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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810613

RESUMO

The capability of monitoring user's performance represents a crucial aspect to improve safety and efficiency of several human-related activities. Human errors are indeed among the major causes of work-related accidents. Assessing human factors (HFs) could prevent these accidents through specific neurophysiological signals' evaluation but laboratory sensors require highly-specialized operators and imply a certain grade of invasiveness which could negatively interfere with the worker's activity. On the contrary, consumer wearables are characterized by their ease of use and their comfortability, other than being cheaper compared to laboratory technologies. Therefore, wearable sensors could represent an ideal substitute for laboratory technologies for a real-time assessment of human performances in ecological settings. The present study aimed at assessing the reliability and capability of consumer wearable devices (i.e., Empatica E4 and Muse 2) in discriminating specific mental states compared to laboratory equipment. The electrooculographic (EOG), electrodermal activity (EDA) and photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals were acquired from a group of 17 volunteers who took part to the experimental protocol in which different working scenarios were simulated to induce different levels of mental workload, stress, and emotional state. The results demonstrated that the parameters computed by the consumer wearable and laboratory sensors were positively and significantly correlated and exhibited the same evidences in terms of mental states discrimination.

2.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668815

RESUMO

Neuroaesthetics, the science studying the biological underpinnings of aesthetic experience, recently extended its area of investigation to literary art; this was the humus where neurocognitive poetics blossomed. Divina Commedia represents one of the most important, famous and studied poems worldwide. Poetry stimuli are characterized by elements (meter and rhyme) promoting the processing fluency, a core aspect of neuroaesthetics theories. In addition, given the evidence of different neurophysiological reactions between experts and non-experts in response to artistic stimuli, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in poetry, a different neurophysiological cognitive and emotional reaction between Literature (L) and Non-Literature (NL) students. A further aim was to investigate whether neurophysiological underpinnings would support explanation of behavioral data. Investigation methods employed: self-report assessments (recognition, appreciation, content recall) and neurophysiological indexes (approach/withdrawal (AW), cerebral effort (CE) and galvanic skin response (GSR)). The main behavioral results, according to fluency theories in aesthetics, suggested in the NL but not in the L group that the appreciation/liking went hand by hand with the self-declared recognition and with the content recall. The main neurophysiological results were: (i) higher galvanic skin response in NL, whilst higher CE values in L; (ii) a positive correlation between AW and CE indexes in both groups. The present results extended previous evidence relative to figurative art also to auditory poetry stimuli, suggesting an emotional attenuation "expertise-specific" showed by experts, but increased cognitive processing in response to the stimuli.

3.
Brain Sci ; 11(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670698

RESUMO

Scents have the ability to affect peoples' mental states and task performance with to different extents. It has been widely demonstrated that the lemon scent, included in most all-purpose cleaners, elicits stimulation and activation, while the lavender scent elicits relaxation and sedative effects. The present study aimed at investigating and fostering a novel approach to evaluate users' experience with respect to scents' effects through the joint employment of Virtual Reality and users' neurophysiological monitoring, in particular Electroencephalography. In particular, this study, involving 42 participants, aimed to compare the effects of lemon and lavender scents on the deployment of cognitive resources during a daily life experience consisting in a train journey carried out in virtual reality. Our findings showed a significant higher request of cognitive resources during the processing of an informative message for subjects exposed to the lavender scent with respect to the lemon exposure. No differences were found between lemon and lavender conditions on the self-reported items of pleasantness and involvement; as this study demonstrated, the employment of the lavender scent preserves the quality of the customer experience to the same extent as the more widely used lemon scent.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668921

RESUMO

Current telemedicine and remote healthcare applications foresee different interactions between the doctor and the patient relying on the use of commercial and medical wearable sensors and internet-based video conferencing platforms. Nevertheless, the existing applications necessarily require a contact between the patient and sensors for an objective evaluation of the patient's state. The proposed study explored an innovative video-based solution for monitoring neurophysiological parameters of potential patients and assessing their mental state. In particular, we investigated the possibility to estimate the heart rate (HR) and eye blinks rate (EBR) of participants while performing laboratory tasks by mean of facial-video analysis. The objectives of the study were focused on: (i) assessing the effectiveness of the proposed technique in estimating the HR and EBR by comparing them with laboratory sensor-based measures and (ii) assessing the capability of the video-based technique in discriminating between the participant's resting state (Nominal condition) and their active state (Non-nominal condition). The results demonstrated that the HR and EBR estimated through the facial-video technique or the laboratory equipment did not statistically differ (p > 0.1), and that these neurophysiological parameters allowed to discriminate between the Nominal and Non-nominal states (p < 0.02).


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Telemedicina , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Piscadela , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 1976847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641346

RESUMO

The new technological advances achieved during the last decade allowed the scientific community to investigate and employ neurophysiological measures not only for research purposes but also for the study of human behaviour in real and daily life situations. The aim of this review is to understand how and whether neuroscientific technologies can be effectively employed to better understand the human behaviour in real decision-making contexts. To do so, firstly, we will describe the historical development of neuromarketing and its main applications in assessing the sensory perceptions of some marketing and advertising stimuli. Then, we will describe the main neuroscientific tools available for such kind of investigations (e.g., measuring the cerebral electrical or hemodynamic activity, the eye movements, and the psychometric responses). Also, this review will present different brain measurement techniques, along with their pros and cons, and the main cerebral indexes linked to the specific mental states of interest (used in most of the neuromarketing research). Such indexes have been supported by adequate validations from the scientific community and are largely employed in neuromarketing research. This review will also discuss a series of papers that present different neuromarketing applications, such us in-store choices and retail, services, pricing, brand perception, web usability, neuropolitics, evaluation of the food and wine taste, and aesthetic perception of artworks. Furthermore, this work will face the ethical issues arisen on the use of these tools for the evaluation of the human behaviour during decision-making tasks. In conclusion, the main challenges that neuromarketing is going to face, as well as future directions and possible scenarios that could be derived by the use of neuroscience in the marketing field, will be identified and discussed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Olho , Neurofisiologia , Publicidade/métodos , Humanos , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Neurociências/métodos
6.
Hear Res ; 379: 31-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042607

RESUMO

Unilateral hearing loss constitutes a field of growing interest in the scientific community. In fact, this kind of patients represent a unique and physiological way to investigate how neuroplasticity overcame unilateral deafferentation by implementing particular strategies that produce apparently next- to- normal hearing behavioural performances. This explains why such patients have been underinvestigated for a long time. Thanks to the availability of techniques able to study the cerebral activity underlying the mentioned behavioural outcomes, the aim of the present research was to elucidate whether different electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns occurred in unilateral hearing loss (UHL) children in comparison to normal hearing (NH) controls during speech-in-noise listening. Given the intrinsic lateralized nature of such patients, due to the unilateral side of hearing impairment, the experimental question was to assess whether this would reflect a different EEG pattern while performing a word in noise recognition task varying the direction of the noise source. Results showed a correlation between the period of deafness and the cortical activity asymmetry toward the hearing ear side in the frontal, parietal and occipital areas in all the experimental conditions. Concerning alpha and beta activity in the frontal and central areas highlighted that in the NH group, the lateralization was always left-sided during the Quiet condition, while it was right-sided in noise conditions; this evidence was not, however, detected also in the UHL group. In addition, focusing on the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) during noise conditions, while the activity was always left-lateralized in the NH group, it was ipsilateral to the direction of the background noise in the UHL group, and of a weaker extent than in NH controls. Furthermore, in noise conditions, only the UHL group showed a higher theta activity in the temporal areas ipsilateral to the side where the background noise was directed to. Finally, in the case of bilateral noise (background noise and word signal both coming from the same two sources), the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) was left-lateralized in the case of the NH group and lateralized towards the side of the better hearing ear in the case of the UHL group. Taken together, this evidence supports the establishment of a particular EEG pattern occurrence in UHL children taking place in the frontal (Broca area), temporal and parietal lobes, probably physiologically established in order to deal with different sound and noise source directions.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 7348795, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143204

RESUMO

Human factors' aim is to understand and evaluate the interactions between people and tasks, technologies, and environment. Among human factors, it is possible then to include the subjective reaction to external stimuli, due to individual's characteristics and states of mind. These processes are also involved in the perception of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs), the main tool for governments to contrast the first cause of preventable deaths in the world: tobacco addiction. In the light of that, in the present article, it has been investigated through the comparison of different electroencephalographic (EEG) indices a typical item known to be able of influencing PSA perception, that is gender. In order to investigate the neurophysiological underpinnings of such different perception, we tested two PSAs: one with a female character and one with a male character. Furthermore, the experimental sample was divided into men and women, as well as smokers and nonsmokers. The employed EEG indices were the mental engagement (ME: the ratio between beta activity and the sum of alpha and theta activity); the approach/withdrawal (AW: the frontal alpha asymmetry in the alpha band); and the frontal theta activity and the spectral asymmetry index (SASI: the ratio between beta minus theta and beta plus theta). Results suggested that the ME and the AW presented an opposite trend, with smokers showing higher ME and lower AW than nonsmokers. The ME and the frontal theta also evidenced a statistically significant interaction between the kind of the PSA and the gender of the observers; specifically, women showed higher ME and frontal theta activity for the male character PSA. This study then supports the usefulness of the ME and frontal theta for purposes of PSAs targeting on the basis of gender issues and of the ME and the AW and for purposes of PSAs targeting on the basis of smoking habits.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2018: 9721561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327667

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) have been used by governments to promote healthy behaviours in citizens, for instance, against drinking before the drive and against smoke. Effectiveness of such PSAs has been suggested especially for young persons. By now, PSAs efficacy is still mainly assessed through traditional methods (questionnaires and metrics) and could be performed only after the PSAs broadcasting, leading to waste of economic resources and time in the case of Ineffective PSAs. One possible countermeasure to such ineffective use of PSAs could be promoted by the evaluation of the cerebral reaction to the PSA of particular segments of population (e.g., old, young, and heavy smokers). In addition, it is crucial to gather such cerebral activity in front of PSAs that have been assessed to be effective against smoke (Effective PSAs), comparing results to the cerebral reactions to PSAs that have been certified to be not effective (Ineffective PSAs). The eventual differences between the cerebral responses toward the two PSA groups will provide crucial information about the possible outcome of new PSAs before to its broadcasting. This study focused on adult population, by investigating the cerebral reaction to the vision of different PSA images, which have already been shown to be Effective and Ineffective for the promotion of an antismoking behaviour. Results showed how variables as gender and smoking habits can influence the perception of PSA images, and how different communication styles of the antismoking campaigns could facilitate the comprehension of PSA's message and then enhance the related impact.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Comunicação Persuasiva , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia
9.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2018: 9616301, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344600

RESUMO

It is well known that the evaluation of a product from the shelf considers the simultaneous cerebral and emotional evaluation of the different qualities of the product such as its colour, the eventual images shown, and the envelope's texture (hereafter all included in the term "product experience"). However, the measurement of cerebral and emotional reactions during the interaction with food products has not been investigated in depth in specialized literature. The aim of this paper was to investigate such reactions by the EEG and the autonomic activities, as elicited by the cross-sensory interaction (sight and touch) across several different products. In addition, we investigated whether (i) the brand (Major Brand or Private Label), (ii) the familiarity (Foreign or Local Brand), and (iii) the hedonic value of products (Comfort Food or Daily Food) influenced the reaction of a group of volunteers during their interaction with the products. Results showed statistically significantly higher tendency of cerebral approach (as indexed by EEG frontal alpha asymmetry) in response to comfort food during the visual exploration and the visual and tactile exploration phases. Furthermore, for the same index, a higher tendency of approach has been found toward foreign food products in comparison with local food products during the visual and tactile exploration phase. Finally, the same comparison performed on a different index (EEG frontal theta) showed higher mental effort during the interaction with foreign products during the visual exploration and the visual and tactile exploration phases. Results from the present study could deepen the knowledge on the neurophysiological response to food products characterized by different nature in terms of hedonic value familiarity; moreover, they could have implications for food marketers and finally lead to further study on how people make food choices through the interactions with their commercial envelope.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Filosofia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 231, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210322

RESUMO

Tobacco constitutes a global emergency with totally preventable millions of deaths per year and smoking-related illnesses. Public service announcements (PSAs) are the main tool against smoking and by now their efficacy is still assessed through questionnaires and metrics, only months after their circulation. The present study focused on the young population, because at higher risk of developing tobacco addiction, investigating the reaction to the vision of Effective, Ineffective and Awarded antismoking PSAs through: electroencephalography (EEG), autonomic activity variation (Galvanic skin response-GSR- and Heart Rate-HR-) and Eye-Tracking (ET). The employed indices were: the EEG frontal alpha band asymmetry and the frontal theta; the Emotional Index (EI), deriving from the GSR and HR signals matching; the ET Visual Attention (VA) index, based on the ratio between the total time spent fixating an area of interest (AOI) and its area. Smokers expressed higher frontal alpha asymmetry values in comparison to non-smokers. Concerning frontal theta, Awarded PSAs reported the highest values in comparison to both Effective and Ineffective PSAs. EI results highlighted that lowest values were expressed by Heavy Smokers (HS), and Effective PSAs obtained the highest EI values. Finally, concerning the Effective PSAs, regression analysis highlighted a correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked by participants (independent variable) and frontal alpha asymmetry, frontal theta and EI values. ET results suggested that for the Ineffective PSAs the main focus were texts, while for the Effective and Awarded PSAs were the visual elements. Results support the use of methods aimed at assessing the physiological reaction for the evaluation of PSAs images, in particular when considering the smoking habits of target populations.

11.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 294, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100869

RESUMO

Investment decisions are largely based on the information investors received from the target firm. Thaler introduced the hedonic editing framework, in which suggests that integration/segregation of information influence individual's perceived value. Meanwhile, when evaluating the evidence and information in a sequence, order effect and biases have been found to have an impact in various areas. In this research, the influence of the Organization of Information (Integration vs. Segregation) and the Sequence of Information (Negative-Positive order vs. Positive-Negative order) on individual's investment decision-making both at the behavioral level (decision) and neurometrix level (measured by an individual's emotion and Approach Withdraw tendency) was assessed for the three groups of information: a piece of Big Positive Information and a piece of Small Negative Information, a piece of Big Negative Information and a piece of Small Positive Information, and a piece of Small Negative information. The behavioral results, which are an individual's final investment decision, were consistent for all three scenarios. In general, individuals will invest more/retire less when receiving two pieces of information in a Negative-Positive order. However, the neurometric results (Emotional Index, Approach Withdraw Index and results from LORETA) show differences among information groups. An effect of the Sequence of Information and the Organization of Information was found for the different scenarios. The results suggest that in the scenarios that involve large-scale information, the organization of information (Integration vs. Segregation) influences the emotion and Approach Withdraw tendency. The results of this investigation should provide insight for effective communication of information, especially when large-scale information is involved.

12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 4483-4486, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060893

RESUMO

Every day we face visual stimuli able to catch our attention, but this aspect becomes crucial if the visual material has the purpose to spread a message aimed at engaging the observer. In this framework, a worthy aspect is how to measure the "visual engagement" produced by visual stimuli exposure. To this purpose, in the present study, employing the eye tracking technique, an index of visual attention (VA) has been proposed, and applied to pictures belonging to antismoking public service announcements, so to investigate the saliency of health-promoting messages in a young sample. The VA index is a non-dimensional index, defined as the ratio between the percentage of the total time spent fixating an area of interest (AOI) weighted on the total time the picture is showed on the screen, and the percentage of the area occupied by the AOI weighted on the total dimension of the picture. It could be predicted that AOI reporting higher VA values will be the ones having more saliency. Three antismoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) images have been selected for the study and for each of them were identified: i) "picture" (such as a young man with a sarcastic expression depicted while smoking a cigarette, or the image of a lady who underwent a tracheotomy) and ii) "writing" (text of the antismoking message) AOIs. Main results of the analysis revealed that writing AOIs obtained statistically significant higher VA values than visual AOIs (p=0.03), but these held true only for an ineffective PSA, probably because the text was not perceived as pertinent with the surrounding image. On the other hand, an effective PSA obtained higher VA values in response to visual than writing AOIs observation (p=0.02). The VA index appears therefore to represent a useful tool to measure the saliency of visual stimuli elements.


Assuntos
Olho , Atenção , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fumar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 2470-2473, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060399

RESUMO

Advanced methodologies used for the biomedical signal interpretation allow using cerebral signals to assess important cognitive functions in humans. In the present study, as parameter of cerebral effort, has been employed the isolated effective coherence, in order to estimate the effective connectivity and network organization. The hypothesis was that the lower the number of inter-connections engaged, the lower the cerebral effort induced by the experimental condition. In the present research this index has been applied to test the reaction to the use of different cochlear implant processors (Freedom, CP810 and CP910 - Cochlear Ltd), with the aim to identify the most performing device during a word in noise recognition task. Results support the capability of identifying the device eliciting less brain area connections. In particular, the CP910 was the processor inducing the lower number of inter-connections among the tested ones. This investigation appeared to be worthy, since representing a tool to identify devices that would make available user's cognitive resources for additional tasks, a matter susceptible of generalization to various fields of application. The employment of the cerebral signals therefore open the way to the evaluation of the impact of different sensors and prosthetic devices, also using connectivity measures.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Encéfalo , Implante Coclear , Audição , Humanos , Percepção da Fala
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 3228-3231, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060585

RESUMO

The taste is a vital sense in humans, because of its active role in regulating nutrition or avoiding harmful substances. Several studies showed the important role of the brain Pre-Frontal Cortex in decoding information coming from the gustatory system. It is also widely known, in neuroscientific literature, that the asymmetry of Pre-Frontal Cortex Activity is closely linked to the feeling of pleasantness experienced by the subject during sensorial stimulation. In this regard, from the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal it is possible to estimate the Approach/Withdrawal (AW) index, which has been largely investigated and validated in scientific literature, regarding visual, acoustic and olfactory stimuli.


Assuntos
Emoções , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Paladar
15.
J Vis Exp ; (126)2017 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872117

RESUMO

The evaluation of advertising, products, and packaging is traditionally performed through methods based on self-reports and focus groups, but these approaches often appear poorly accurate in scientific terms. Neuroscience is increasingly applied to the investigation of the neurophysiological bases of the perception of and reaction to commercial stimuli to support traditional marketing methods. In this context, a particular sector or marketing is represented by public service announcements (PSAs). The objective of this protocol is to apply electroencephalography (EEG) and autonomic signal analysis to study responses to selected antismoking PSAs. Two EEG indices were employed: the frontal alpha band EEG asymmetry (the Approach Withdrawal (AW) index) and the frontal theta (effort index). Furthermore, the autonomic Emotional Index (EI) was calculated, as derived from the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Heart Rate (HR) signals. The present protocol describes a series of operational and computational steps required to properly estimate, through the aforementioned indices, the emotional and cerebral reaction of a group of subjects towards a selected number of antismoking PSAs. In particular, a campaign characterized by a symbolic communication style (classified as "awarded" on the basis of the prizes received by specialized committees) obtained the highest approach values, as estimated by the AW index. A spot and an image belonging to the same PSA campaign based on the "fear arousing appeal" and with a narrative/experiential communication style (classified as "effective" on the basis of the economical/health-related improvements promoted) reported the lowest and highest effort values, respectively. This is probably due to the complexity of the storytelling (spot) and to the immediateness of the image (a lady who underwent a tracheotomy). Finally, the same "effective" campaign showed the highest EI values, possibly because of the empathy induced by the testimonial and the explicitness of the message.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
16.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 11: 378, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28790907

RESUMO

In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset) plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively). Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1) Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2) Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1) emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2) Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas.

17.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2016: 3795325, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27313602

RESUMO

The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2016: 4597-4600, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28269299

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and smoking-related illness worldwide. Research has shown that antismoking advertising may help reduce this habit. Nowadays, public service announcements (PSAs) are considered "Effective" or "Ineffective" on the base of official reports concerning behavioral/attitudinal changes toward healthier patterns and health-related savings following the exposure to the PSA. In this pilot study, we described the results of the use of three neurometric indexes for the evaluation of the efficacy of a couple of antismoking PSAs in a reduced sample of voluntary participants. The study applied the gathering of the electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms variations, as well as the heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR). The neurometric indicators here employed were the Approach-Withdrawal (AW), the Effort (EfI) and the Emotional (EI) indexes. Results suggest a significant higher values for AW, Effort and Emotional indexes (p=0,02; p= 0,03 and p= 0,01 respectively) related to the perception of the "Effective" antismoking PSAs against the perception of the "Ineffective" one. Since this is a pilot study, the results obtained need further investigation, in terms of enlarged stimuli sample and number of participants to provide indications concerning the relevant features to be included in the realization of effective anti-smoking PSAs.


Assuntos
Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento , Emoções , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutr Cancer ; 67(3): 494-503, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25705818

RESUMO

Natural dietary components are evolutionary-selected molecules able to control inflammation and cancerous transformation and progression. Because many studies assessed the beneficial properties of key molecules extracted from grapes, we aimed at investigating the properties of Liofenol™, a natural red wine lyophilized extract, devoid of alcohol and composed by a miscellaneous of components (polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins). We proved that the colon cancer cell line HCT116 responded to Liofenol™ treatment by reducing their proliferation, in association with an increase of p53 and p21 cell cycle gate keepers. Liofenol™ increased dihydroceramides, sphingolipid mediators involved in cell cycle arrest and reduced proliferation rate. We observed a strong induction of antioxidant response, with the activation of the transcriptional factor Nrf2, involved in redox homeostasis and differentiation, without altering tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Liofenol™ induced an important morphology change in HCT116 cells, migration inhibition, undifferentiated stem/stem-like cells markers downregulation, and E-cadherin downregulation, interested in epithelia to mesenchymal malignant transition. We conclude that lyophilized grape extract, at dose comparable to putative dietary doses, can activate molecular pathways, involving Nrf2 signaling and the modulation of structural and signaling sphingolipid mediators that cooperate in promoting differentiation and reducing proliferation of digestive tract cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/análise , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/análise
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2015: 7990-3, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738146

RESUMO

In this paper we measured the neuroelectrical and the eye-movements activities in a group of 27 healthy subjects during their visit of a fine arts gallery in which a series of masterpieces of the Italian painter Tiziano Vecellio (also known as Titian, 1488-1576) were shown. The pictures chosen for the visit were 10 portraits and 10 of religious subjects. Each picture was observed for a minute. A mobile EEG device with an eye-tracker was used for this experiment. Evaluation of the appreciation of the pictures was performed by using the neuroelectrical approach-withdrawal index (AW). High value of AW means high appreciation of the picture. The number of eye fixations performed by the subjects during the observation of the pictures was also analyzed. Results showed that in the examined group the AW index was significant higher during the observation of portraits than during the observation of the religious subjects (as resulted from an ANOVA performed on AW index, with a p<;0,007). Interestingly, the average AW index estimated in the first 20 seconds of the observation of the pictures remains highly correlated with the AW index evaluated for the second part of the data (from 20 s to one minute) for all the 20 pictures examined (r = 0,82, p<;0,0001). In addition, the number of eye fixations performed by the subjects in the first 5 or 10 seconds of observation of the pictures that were most appreciated are significantly higher than the number of eye fixations performed on pictures that subjects did not like (p<;0,048 and p<;0,0018, respectively). Such difference vanishes if the entire period of observation of the pictures of one minute is used (p = 0,54). Taken together, such results seem to suggest that the neuroelectrical correlates of the perception of "good" or "bad" pictures are rapidly formed in our brain, within the first 10-20 seconds from the exposition to the picture.


Assuntos
Percepção , Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Itália
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