas , Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Modelos Biológicos , Músculos/fisiologia , Robótica/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197215, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742167

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory properties of sand fly saliva favor the establishment of the Leishmania infantum infection. In contrast, an antibody response against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva is often associated with a protective cell-mediated response against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Genetic studies may demonstrate to what extent the ability to secrete anti-saliva antibodies depends on genetic or environmental factors. However, the genetic basis of canine antibody response against sand fly saliva has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to identify chromosomal regions associated with the anti-Lu. longipalpis salivary IgG response in 189 dogs resident in endemic areas in order to provide information for prophylactic strategies. Dogs were classified into five groups based on serological and parasitological diagnosis and clinical evaluation. Anti-salivary gland homogenate (SGH) IgG levels were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples and genotyped using a SNP chip with 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The following linear regression model was fitted: IgG level = mean + origin + sex + age + use of a repellent collar, and the residuals were assumed as pseudo-phenotypes for the association test between phenotypes and genotypes (GWA). A component of variance model that takes into account polygenic and sample structure effects (EMMAX) was employed for GWA. Phenotypic findings indicated that anti-SGH IgG levels remained higher in exposed and subclinically infected dogs than in severely diseased dogs even in regression model residuals. Five associated markers were identified on chromosomes 2, 20 and 31. The mapped genes included CD180 (RP105) and MITF related to the rapid activation of B lymphocytes and differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The findings pointed to chromosomal segments useful for functional confirmation studies and a search for adjuvant molecules of the anti-saliva response.


Assuntos
Genoma , Leishmaniose/genética , Psychodidae/patogenicidade , Saliva/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/genética , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose/patologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psychodidae/genética , Psychodidae/imunologia , Saliva/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0189448, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315305

RESUMO

Furnas do Dionísio is a Brazilian Afro-descendant settlement in the city of Jaraguari, 21.4 miles from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Approximately 96 families live in this quilombola (Maroon) settlement, also known in Brazil as a remnant community of descendants of African slaves. Recent studies found 20% of households were infested by triatomines, 18% of insects captured in the community were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, and 22.7% of dogs presented T. cruzi antibodies. The low prevalence of Chagas disease observed in humans in Mato Grosso do Sul State is attributed to its arrival via colonist migration and subsequent transplacental transmission. In order to gain a better understanding of the T. cruzi cycle in residents of the study community, serological and molecular tests were carried out to diagnose Chagas disease. In the present study, 175 residents between 2 and 80 years old were included. A total of 175 participants were interviewed and 170 provided blood samples, which were tested for T. cruzi antibodies with serological tests. Molecular diagnosis was performed in 167 participants by PCR (KDNA) and NPCR (satellite DNA) tests. One of the 170 samples tested positive for all serological tests performed. The overall frequency of Chagas disease in the community was low (0.6%). Interview responses revealed that 66.3% knew of triatomine insects and 65.7% reported having had no contact with them. Physical improvements to residences, together with vector surveillance and control by the State and municipal governments and local ecological conservation contribute to the low frequency of the Chagas disease in this quilombola community.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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